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asian art essay Catalogue Essay by powers Melissa Chiu. The Korean War: A Battle Power! Curator for Contemporary Asian and ww1 allied and central powers, Asian American Art. Asia Society and Museum. Introduction: Tikis, Torches, and Beachside Barbeques. Elvis Presley stands atop a miniature, volcano surrounded by palm trees, a blue lagoon, and groups of scantily clad Pacific Island dancers in Great, native dress. Ww1 Allied! Tanned, slim, wearing an open-necked shirt and Synopsis Essay, wiggling his hips to the beat of drums, he#8217;s singing the ww1 allied powers, last song in Gatsby Essay, the 1966 Hollywood movie Paradise, Hawaiian Style , which I caught on ww1 allied, cable television while packing my bags for Letter Bully by Andrea Gibson a trip to ww1 allied and central the Pacific to choose works for theme b summary this exhibition. I laughed out and central powers, loud at the messy conflation of Movie of The Great Gatsby Polynesian and Melanesian cultures and at the silliness of the scene, which embodied every cliché of the ww1 allied and central powers, Pacific as a paradise, and literary criticism examples, escapist fantasy, for workaday Americans. Paradise, Hawaiian Style set me thinking about how popular perceptions of the ww1 allied powers, Pacific Islands as a paradise have changed little since entering the dialogues concerning religion, European popular imagination in ww1 allied powers, the eighteenth century via the The Korean War: For Global Essay, ecstatic descriptions of ww1 allied and central Polynesia found in the writings of wiesel early explorers. In the ww1 allied and central powers, post-War World II period, Hollywood rediscovered the criticism examples, Pacific Islands, in ww1 allied and central powers, particular Hawaii, as a location for The Korean A Battle For Global the staging of love stories in exotic locations for an emerging youth film market. Ww1 Allied! Some of the more famous examples include films like Blue Hawaii (1961) and Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961), which depict the Pacific as a clean, pristine playground for young affluent and mobile Americans.

During this period, the image of the Pacific as a paradise was not confined to Hollywood movies. Interior design, fashion, news, and lifestyle magazines promoted Pacific Island cultures, cooking and dress as a new, groovy style, all of Essay which middle-class Americans happily emulated. The cultural historian Christopher L. Connery describes this period as a #8220;time of#8230;tiki torches and ww1 allied powers, of barbeques in orchidean backyard lanais, where, to themes the #8216;exotic#8217; sounds of Martin Denny#8217;s Hawaiian combo, newly arrived southern Californians could imagine themselves part of and central powers a transpacific post-war paradise of pure relaxation.#8221; 1 Now, it seems, all Americans could have a little piece of paradise in their own backyard. Movie Synopsis Of The Great Gatsby Essay! Anyway, that was the ww1 allied powers, advertising message. By Elie! Of course, the idea of the Pacific Islands as a paradise was not just confined to and central powers America, or the twentieth century.

Spanish, Dutch, French, and English explorers were the first Europeans to romeo monologue encounter the ww1 allied, Pacific Islands, and their accounts shaped the mythology of the region as a paradise. This idea reached its height in the eighteenth century, most notably in the writings of the Englishman James Cook, the greatest of the romeo monologue, Pacific explorers, and in the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville#8217;s published account of his voyage to the Pacific in and central powers, the 1771. Dialogues Religion! Bougainville#8217;s voyage, in 1768, led to and central powers the discovery of a number of unknown Pacific Islands, among them Tahiti, which he renamed #8220;La Nouvelle Cythère#8221; because of the perceived loveliness of the natural setting, and romeo monologue, the appealing physical beauty, innocence, and openness of the and central, semi-naked inhabitants#8212;a reference to romeo monologue the ancient Greek myth of the and central, birth of Venus, the goddess of love, who had risen from the dialogues concerning religion, sea off the coast of the and central powers, island of Cythera. He returned to France a hero and theme, subsequently published his diaries. Although long-winded, and and central, even at times a little fanciful, they were to remain among the most influential early accounts of life in Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay, the South Seas. Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the ww1 allied, Pacific takes as its departure point the popular perception of the concerning, Pacific as a paradise, a worn cliché refreshed seasonally by tourist operators, drinking water companies, pearl traders, and other enterprises. 2 While acknowledging the persistence of such perceptions of their region, the fifteen artists included in this exhibition provide an alternative, more complex vision of the powers, Pacific--one based in night by elie themes, the experience of day-to-day life in the region. Working in ww1 allied, video, installation, sculpture, painting, and photography, the artists in Paradise Now? show us the theme for english b summary, Pacific Islands from an insider#8217;s perspective.

Addressed in the works are environmental concerns, cultural heritage issues, questions relating to the experience of migration and diaspora, and the intersection of indigenous belief systems and Western religions. If an image of ww1 allied and central powers paradise emerges here, it is one that is fragmented, contradictory, and for english, hybrid. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! Why, then, an Movie of The Great Gatsby Essay, exhibition of powers Pacific artists, and why now? Simply, there has never been a major museum exhibition in the United States of contemporary artists from the Pacific Islands. In fact, with the theme, exception of Te Maori , an ww1 allied powers, exhibition of traditional Maori art and artefacts at criticism examples, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in 1984, and Pacific Parallels: Artists and the Landscape in New Zealand , an ww1 allied powers, exhibition of contemporary as well as historical New Zealand landscape art, which toured the theme for english b summary, United States in ww1 allied and central, 1991, there has never been any kind of romeo monologue sustained curatorial analysis in this country of and central art from a region that, geographically, makes up one third of the world#8217;s surface. Romeo Monologue! 3 Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the ww1 allied, Pacific aims to criticism examples fill that gap, including work by artists from ww1 allied and central powers New Zealand, the Torres Strait Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Hawaii, Rotuma, and Niue, while at War: A Battle Power, the same time offering American audiences a glimpse of the diverse contemporary artwork being produced in the region. The quality and volume of this work has increased exponentially over the last decade, something that is reflected in powers, the opening of dialogues concerning religion new commercial art galleries, the ww1 allied and central powers, proliferation of Pacific arts festivals, art biennales and the building of new museums throughout the literary criticism, region. A centrepiece of these activities is the spectacular Tjibaou Cultural Centre in ww1 allied powers, Noumea, designed by the architect Renzo Piano (fig. For English! 2).

Specific examples of and central powers a new-found recognition and appreciation of dialogues concerning contemporary Pacific art and artists include the ww1 allied, establishment in is an management organization?, 1992 of a contemporary art biennale in Noumea; curated exhibitions attached to the Pacific Arts Festival, held every four years, with host responsibilities rotating throughout the Pacific; the ww1 allied and central, biennial Pacific Wave Festival held in Sydney; the steady showcasing of Synopsis of The Great Gatsby Pacific artists in ww1 allied powers, the Asia-Pacific Triennial, established in 1993 at themes, the Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane; the ww1 allied, establishment in 1994 of the Pacific Arts Committee of Creative New Zealand, New Zealand#8217;s federal arts funding body; the establishment in night wiesel, 1988 of the and central, Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust, a charitable trust set up to which of the following advantage functional project management promote contemporary Pacific art and educate, mentor, and support both emerging and powers, established Pacific artists; the publication of the first major study of dialogues concerning natural religion contemporary Pacific art, such as Susan Cochrane#8217;s Bérétara: Contemporary Pacific Art, (2001) and Pacific Art: Persistence, Change and Meaning , edited by Anita Herle, Nick Stanley, Karen Stevenson, and ww1 allied, Robert L. Welsch in 2002; and myriad solo and group exhibitions by artists in romeo monologue, Europe. 4. Of all the powers, issues dealt with by the artists in literary, this exhibition, questions relating to migration and ww1 allied, diaspora are by to a by Andrea far the most important. Ww1 Allied! 5 This is the case because most of the theme for english b summary, artists included in and central, the exhibition live outside their countries of origin (New Zealand has been a popular destination) or have lived away for significant periods, suggesting fluidity among contemporary artists living and romeo monologue, working in the Pacific. John Ioane spent the first six years of ww1 allied and central his life in b summary, Samoa before returning to New Zealand, where he was born; John Pule was born in Niue but moved to ww1 allied and central powers New Zealand when he was two years old. Michel Tuffery was born in Wellington to parents with Tahitian, Rarotongan, and Samoan heritage. Of The Following Is An Advantage Project Organization?! Niki Hastings-McFall was born in West Auckland and ww1 allied, discovered her Samoan heritage in theme, 1992. And Sofia Tekela-Smith was born in New Zealand, where she now lives, but was raised by her grandmother on the island of Rotuma, near Fiji. These experiences are not unique, for ww1 allied and central more than one in which following advantage of a organization?, nine Pacific Islanders lives abroad. And Central Powers! Pakeha /palagi artists (the Maori and Samoan terms for non-islanders) from the Pacific have also been included in dialogues concerning natural religion, the exhibition.

Partly, this was to reflect the large non-indigenous population in the region, and partly because their work engages critically with myths of the Pacific as a paradise. For instance, Peter Peryer, W.D. Hammond, and ww1 allied powers, Ruth Watson, all born in New Zealand, present alternative visions of the island landscape, all of dialogues which possess a dark, almost gothic sensibility. This is a far cry from ww1 allied Elvis and dialogues natural religion, Gidget. Ww1 Allied! Nowhere is the image of the Movie Synopsis of The Great Essay, Pacific Island as a paradise manufactured and maintained so effectively as in the tourism industry. Ww1 Allied! This is the night by elie wiesel, subject of and central powers Historic Waikiki (2001) (cat. 6), a multimedia work by Downwind Productions, a collaborative project between Hawaii-based artist Gaye Chan and the art historian Andrea Feeser. The piece consists of dialogues natural religion small bits of concrete, purportedly from Waikiki#8217;s hotels and resorts, packaged and powers, sold in theme, stores in Waikiki as if they were authentic historical souvenirs. In addition to ww1 allied powers the concrete, each of the theme, packets contained a folded sheet of paper with a map and short history of indigenous cultural and ww1 allied and central powers, environmental damage caused by reckless development projects associated with Hawaii#8217;s tourist industry. The Korean War: A Battle For Global! Four stories of local destruction are explored, including the draining of ww1 allied and central powers local canals established by The Korean Power indigenous Hawaiians for farming, the development of hotels on Hawaiian burial sites, the sale of land for luxury homes, and ww1 allied, the discovery of sacred stones in Playground by Andrea, the foundations of a bowling alley. The work includes a website featuring a virtual tour of Waikiki, stories of the island#8217;s history, and ww1 allied and central powers, anecdotes from residents about their memories and experiences of life on criticism examples, the islands.

6 Together, the powers, website and bogus tourist knick-knacks focus attention on the cultural and literary criticism examples, environmental changes that have occurred in ww1 allied powers, Waikiki since European settlement and raise questions about the unblinking embrace of tourism as the sole economic savior and Letter Playground by Andrea Gibson, ongoing representations of the islands as a leisure paradise. And Central! Born in New Zealand, Ruth Watson has lived in Berlin and War: A Battle For Global Essay, Sydney; Canberra is her present home. Ww1 Allied! For the last fifteen years, Watson#8217;s works have been about cartography, in particular the way that maps construct our idea of the world. As a response to this, Watson creates maps based on early historical projections of the literary examples, globe, particularly those from the ww1 allied powers, sixteenth century, which arranged countries very differently. For example, Lingua Geographica (Geographic Tongue) (1996) (cat. Criticism! 41) uses photographic fragments of a picture of her tongue to create a map of the world in ww1 allied and central powers, the shape of a heart. Known as a cordiform projection, this process was invented by the sixteenth-century German astronomer Johannes Stobern.

The representation of the world using imagery of Letter Bully by Andrea Essay her tongue, a sensory organ, suggests that maps effect not just the way we see the ww1 allied and central powers, world but also our experience of it. Romeo Monologue! A related work, Oceanography (2004) (fig. 3), consists of and central large salt teardrops stained with miniature maps of the world. John Ioane#8217;s installation combining wooden sculptures and video projections, Fale Sa (1999) (cat. 12, fig. Wiesel Themes! 1), is and central powers based on his childhood memories of Samoa.

His most vivid memories of examples this period in his life are of the ocean, which is represented in the work as a long corridor of blue light, with hand-carved wooden cowrie shells scattered along the floor as if it were the ocean-bed. The blue leads into a larger second space, which contains three monumental vertical wooden sculptures, each colored a shiny gray-black and covered with roughly carved designs recalling natural forms such as seedpods and leaves or coral and mollusks. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! Ioane speaks about this work as #8220;a space for healing,#8221; something that is reflected in examples, the title: in English, the ww1 allied powers, Samoan words Fale Sa mean #8220;sacred space.#8221; The two different parts of the which of the following advantage of a functional organization?, installation might also be understood as the embodiment of the Samoan concepts of ww1 allied night and darkness (po) and romeo monologue, dawn and daylight ( malama ). Ww1 Allied And Central! This binary suggests a traditional spirituality at the core of Ioane#8217;s art practice, one based partly on his belief that his works #8220;create a space for night by elie wiesel magic to occur.#8221; John Pule, a poet and figurative painter, migrated to New Zealand from Niue (the world#8217;s smallest independent state) when he was child. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! Pule#8217;s paintings tell the modern history of Niue in an abstract, pared-down manner based on traditional Polynesian painting styles, characterized by Synopsis of The Great a segmented picture plane and smudged lines used to decorate Niuean tapa ( hiapo ), a cloth made from the bark of powers breadfruit or mulberry trees. Pule was baptized a Mormon, and missions and churches are a recurring image in his paintings. One of his most important paintings, Take These With You When You Leave (1998) (fig. Romeo Monologue! 4), includes images of ww1 allied and central powers churches along with representations of night wiesel themes airplanes, weapons, tools, ships, cars, and and central powers, farms. The depiction of symbols of contemporary life in The Korean War: Essay, a traditional form of representation suggests dissatisfaction with the ww1 allied powers, history of settlement on Niue and natural, its impact on traditional life.

Such strident criticism of changes in his homeland continues in ww1 allied and central, the paintings included in this exhibition. For example, all three works in a series created over the past year, I had a Mind as Invisible as Light (2002) (cat. 30), Tofua (2002) (cat. 29), and Amanakiega (2003) (cat. Romeo Monologue! 28), use churches as the setting for scenes of violence. In these works, we see miniature silhouetted figures drawn in and central powers, black ink gathered around a crucifixion, or wounded figures being carried into romeo monologue ambulances or helicopters. The activity takes place on shapes that resemble blood-red islands, which could be interpreted as clouds. Is this real, or something conjured by the artist#8217;s imagination? We have to powers assume it is theme for english real, given the title of one of these works, Tofua , that makes reference to powers the name of the boat on Movie Synopsis Gatsby Essay, which the artist and ww1 allied, his family migrated to New Zealand. By Elie Themes! Although her father is Samoan, Niki Hastings-McFall was born in New Zealand and ww1 allied, grew up there.

As an romeo monologue, adult, in and central, Auckland, she recalls seeing lei made from literary plastic bags and egg shell cartons at powers, local street fairs. This became an important influence on her work, which frequently employs lei made from all kinds of popular, everyday materials. Nuclear Rosary Series#8212;Black Rain III (2003) (cat. Playground Bully Gibson! 8) comprises an enlarged string of rosary beads made from plastic disks cut into powers the shape of examples flowers and held together by sterling silver rings. Ww1 Allied! At first glance, the flower-disks recall those traditional Polynesian lei, used to honor and welcome visitors or loved ones. But this is Letter by Andrea Gibson deceptive, for underlying the work is a serious political message. The flower-disks glow in the dark, a reference perhaps to ww1 allied the effects of dialogues contamination from nuclear testing in the Pacific that was carried out by the American and ww1 allied, French governments as late as the which advantage organization?, mid-1990s. With this work, Hastings-McFall equates the life threatening effects of ww1 allied powers radioactive contamination with the introduction of Christianity in the Pacific. Of The Following Is An Advantage Of A Functional Organization?! Hastings-McFall also used lei in ww1 allied powers, Too Much Sushi VI, VII and VIII (2003) (cat.

10, 11). Natural! For this work, she hand-threaded lei from hundreds of small plastic fish sachets used for ww1 allied soy sauce in Japanese restaurants in for english, New Zealand. Here the artist identifies with her Polynesian ancestry (the lei) while at ww1 allied and central, the same time acknowledging her upbringing and The Korean A Battle For Global Power, residency in Auckland, New Zealand#8217;s most international and cosmopolitan city. Afio Mai Series#8212;Sunset at 619: I, II, III, IV, V and ww1 allied, Sunset (2003) (cat. 9) ( afio mai means #8220;welcome#8221; in Samoan) more directly addresses her family#8217;s Samoan and Palagi backgrounds. War: A Battle! This work consists of a series of framed photographs of sunsets of Auckland draped in ww1 allied and central, lei, each made from duplicates of the literary criticism examples, photographs delicately folded and strung together to resemble flowers. The artist#8217;s Palagi grandfather took the photographs, the negatives of which she inherited when he died recently. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! By reprinting her grandfather#8217;s old photographs, framing them, and then draping them in lei, following the Polynesian custom of draping lei over romeo monologue photographs of loved ones, Hastings-McFall creates a hybrid memorial to her European grandfather. And Central! Peter Peryer has been taking photographs since the early 1970s.

His black and white documentary-style photographs present a very different image of New Zealand. Instead of which of the of a project idealized sunsets, he prefers to document quirky, eerie, slightly disturbing urban and rural images. The works in ww1 allied and central, this show, spanning a twenty-year period, include images of a bloated dead cow left by the side of natural religion a highway, a rudimentary clock installed on and central powers, the side of night wiesel themes a mountain, a map of the ww1 allied and central, north and south island of Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson New Zealand made from ww1 allied and central bitumen, a derelict boat with Maori patterns painted along its sides, and romeo monologue, Mount Taranaki framed by trees reminiscent of a classical landscape tradition (cat. 19). Peryer#8217;s photographs suggest an authenticity of experience, reinforced by the medium of ww1 allied black and white photographs.

But their oscillation between the of The Great Essay, sublime and the banal also represents a search for the unique in the most everyday of circumstances. W.D. Hammond#8217;s paintings also depict the ww1 allied and central powers, New Zealand landscape, albeit filtered through the dialogues religion, imagination. Ww1 Allied Powers! His paintings in Letter Bully by Andrea, the exhibition contain images of verdant, dense, tropical jungles inhabited by and central strange bird-like creatures. Although Hammond prefers not to theme speak publicly about the sources of ww1 allied his imagery, an criticism, often-cited reference for and central powers his bird-creatures is the work of the nineteenth-century ornithologist Sir Walter Lawry Buller, whose book A History of the Gibson, Birds of New Zealand contains an encyclopaedic visual record of New Zealand birds. And Central! In the by elie wiesel themes, luscious green, almost viscous foreground of Placemakers I (1998) (cat. And Central Powers! 7), figures with elongated bird heads flock together on natural religion, three diagonal tree branches. They are mostly black and gray, with delicate patterns reminiscent of ww1 allied and central decorative wallpaper painted across their bodies. Letter To A Playground By Andrea! In the ww1 allied, background, a lone female figure with a horse#8217;s head, dressed in a corset bodice and long, old-fashioned skirt, stands gripping the back of a chair.

What does it mean? Nobody really knows, although the contrast between bird-humans, with the birds a native New Zealand species, and which of a functional management, a horse-human, the horse an and central powers, introduced animal, suggests a metaphor for literary criticism European settlement and conflict with the indigenous Maori population over use of the ww1 allied and central powers, land. Questions of indigenous land rights and criticism examples, ownership play an powers, important role in the Maori artist Shane Cotton#8217;s paintings. Theme! Needlework (1993) (see opposite title page). Ww1 Allied Powers! presents an image of night by elie New Zealand as a small island overcrowded with an assemblage of ww1 allied and central powers British and Maori flags. Which Of The Advantage Of A Functional Organization?! This work is powers all about territorial conflict between nations, symbolized by the flags, in for english b summary, particular the nineteenth-century wars between the Maori and the British over New Zealand. Most prominent of the flags is the Union Jack, although it stands alongside the ww1 allied, more upright flags bearing a cross and themes, crescent and six-pointed star, a reference to and central powers the Maori resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, one of the most effective guerilla fighters in New Zealand's history. The Korean A Battle For Global! Some of the flagpoles are not altogether upright, which suggests that the and central powers, British claim to New Zealand, traditionally announced with the staking of concerning natural religion a flag, is not altogether certain. Cotton#8217;s more recent works appear less concerned with cultural conflict. And Central! Faith (1995) (cat. 2), Tuna (1996) (cat.

5), Cross (1996) (cat. Night! 4), and and central, Heke I (1998) (cat. 3) consist of dense, complex combinations of traditional and following functional management organization?, contemporary Maori and ww1 allied and central powers, Pakeha imagery set against desolate, sepia-toned landscapes. Theme B Summary! Among the ww1 allied and central, imagery included in these pictures are square-style tikis (representations of ancestors), painted scroll designs ( kowhaiwhai ) that are usually on the rafters of theme for english Maori meeting houses, Maori words, Christian crosses, and local flora. Here, once conflicting cultural references coexist in a new heterogeneous space. Lisa Reihana is a young Maori video artist. And Central! Native Portraits n. 19897 (1998) (cat. 31), one of her most substantial videos, was commissioned by the Te Papa Tongarewa /Museum of New Zealand. Movie Great Gatsby Essay! For this piece, Reihana sifted through the museum#8217;s collection of and central powers nineteenth-century photo portraits of Maori.

Taking these portraits as a starting point, she dressed up her Maori friends in old-fashioned and contemporary outfits (military uniforms and nurses uniforms, as well as suits and The Korean For Global Power, laborers outfits) and powers, recorded them on video as if they were posing for a photographic portrait. Which Of The Following Is An Of A Project! Adjusting their clothes, position, and staring directly at the camera, these are no longer silent, passive ethnographic exhibits but active, thinking subjects. This work is all about ww1 allied past and present-day representations of Maori, suggesting that while Maori may have more opportunities today than they once did, some stereotypes and by elie wiesel themes, prejudices remain. Michael Parekowhai#8217;s sculptures and installations also deal with stereotypes of Maori identity. Poorman, Beggarman and Thief (1996) (cat. 14, fig. 5), consists of three life-size Maori mannequins, modeled on the artist#8217;s father, whose name is ww1 allied and central Hori, dressed in a tuxedo. Playground! They are positioned in front of and central powers works of romeo monologue art on a wall, as if visiting an art gallery, wearing a nametag saying #8220;Hello, my name is HORI.#8221; In New Zealand, Hori is and central used in the Pakeha community as a derogatory term for b summary Maori people, but it is also the Maori translation of the English name George. And Central Powers! The pejorative meaning of the following advantage of a project, nametag, along with the titles of the works, contrasts with the powers, figure#8217;s spiffy formal dress and romeo monologue, presence in an art gallery.

By parachuting an ww1 allied powers, ugly cultural stereotype into the gallery, dressed as an urban sophisticate, Parekowhai is romeo monologue playfully turning assumptions about ww1 allied powers Maori people on their head. To A Playground Gibson Essay! Hori might mean George, but that does not mean George is ww1 allied a Hori. With equal irony, Kapahaka (2003) (cat. 13) uses the artist#8217;s brother as a model for a series of life-size figures of security guards. Traditional dance, an important part of indigenous Pacific Island cultures, underpins the work of Michel Tuffery, Denise Tiavouane, and Ken Thaiday.

Tuffery#8217;s performances and sculptures draw upon Polynesian dance traditions, including those of night wiesel Samoa and ww1 allied powers, the Cook Islands. Theme! O le Povi Pusa Ma'ataua (1996), which means #8220;jewel box of bulls#8221; in ww1 allied and central, Samoan, is a sculpture of a bull made out of War: Power Essay tinned corned beef cans. Ww1 Allied And Central! Tuffery#8217;s bulls have been exhibited in galleries as well as used in romeo monologue, large-scale performances. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! His use of corned beef cans serves as a metaphor for the changes wrought on Samoan society following the introduction of by elie themes Western foodstuffs after World War II, the fat content and high salt levels in the meat causing long-term health problems for Islanders. Other sculptures such as O le Saosoa Lapo'a / barracuda (2000) (cat. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! 39) and Asiasi I / thunnus albacares (2000) (cat. Literary Criticism Examples! 38, fig. 6) deal with environmental concerns.

Both works are constructed from herring cans made into the shape of fish. Although the artist uses herring cans, saosao is the ww1 allied, Samoan word for #8220;barracuda,#8221; while asiasi means #8220;yellowfin.#8221; Here, the artist reflects ironically on the way that, because of over-fishing in the Pacific, Samoans, who live on for english b summary, an island, are beginning to replace local fresh fish with imported canned products. Ken Thaiday takes sharks, fish, and ww1 allied and central, birds, and other native Pacific animals as subjects for concerning religion his moving sculptures or #8220;dance machines#8221; (fig. 7, cat. 3436). Designed to ww1 allied powers sit on romeo monologue, the head of a performer like a helmet with moving parts such as flapping birds wings, each controlled by string, the sculptures are made of ww1 allied and central powers wood, feathers, bits of metal, and other materials. For English! Thaiday comes from the ww1 allied and central, Torres Strait Islands, in the Torres Strait, to of The Great Essay the North of Australia and close to Papua New Guinea, and these headdresses played an important role in local indigenous ceremonies. Of course, Thaiday has updated the ww1 allied, form, materials, and dialogues natural, subject matter to create traditional headdresses for and central the twenty-first century. Denise Tiavouane#8217;s installation The Modern Dance (2004) (cat.

37) appropriates male dance traditions from religion her home, the islands of New Caledonia. The work comprises a series of bamboo poles fitted with grass skirts arranged in a straight line interspersed by fir trees. Each pole is ww1 allied attached to an electric motor and rotates to by elie the sound of traditional dance music emanating from hidden speakers. In this work, Tiavouane pairs two threatened aspects of New Caledonian life#8212;indigenous cultural traditions and ww1 allied powers, native forests, which have increasingly been cleared for nickel mining. Tiavouane sees this dance tradition and romeo monologue, its music as symbols of the resilience of Kanak culture. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! Although born in New Zealand to a Scottish father and Rotuman mother, Sofia Tekela-Smith was raised by her grandmother in criticism, Rotuma. Here she learned traditional women#8217;s handicrafts such as weaving and ww1 allied and central powers, platting from pandanus leaves and The Korean A Battle For Global Power Essay, the making of body ornaments. For this exhibition, she is and central exhibiting two photographs of her body ornaments. The first image shows a man#8217;s face, eyes closed, his mouth filled with a large white cowrie shell attached to theme a length of ww1 allied powers green hand-plaited rope coiled onto his forehead, recalling a Maori koru design (cat.

32). Movie Of The Gatsby! The second image depicts the same man with his eyes open and mouth filled with an ww1 allied and central powers, amulet of theme for english b summary greenstone ( pounamu ) (cat. 33). Ww1 Allied And Central! Both the cowrie shell and the amulet are symbolic objects within Rotuma and Movie Gatsby, other Pacific Island cultures. Cowrie shells are considered symbols of powers female fertility, while greenstone is a symbol of prestige ( mana ), particularly in New Zealand where the stone is found. The placing of advantage of a functional project these objects in ww1 allied, the man#8217;s mouth suggests a kind of silencing, although it might also be seen as a gesture of intimacy, given that the man in the photographs is dialogues concerning her partner. The Indian-Fijian artist Mohini Chandra#8217;s video Studio (2003) (cat. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! 1, also opposite Table of of The Great Gatsby Essay Contents) focuses on ww1 allied and central, the commercial photographic portrait studio as a place where people stage images of themselves as they would like others to Movie of The Gatsby Essay see them.

Chandra#8217;s video takes us into Indian-owned commercial photographic studios across Fiji, where people have their portraits taken against and central, backdrops of idyllic natural environments. In the video, however, the places she records are completely denuded of War: For Global Essay people, although there is the sound of people having their photographs taken. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! On one level, the video works as a metaphor for the quasi-invisible social condition of night wiesel Indian-Fijians, who make up almost 45 percent of the ww1 allied, population but have limited rights to land ownership and troubled participation in the country#8217;s legal, administrative, and political structure. On another level, the video of natural religion Indians having photographs of ww1 allied powers themselves taken against romeo monologue, backdrops of artificial landscapes suggests an escapism but, perhaps, also an identification with a country and culture apart from the one in ww1 allied and central, which they are living (fig. Literary Criticism! 8). This work, then, is powers all about the literary examples, diasporic experience, and and central powers, the way nostalgia for a homeland, even one that some Fijian-Indians have never visited, for many of them were born in War: A Battle For Global Essay, Fiji and ww1 allied, have spent their lives there, exerts a powerful pull on night themes, the imagination. Reflecting a world of cultural intersections and tensions, one rife with competing social, cultural, and economic claims as well as the legacy of colonialism, this is an powers, image of paradise interrupted.

It also presents a fairly typical portrait, #8220;Pacific style,#8221; of paradise now. Melissa Chiu, Asia Society. Connery, Christopher L. 1996. #8220;The oceanic feeling and the regional imaginary.#8221; In Global/local: Cultural production and the transnational imaginary , p. 302. [back]

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The simple artifacts of Analysis and Design. Published on June 16, 2004. When I consult and ww1 allied and central powers, train my clients, I try to show them the simplest possible view of IBM® Rational Unified Process®, or RUP®. Romeo Monologue. Once they thoroughly understand the basics, they can start to ww1 allied and central adopt some of the concerning, more interesting parts and build on ww1 allied and central powers, their solid foundation. This is Letter to a Bully by Andrea Essay, a tried-and-true teaching practice: keep things simple, then let the powers, complexity grow as familiarity and experience grows. In this article I will take a similar approach in describing the artifacts for dialogues natural religion, the Analysis and Design discipline. A simplified view of ww1 allied and central this discipline can make its adoption easier for teams becoming familiar with RUP.

Take a look at is an of a project organization? the artifacts of the Analysis and powers, Design discipline of Movie Synopsis of The RUP (Figure 1). You will notice a total of twenty-one artifacts, all representing different levels of abstraction. For example, one artifact is the ww1 allied and central, design model, and dialogues natural, three others are a Signal, an Interface class, and an Event. Clearly the latter three artifacts exist at a lower level of abstraction. Figure 1: The RUP artifacts for Analysis and Design. While there's nothing wrong with mixing levels of abstraction, it can be confusing to those who are first learning RUP's best practices. In this article, I propose using three packages to group these individual artifacts. Two of them already exist in RUP: the analysis model and and central powers, the design model. The third artifact is criticism examples, not specifically defined in RUP, but its essence has always been there; I call it the architectural model. This new model includes the and central, Software Architecture Document as a report, as well as the Letter Playground Gibson Essay, Reference Architecture artifact. In later articles I will define the contents of these three models in more detail.

As I mentioned above, we can simplify the twenty-one Analysis and Design artifacts by reducing this discipline to three essential artifacts: The analysis model , the architectural model , and ww1 allied and central powers, the design model . Romeo Monologue. The rest of the artifacts will fold into one of these three. Again, please note that the powers, architectural model is theme, not currently in RUP, but it offers a useful model to aggregate the architectural decisions we make. And Central Powers. Adding this model will greatly aid performing architecturally significant reuse in Playground Essay future projects, because you won't have to hunt through a design model to find the reusable assets. Note that RUP does have an artifact called a Reference Architecture. In current RUP practice, the architectural model could serve to group one or more Reference Architectures. These three models and their relationship to their predecessor and successor disciplines are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Model overview: The analysis and architectural models must combine in a non-trivial fashion to create the design model. Please note that this is not a standard UML diagram; if it were, the dependency relationship would most likely show in an upward direction (each arrow reversed).

In this diagram, however, I want to ww1 allied show that the criticism, analysis and architectural models must be combined in ww1 allied and central powers a non-trivial fashion to create the design model. The small plus sign in the black circle represents the Letter to a Playground by Andrea, activities of ww1 allied and central joining those two models, which is a process that can be partly automated, but still requires effort to perform. Before we examine in more detail the dialogues, three models in my simplified view of the Analysis and Design discipline, let's review the models created in the preceding Requirements Discipline and the following Implementation Discipline. The requirement model feeds into the analysis and design models and contains use case diagrams, outlines, and detailed use cases. It also contains glossary terms, supplemental/quality requirements, design constraints, interface requirements, and powers, so on. It even contains features and stakeholder needs.

We typically create two documents that are views of the requirement model: the vision document and the software requirement specification (SRS). The vision document provides a high-level view of the requirements with use case diagrams, use case outlines, user and stakeholder descriptions, and more. The SRS is the detailed requirements contract often signed by a customer, which drives design, test, and other team activities. Examples. It contains use case diagrams (the same ones as the vision), detailed use case specifications, supplemental requirements, glossary terms, and rules. The implementation model is the actual code (for RUP-guided software projects) or other implementation items (for business engineering, COTS 1 integration projects, etc). In other words, the implementation model does not necessarily contain UML diagrams.

Rather, it contains the actual code, the ww1 allied, directories containing the code, the make files, the WAR or JAR files, whatever your implementation technologies require. Many tools, including Rational Rose and XDE, have created automations to Synopsis of The Great Essay ensure the design model and the implementation model are synchronized automatically. Changes in either model automatically appear in the other. Some products, such as IBM Rational XDE, are already working on automating higher models (for example, automating the combination of analysis model and architectural model, using pattern engines). Many exciting automation possibilities exist to generate portions of the ww1 allied, analysis and architectural models from the requirement models as well, but these have yet to be exploited by a tool. The RUP Analysis and Design workflow. The Analysis and Design workflow, which you see when you click on the Analysis and Design discipline in of the of a functional RUP, is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3: The RUP workflow for ww1 allied, Analysis and Design. This diagram depicts the Letter to a Playground Bully, workflow details, or activities, that the Analysis and Design team will need to consider when performing each iteration.

This may not look like a standard UML diagram, but it is. Ww1 Allied. As shown in which is an advantage of a functional project Figure 4, IBM Rational has stereotyped a standard RUP activity that normally looks like a capsule and created a special icon for it, which is a valid use of powers UML. Figure 4: Stereotype for literary criticism examples, RUP's workflow detail. RUP workflows always represent a single iteration of a project. As each workflow detail is ww1 allied, performed during a single iteration, RUP will show you all the artifacts you will need for romeo monologue, capturing the results of your work. For example, when you look inside the Analyze Behavior workflow detail, you will see eighteen artifacts being consumed or produced, as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: The artifacts for the Analyze Behavior workflow detail. With the simplification I am suggesting, there would only ww1 allied powers, be two artifacts to Synopsis of The Gatsby Essay target here: the requirement model and the analysis model. As I describe the various models below, I will show you in which workflow details each model is used. The essential models of ww1 allied Analysis and Design.

Now, let's consider the three models in Movie Great my simplified view of RUP's Analysis and Design discipline. It may be helpful to ww1 allied and central powers refer to Figure 2 occasionally for orientation. The analysis model is the primary artifact of the workflow detail called Analyze Behavior (see Figure 6). It is a platform independent model (PIM), which means that it does not contain technology-based decisions. For example, it would be an Letter Playground Bully by Andrea error to place a JDBC class in this model. Powers. Because of romeo monologue this platform independence, people who lack skills in a specific technology can still create the models within the analysis model. This means that even our requirement specifiers can be trained to create this model if they are so inclined, and we wish to utilize our resources in multiple roles. Also remember that, although this is the ww1 allied and central, only workflow detail in which the romeo monologue, analysis model is the primary artifact, in each iteration that includes this workflow detail, the team will update the analysis model again. This will lead to a maintenance issue between the analysis model and powers, the design model in future iterations, but to romeo monologue date the maintenance issue has not outweighed the value of having the and central, model.

There are a few tool automations to assist here, but more features are needed to keep these models in synch automatically. Figure 6: The analysis model contains all the technology-free, domain-specific design for our project and is the primary artifact of the workflow details circled in red. As shown earlier in Figure 2, the examples, primary input to ww1 allied powers the analysis model are the use cases, rules, and glossary terms of the Gatsby, requirement model. In other words, the primary inputs are the functional or behavioral requirements of our system. This means that if our use cases change (if our system's desired behavior changes), the changes are encapsulated within the analysis model. The mapping from use cases to the analysis model can be very tight, which means that when a single line in a use case changes, we will very quickly see what part of the design has to change to accommodate this. (IBM Rational's Mastering Object Oriented Analysis and Design class trains students to accomplish this.) One common question asked on various OO forums I monitor is If I am going to code in Java, should I avoid using multiple inheritance in my modeling?

For the analysis model, the answer is no, you do not have to ww1 allied and central avoid it. If you believe that multiple inheritance is the best way to model a solution idea and you are working on the analysis model, go for it. Technology independent also means language independent. Of course, if you simply don't prefer multiple inheritance, that's a different matter. Literary Criticism Examples. The point is, inheritance techniques and the preferences you will map to the analysis model are independent of the programming language you use. The major content of the analysis model includes UML collaborations, which group class and sequence diagrams (or collaboration diagrams if that is your preference). The collaborations are traced back to the use cases from which they are realized, using a UML realization relationship. And Central Powers. The analysis model also contains analysis classes, which are organized according to the logical architectural pattern defined by the project's software architect. The architectural model contains all of the technology-specific decisions for our project but none of the behavior-specific decisions. Which Of The Functional Project Organization?. For this reason, it is considered a Platform-Specific Model, or PSM, although we will add some platform-independent pieces here as well, provided they span multiple current or future use cases. Earlier I mentioned it would be an error to place JDBC classes in the analysis model; those sorts of classes belong, in the architectural model (Figure 7), since they are technology-specific and problem-domain-free.

Figure 7: The architectural model contains all the technology-specific decisions for our project and is the primary artifact of the workflow details circled in red. The technology-specific decisions in ww1 allied powers the architectural model include our design guidelines, our patterns, etc. One of these technical decision types is called a mechanism . In RUP, a mechanism is an area of theme for english b summary technical difficulty for our project that we hope to solve once, and then reuse within other parts of our own solution or in other projects. As shown in Figure 7, the architectural model is the primary artifact of the Perform Architectural Synthesis, Define a Candidate Architecture, and Refine the Architecture workflow details of RUP. Recall from Figure 2 that the primary input to the architectural model is the supplemental specification, which contains our URPS requirements (usability, reliability, performance, supportability) as well as our design constraints and our interface requirements. Ww1 Allied Powers. What this means is of the advantage functional organization?, that while changes to ww1 allied powers our behavior are encapsulated in our analysis model, changes to Movie Synopsis of The our technologies are encapsulated in and central our architectural model. Since the architectural model is a newer idea with respect to the current artifact set in RUP, I'd like to summarize the value of using this architectural model to separate technology and quality issues from behavior issues. This separation between the analysis model and theme b summary, the architectural model will allow us to be very resilient to change. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers. Behavior changes in our use cases or rules will be encapsulated within the analysis model, while technology changes or changes to our supplemental requirements will be encapsulated in the architectural model. Letter By Andrea Essay. Technological reuse and ww1 allied and central powers, supplemental requirements reuse will be easier to perform. Both technological choices and Synopsis of The Great Gatsby, supplemental requirements (usability, reliability, performance, and supportability) tend to be very reusable.

Regardless of the problem domain, we may have similar usability requirements, for ww1 allied, example. The architectural model tends to tie to the supplemental requirements. By creating a single architectural model, it will be easier to find the reusable assets of a previous program that had either similar supplemental requirements or similar technological choices and constraints. The design model has a mixture of for english behavior and technology, and is considered a Platform-Specific Model or (PSM) like the ww1 allied, architectural model. Basically the idea is that you combine the PIM analysis model with the PSM architectural model to theme b summary create the PSM design model, as shown in Figure 2. With this approach, if your use cases change, you can update your analysis model, then regenerate your design model.

On the other hand, if your technologies or supplemental requirements change, you update your architectural model and regenerate your design model. Figure 8: The design model combines of the business design of the analysis model and the technological constraints in the architectural model; it is the primary artifact of the workflow details circled in and central powers red. Currently, most development organizations focus exclusively on this model. Following Advantage Functional Management Organization?. Many take advantage of the many tools that have been built to automate the binding between the design model and the implementation model (a.k.a. the code). In products like XDE, TogetherSoft, and Rose, changes to the design model cause automatic changes to the code; and changes to the code cause automatic changes to the design model.

In fact, the design model simply becomes a view of the code. To date, no vendor offers an automated tool that fully combines the analysis model with the powers, architectural model to create a design model. Romeo Monologue. However, XDE has a pattern engine, and Rose has a series of scripts that address a portion of this need. Ideally, we would be able to ww1 allied and central powers focus on theme for english, just the analysis model and the architectural model, and generate our design model entirely. While technology to accomplish this is a way off, we can generate part of the design model today in ww1 allied and central this fashion. For example, in the analysis model we might have a set of examples boundary, control, and entity classes. In the architectural model, we can create a pattern that shows how a boundary and a few specific entity classes should be changed to become JSPs and and central, Helper EJBs.

Now we bind our specific classes to romeo monologue those generic patterns, and generate a design model with a combination of technology-specific and behavior-specific elements. Again, most people just create the design model. If you look at their visual models, there is no distinction between technology-specific design and behavioral design. This makes reuse much harder and more time consuming. And Central. With the separation into analysis, architecture, and design models, if we wish to reuse some technological best practices from another project we need only concerning religion, look in that project's architectural model and copy the powers, parts that we need. Synopsis Great Essay. If we wish to reuse behavior, which happens much less frequently, we can target their analysis model. Today we instead have to look at their design model, since that is the only model we have, and weed through it to remove the behavior before we can reuse the technological ideas. The architecture model and ww1 allied, different project types. Consider this: There are two types of of The Great Essay software projects you can work on. A green field project or a maintenance project, and the architectural model has a different level of impact on the different types. A green field project is a brand new project, while a maintenance project is a project where we already have an existing system that is somehow being modified.

Overall, I have seen far more maintenance projects than green field projects in my career. Additionally, there are three basic types of maintenance projects, and in increasing order of ww1 allied difficulty they are correction, enhancement, and adaptation maintenance projects. Figure 9: Four types of projects, in yellow rectangles. RUP can guide each of these four project types, but their development cases 2 would each be a little different from each another. It is a good idea for an organization to create a roadmap 3 for each of the four project types over dialogues natural, time. A correction project involves fixing one or more problems affecting quality, or related to missing functionality.

In general, the requirements work in a correction project is less intense than in other project types, because much of the ww1 allied and central, requirements work was done for the original project. Specifically, there will typically be less problem analysis, stakeholder interaction, and high-level requirement work than in the original project. Some detailed requirement work might occur. Often, correction projects can simply be a Transition phase iteration added to an existing project, rather than a full RUP project with all four phases involved. The architecture model will still constrain the theme, design model for a correction project, but will probably not need to be modified. In fact, if it does need to ww1 allied be modified, then the correction project is more architecturally significant and should probably be treated as a new generation project that uses all four RUP phases. An enhancement project usually involves a software product that is valued by the client, who now would like the software to romeo monologue do even more for and central powers, them. An enhancement project may be regarded as a sign of quality, because it means the client is not only satisfied with the dialogues religion, current project, but they also want it to take on more responsibilities. These projects require more from the requirements discipline than a correction project does, because they are about ww1 allied powers, new functionality that we need to understand. If the enhancements are simple, or more specifically, if they are not architecturally significant, or if they do not fundamentally change the original vision document or the concrete use cases, they can often be handled as a Transition phase iteration, much like a correction project. On the other hand, if the enhancements affect the architecture or the fundamental vision, then a new RUP project should be started for it with all four phases: Inception, Elaboration, Construction, and Transition.

The use of the architecture model can be more significant to the enhancement project. If the enhancement requests represent behavioral changes alone, they will be isolated in to a Playground Essay the analysis model, making it easier to make the changes without having to sort through a mixture of ww1 allied and central technology and business design. If the enhancements are architecturally significant, those changes will be absorbed in the architecture model. To A Playground. Even if the changes are a mix, the requirement model will be partitioned to separate the two types of requirements that lead nicely to the analysis model and architectural model changes. Finally we have adaptation maintenance projects . Adaptation projects involve systems that the client now wants to operate in ww1 allied a new environment. For example, a system works on MS Windows, but the client now wants it to for english work on powers, Unix; or a system uses an MS Access database, and now the Synopsis Great Gatsby, client wants it to ww1 allied powers function with an Oracle database; or a mainframe COBOL system now needs to work on .NET or J2EE / Eclipse. As a methodology consultant, I have encountered more adaptation projects than any of the other types, including green field projects.

I'm not sure if this is because there really are more adaptation projects out romeo monologue there, or if these projects are simply more complex and thus more likely to ww1 allied and central require methodology consultants for help. Criticism Examples. But if I were to guess, I'd say that most of you reading this article are probably involved in an adaptation maintenance project right now. Adaptation projects tend to ww1 allied powers be the which of the following is an project organization?, most complex of the three types of powers maintenance projects, yet when I ask for the requirements for is an of a functional management, these adaptation projects I am usually told We don't need requirements. The new system just needs to do what the current system does now. Or they simply point at the existing system and ww1 allied, state those are our requirements. My answer to this is, If it supposed to Letter Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay do exactly what the current system does now, then why are we adapting it? They usually answer with statements like the ww1 allied and central powers, current system technologies are no longer supported, or soon they will not be supported, or the current system is too slow, fails too often, is hard to use, or is hard to concerning natural religion maintain. All these statements represent URPS requirements that must be captured; otherwise, we will be unable to confirm that the powers, adaptation project succeeded, or know when to stop! Also, what if we only deliver half the functionality in the new system that was available in the old one, but we solve all of which of a project management those supplemental requirements?

It is and central, possible that the loss of functionality doesn't matter, since the goal is switching, for example, to a new platform. Examples. Obviously, these projects need use case models and scope management just like any green field project does. The architectural model really shines in adaptation projects. Most of the requirements work will be captured via supplemental requirements, design constraints, and interface requirements, all of which are part of the supplemental specification in the requirement model. All these requirements tend to lead us straight to the architectural model.

In other words, if the behavioral requirements stay the ww1 allied powers, same, we will have little to do in the analysis model and can focus on the architectural model. In projects where all we have is the Synopsis of The Great Gatsby, design model (which is the most typical case), we must try to separate the technology from the powers, business design, or we must start designing both all over again. Theme For English. This can have a drastic effect on schedules and can increase the cost of development significantly. The race is on ww1 allied powers, to automate more and more of this approach. Yesterday we were focused on theme b summary, automating the tie between the design model and and central powers, our code. There are still plenty of improvements that we desperately need in this arena, because our current tools barely scratch the surface of what might be automatically generated. But the real game has moved to automating the creation of the design model itself, which ties directly to the code. This means that our future job will be to focus on: Separating the analysis model from an agreed definition of the architectural model Modeling system behaviors Selecting the right technologies for theme for english b summary, our systems. But the automation game doesn't end there.

Anyone who has taken the Mastering Object Oriented Analysis and Design course with me has already seen that there are a lot of automation possibilities between the and central, requirement model and the analysis model. This means that as we create the requirement model, we could be auto-generating portions of the analysis model. Taking this idea a step further, software projects of the future may be generating code from a requirement model and romeo monologue, an architectural model. We might also expect various automations from the requirement model itself. I teach a method for detailing use cases with a set of standard error messages that can be manually applied when reviewing use cases, and ww1 allied and central, this method is precise enough to enable automations into the analysis model as well. Of The Advantage Of A. 4. If you want to ww1 allied and central stop re-inventing solutions to difficult problems, if you want to ensure reuse and increase the examples, productivity of your design team, then separate your Analysis and ww1 allied and central powers, Design efforts into the three artifacts: analysis model, architectural model, and design model. When building systems with any technologies used previously on another project, the software development organizations that are quickest in adopting this approach will help their companies outpace the competition. 1 Commercial off-the-shelf software. 2 A development case is the RUP artifact that customizes the RUP for a specific project.

3 A roadmap is a RUP artifact that is a generic development case created by Gibson Essay studying successfully used development cases and powers, distilling their commonalities. 4 Called CRUMB, this is a requirement detailing approach in Synopsis use since 1997 that has never been formally documented. Sign in or register to ww1 allied powers add and b summary, subscribe to comments.

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Facing Her Worst Fear: An ELLE Writer Learns to Swim at 28. We are here to learn how to swim. By we , I am referring to the two dozen or so men and women between the ages of 20 and 60 who are huddled at the edge of the Y pool on East 14th Street in New York City. Though we haven't yet dipped a toe in, we're all wet because a large sign in the locker room ordered us to shower before entering the pool area. Many of us are wearing impractical bathing suits that have never seen water. Because we are also required to wear swim caps, we look very strange—the neat contours of ww1 allied, our bodies and protruding goggles give us the appearance of wary extraterrestrials visiting an unknown planet. Our nearly naked state reveals that we have a surprising amount of body hair, nice breasts, dimpled thighs, tattoos, moles that maybe should be checked out, mystery scars, and at least 15 different shades of skin tone, due to concerning natural our various nationalities. We are cold, and many of us are scared. We have paid $275 for 12 weeks of lessons, and some of us, I know, are already regretting the purchase the and central powers, way one regrets ordering a high-tech vegetable chopper from a late-night infomercial. To ease our anxiety, we ask questions. What's your name?

Do you really not know how to swim, or do you kind of theme, know? So, like, you can't even float, right? Two athletic-looking men and one woman stand before us. They welcome us to ww1 allied and central powers adult beginner swim, and I laugh at the class's title—suggesting as it does that we are beginners not only at swimming, but also at literary criticism, adulthood. The female instructor glares at me and sternly informs us that if we miss a class, there will be absolutely no makeups!

Today we will be separated into smaller groups based on ability. As a quick test, Tony, an instructor wearing a full-body wet suit, stands in ww1 allied powers, the middle of the pool and asks us to swim to him one at a time in any way we know how. Very quickly it becomes clear that some of us have lied; some of us can in fact kind of swim and theme for english b summary float. I am one of the liars. I can usually doggy-paddle for about seven seconds before my nerves take over and I sink. I walk down the ww1 allied, steps into the pool, swim halfway to Tony, and stop. Synopsis Gatsby Essay! What happened? he asks. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! I'm afraid to go deeper, I say.

The water, which is a pale blue and reeks of chlorine, is up to my waist. Tony assigns me to the lowest level. I'm afraid to go deeper . Once, sometimes twice a year I mumble this as I enter oceans and Movie Great Gatsby friends' pools. My mother never learned to ww1 allied and central powers swim, and so I never did either. The last time someone tried to teach me, I was 11 and my uncle had decided that enough was enough.

On an overcast Sunday at Manhattan Beach in concerning religion, Brooklyn, I was playing with my cousins near the ww1 allied, shore when he picked me up and which of the following advantage project management tossed me into the ocean. By the time I inhaled to scream, I was underwater. The idea, I think, was that nature would take over—that I'd kick, battle the water, and powers eventually rise to the surface. Instead I lay down on the bottom of the ocean and allowed the water to enter my lungs. That I seemed to romeo monologue possess no survival instinct, as it's called—no innate part of me that knew what to do in the face of danger—became apparent again the and central, next year when I encountered a snake in the woods. Romeo Monologue! As the other kids ran screaming, I just stood there frozen, tears streaming down my face. And Central! I have no idea what personality traits bring a child to so passively greet ominous circumstances, but these episodes do reveal a fatalistic predisposition that has followed me into my adult beginner life.

As I sank to the bottom of the ocean, it simply did not occur to me that there was anything I could do about it. I couldn't have been in the water longer than seconds, but in my memory the moment stretches like a film reel, each frame full of distinct sights and sensations. I remember the pillowy sand beneath my thighs, the light filtering through the deep green water above me, the human shadow eclipsing the light, and my uncle's arms reaching in and yanking me out. I remember coughing and theme for english b summary coughing, and then the reel cuts off and there are no more images, only the ww1 allied powers, feelings of inadequacy and Movie Gatsby shame for having disappointed, and the certainty that I never wanted to and central powers see that particular movie again. Just blow out slowly, Tony is telling me. There are seven of us in Tony's group, and we are learning to blow bubbles.

While my classmates keep their heads submerged for five, even 10 seconds, I lower only my face—the tip of my nylon-capped head sticking out—push all of my air out in one forceful exhale, and bop up immediately. A couple of times I try holding my nose on the way down, but Tony says it's not allowed. He tells me to just try holding my breath, but again I dip, blow, bop up like a buoy. Tony looks confused. We move on concerning to an exercise that requires us to push off the ww1 allied and central, side of the pool and glide with our faces down in concerning, the water. The glide itself is not bad, but I keep raising my head as soon as I start, and Tony's patience is fading. Just hold your breath! he instructs. I want to and central please Tony, so the next time I try to remain under and somehow manage to inhale water. Why can't you just hold it?

Tony asks as I come up coughing. He moves on to his more promising pupils, but it is too late, I can't stop—I am crying in Synopsis Great Gatsby Essay, the pool. Then I realize something that will bring me great comfort over the next three months: No one can tell when you're crying in and central powers, the water. The first time I saw the ocean, I was 10 years old, and it was wintertime, and my mother and Movie Great Gatsby Essay I had walked four blocks from our high-rise in Coney Island, Brooklyn, to the shore in our heavy coats and stood staring at ww1 allied and central, the Atlantic as if it were a gorgeous mirage. The previous night we'd emigrated from Russia. Our first year in Brooklyn, I attended a day camp at Brighton Beach, where, observing a sprightly girl named Katya in the water, I began teaching myself the doggy paddle, but my visit to Manhattan Beach later that summer put an end to romeo monologue my aquatic interests. It would be unfair, however, to suggest that my ambivalence about water began on that day. Even as a young child I'd had a consuming fascination with seas and oceans, which, growing up in Moscow, seemed about ww1 allied and central powers as faraway and exotic to me as the moon.

My favorite book was about a young girl who gets swept away by a storm and b summary lands on an island made entirely of candy. My favorite TV show was The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau , dubbed in Russian. By the and central, time I'd read Gulliver's Travels , I was convinced that large bodies of water were portals to fantastical, possibly frightening worlds—a theory that proved true after we crossed the Atlantic by plane and for english b summary landed in Coney Island. But children's books are made of the ww1 allied and central, very real terrors suffered by adults, and Synopsis of The Great Gatsby Essay after I'd actually met the ocean, I began to see it for what it is: a sprawling, menacing body with its own heartbeats, temperamental whims, and and central immeasurable strength. By high school, I'd refused to Letter Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson read Moby-Dick and still haven't. Even now, I memorize drowning data in and central powers, New York the way others note crime statistics. Though I have lived here for criticism examples, more than a decade, I've never taken a ferry, because I know that the ww1 allied and central powers, waters surrounding Manhattan have currents powerful enough to carry even competent swimmers out to sea, and that in 1904, for instance, the General Slocum , a steamship traveling along the East River, caught fire and sank, killing an estimated 1,021 people—the deadliest day in New York City's history until September 11, 2001. When I get home, I call my mother.

She has no memory of that day at Manhattan Beach, but after I describe it to her—we've somehow never talked about it—she tells me that something similar happened to her. When she was five, she slipped from my grandmother's grasp as they were crossing a shallow lake and fell in. Her reel is eerily similar to mine: the soft sand, the Bully Gibson Essay, filtering light, the human shadow coming to rescue her. And Central Powers! She hasn't entered a body of water since. Fear of water can be a hereditary condition, suffered by a surprising number of people. A quick Google search reveals that Eva Mendes and Snoop Dogg can't swim, and theme for english neither can former Baywatch babe Carmen Electra. According to the USA Swimming Foundation, if a parent doesn't know how to swim, there is only a 13 percent chance that his or her child will learn. Up to half of Americans can't swim, and an average of 10 people drown in the country every day. The week my classes begin, I happen to ww1 allied and central powers be reading Renata Adler's 1976 novel Speedboat , in which she writes, Every child, naturally, who was not a sissy, swam.

In lakes, and seas, and heavily chlorinated pools, they earned their certificates…. People who missed their proper year often remained afraid of swimming, driving, hunting or whatever, all their lives. That passage isn't about swimming exactly. It's about something far more important—it's about how we come to think of ourselves. To know the self as a sissy is to romeo monologue avoid skis, bicycles, mountains, and tennis courts because of the strong suspicion that you will not, necessarily, know to raise a racket to block the ball from hitting your face. If we don't learn to and central swim, we lose a certain faith in our ability to meet physical challenges, but the impact may be greater yet, if sneakingly pernicious.

Realizing that not only does your body fail to stay afloat but that it doesn't even bother to criticism examples kick when faced with its own demise begins to feel like a repulsive evolutionary defect that must be concealed at all costs—an Achilles heel so fundamental that it threatens all our other accomplishments. (Is there anything more humiliating than lacking a basic instinct for self-preservation?) That I want to learn to swim now, at the age of 28, has less to do with my being afraid of drowning than it does with my growing increasingly tired with myself for ww1 allied powers, being afraid of natural, whatever. When I return to the Y, Tony delivers strange news. I, along with three others from the lowest beginner group, have been reassigned to an even lower beginner group. Weeks later, after I get to know my new classmates, I can only assume that the good people at the Y created a special level for us—let's call it traumatized adult beginner swim—and called in special forces. My classmates are all from India.

Upal and Ujjal are fraternal twins in their late twenties who live together in Stuyvesant Town. The brothers took a swim class when they were kids but didn't like their teacher. So we never went back, Upal told me. Ujjal has a rather large tattoo of two dolphins on his back, and I'm not sure he's aware of the ww1 allied powers, irony. Our fourth is dialogues religion, Anustee, a doe-eyed young woman who wears a bathing suit with a skirt attached. Whenever Anustee enters the water, her eyebrows travel upward on ww1 allied powers her forehead in an expression that communicates pure terror. Several times I wanted to ask her why she never learned to swim, but she always seemed too distressed to engage in examples, small talk. Since none of us had learned to blow bubbles, we start there. Ww1 Allied! Show me what you do, says Will, our new teacher. I show him and brace for criticism.

Instead, Will comes up close to me and begins speaking in a calm, measured tone. It's okay, he says. This is totally normal. Literary Criticism! You're just a little nervous in the water. I want you to ww1 allied try something for theme for english b summary, me: Just hum. Hum? Yes, hum.

Start humming before you go under and that will pace your breathing. My hum is more like a yogi's om as I lower my head into the pool. I focus on humming slowly but steadily so that no water enters my nose— Oooooommm —and as I realize that I've now been under for and central, several seconds, I become irrationally angry at Tony for not having mentioned this neat trick last week. For English B Summary! As I come up, Will is smiling. Ww1 Allied And Central! That's it, he says. Playground By Andrea Gibson Essay! See? Easy. Ww1 Allied! By the end of the literary criticism examples, class, I not only learn to glide but I'm the and central, only one who masters floating, which Will asks me to following functional organization? demonstrate for the rest of the class. A few important words about Will: He is beautiful.

Tall, tan, and muscular, he is like a Puerto Rican Michael Phelps. When Will isn't in the pool, he walks around shirtless in ragged sweatpants and beige Crocs. Ww1 Allied Powers! My favorite things about him include a small swirl of hair that forms a rat tail at romeo monologue, the back of his neck, and ww1 allied and central the tongue ring that he tried to to a Bully Essay be discreet about until it fell out in week five and ww1 allied powers he had to go fishing for it in the pool. Whenever I panic in the water—which is often—he will grab my shoulders or my waist and criticism say, It's okay. You're okay. I got you. I'm right here, and I will at times forget that I have a boyfriend and look at Will with affection and gratitude so pure that I will simultaneously wish that he were my father and my husband. And if that sounds twisted, well, then you have not had the terrifying pleasure of being rescued by Will from the depths of the powers, Y pool. After the first lesson, Will teaches us to which following of a management organization? use kickboards and flippers, which is a little bit like learning to walk horizontally on powers water using a precarious floating device for balance and Gibson Essay giant webbed feet for a manual propeller. (Flippers, I learn later, were the invention of Benjamin Franklin, an avid swimmer who helped popularize aquatics for the masses.)

It takes a few weeks to get the hang of these contraptions, but eventually we're zooming from one end of the pool to the other like toddlers on ww1 allied and central training wheels, and though I know I'm not swimming, exactly, I think I am starting to understand the concept. When I move across the water, the of the of a functional project, parts of powers, my life that exist on land seem unimportant. Criticism! It's impossible for me to ww1 allied and central think about Movie Synopsis of The Great Essay what e-mail I didn't send, or which friend I may have offended. My only priority is powers, not to drown, and so I focus on my kicks, my breath, my muscles, which grow heavy whenever I get nervous. Examples! I start to fall in love with the sounds, which—except for the times when I hear Will's muffled voice say, Relax your neck, Irina!—are a pleasing symphony of ww1 allied powers, low whirls and gargles as the for english, water is pushed around and parted by my own body. As the ww1 allied and central powers, weeks go on, I begin to dialogues religion think of and central powers, water as a different mode of existence and of swimming as a practice of essentially adapting my body to alien conditions. Movie Synopsis Of The Gatsby Essay! I start to see the ww1 allied, world divided into people who can survive in to a by Andrea, dual realities, and and central more primitive creatures like myself who've been sequestered on the small patches of land that occupy our mostly blue planet.

It occurs to me that, with the romeo monologue, exception of space, this is the only place where humans get to ww1 allied and central defy gravity and escape the weight of their tired bodies. Between classes, everyone who hears that I'm learning to swim is Movie Synopsis Gatsby, eager to tell me their own water stories, and I start to feel like the protagonist in John Cheever's The Swimmer, swimming across the backyard pools of people's childhoods: the old wounds, the ww1 allied and central, competitions, the beach towns where they grew up, that time the baby fell in, the brothers who took them surfing, the freedoms water afforded them and the insecurities they still feel from early failures in which of the following functional project management, it. In class, too, we all have our blocks. Upal and Ujjal, who are the only ones who can swim well without flippers, still cannot float. Ww1 Allied And Central! When they try, they sort of hover somewhere between the bottom of the pool and its surface as if frozen in the center of an ice cube. Anustee consistently comes undone in the deep end and theme thrashes around until Will rushes to her rescue, which always makes me a little jealous. For me, jumping into the water is the hardest.

Every week as the powers, others line up and hop in like a row of ducklings, I stand whimpering at the pool's edge and following advantage categorically refuse to do it no matter how long Will pleads with me. Even when we do this at the shallow end, I cannot seem to ww1 allied get myself to step forward, and I tell Will with full conviction that I will drown if I do. A few times I start to cry. When I finally do jump in—and this takes all of the 12 weeks—it's not until Will stands in the pool beneath me, offers me his hand, and Synopsis of The Great Gatsby Essay promises that he will not let go. On our final day, Will brings in a camera and films us so that we can see our progress. I climb out of the pool and stand next to him as he shows me the video in which I attempt to swim without the safety of flippers or a kickboard. I watch my scrawny body making movements I've never seen it make before, and the shocking part is ww1 allied and central, that I'm moving through the pool—slowly and sloppily, but I'm doing it.

See, you have a great kick, Will says. Before I leave, he writes down his e-mail address and criticism examples tells me to get in touch if I want more swimming lessons, if I have questions, or whatever. I graduate from the Y in June, and in mid-July I fly to Biarritz, where world champion surfer Lisa Andersen has generously agreed to ww1 allied and central give me a swimming lesson in open water. Andersen is an concerning religion athlete for Roxy, the apparel brand with a heart-shape logo that is ww1 allied and central powers, celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2014. The beach in Biarritz is known for theme b summary, its waves, but when I arrive to observe the annual Roxy Pro competition, all the female surfers seem depressed. The ocean's as still as a lake, Andersen tells me. The competition has been canceled, but for me, calm waters means I have no excuse.

Unlike the ritzier parts of southern France along the Mediterranean, Biarritz, on the Atlantic, has the raw, unself-conscious feel of a small seaside town. Andersen and I meet at the beach in the afternoon. I'm hesitant to go in and central powers, the ocean, so she suggests we just sit and talk for a bit where the water is romeo monologue, shallow and allow the and central powers, lapping waves to wash over Movie of The Great Gatsby Essay, us. I want you to and central just feel the ocean and its rhythms, she says. With her flaxen blond hair and fit figure, Andersen, who is 44, has a soulful quality about her and of The Great Essay bears a striking resemblance to the actress Robin Wright. Ww1 Allied! When she was a kid, her family moved around a lot, finally settling in Ormond Beach, Florida. Her father was an Letter to a Bully alcoholic who was abusive to and central powers Andersen and her brothers. Her mother, like mine, never learned to swim and was always afraid of the ocean.

After Andersen learned to surf, the theme b summary, ocean, where she wanted to powers spend all of her time, formed a rift between her and her family. Movie Synopsis Great Essay! At 16, after her father became angry and cracked her surfboard, she ran away from home and moved to Huntington Beach, California. She left a note on her pillow informing her parents that she was leaving to become the ww1 allied powers, number-one female surfer in the world; nine years later she did so. As we're talking, I'm so focused on Andersen that I'm startled when a small wave lashes me in the face. That's another thing: Never turn your back on the ocean, she says. Do you want to walk in concerning natural religion, a little? Okay, I say, and and central we go in up to our knees. I believe Andersen when she says that the ocean is unusually calm, but for me, the small waves might as well be tsunamis. I am standing waist-deep now, and which of the following advantage of a functional each time I see a wave approaching, I shudder and sometimes also shriek. The first time this happens, I sort of ww1 allied and central, leap into Andersen's arms like a baby chimp and wrap my arms around her neck. The sense that this is an theme b summary unacceptable thing for an adult to do is superseded entirely by my fear that a wave will swallow me and that I'll drown.

Andersen is kind enough not to laugh. She instructs me to hop up against the wave's force and, as we tread deeper, plant my feet as each swell passes. Ww1 Allied! She also allows me to hold her hand whenever I need to. That rocking back and forth can be so peaceful—I really want you to have that, she says. I go to the ocean wherever I am, whenever I want to get away from romeo monologue, all the worries and stresses. Sometimes I'm drowning on ww1 allied and central powers land, and I need to of The Great Essay get in the water to breathe. This is powers, where my confidence lies, Andersen adds.

In the rest of Movie Great Gatsby, my life, I have all these insecurities, but here I feel confident. When I ask why, Andersen pauses for a moment. I don't know. I guess the ocean has never broken my heart. It seems unlikely I'll ever have that much trust in the ocean, I say. Ww1 Allied And Central Powers! How could I when we are standing in dialogues religion, the same body of water that once pinned me to ww1 allied powers its floor? But you have to remember, Andersen says, the ocean didn't do that to you. I haven't noticed, but I am now standing chin-deep—the farthest out Letter to a by Andrea Gibson I've ever gone.

Though we are more than an powers hour into my lesson, Andersen hasn't asked me to do any actual swimming. Instead, she's conducted a sort of immersion therapy, distracting me from which of the following of a project management organization?, my anxiety and allowing me to control the pace as we waded deeper. Somewhere along the way, it's almost as if I've forgotten that we're not on land and adjusted to powers my new environment, standing on tippy-toes and instinctually rising and rocking with the current. When I look back and see how far we are from shore, it feels strange not to feel afraid. I wouldn't describe standing here as peaceful, exactly, but it is romeo monologue, not unpleasant.

Do you want to see me actually swim? I ask. Andersen nods, so I hop up and ww1 allied and central try to remember what Will taught me: kicking from the hip, pulling the water, head not too high. That's all it is, Andersen says. The rest is just technique. But having a feel for it and doing what feels natural—that's swimming.

I envy Anderson, for whom the ocean has served as a vast well of courage. Those of us who stopped trusting ourselves early on tend to approach new things with paralyzing trepidation. Theme! But to encounter that sissy as an adult—to watch her cry in ww1 allied and central, the shallow end of the pool—may be a necessary step, it seems to Synopsis of The Great Gatsby Essay me now, to building a kind of and central, mental fortitude, a willingness to examples try what's daunting. Because each time you're able to remain afloat, even for a little bit, you add a droplet to that well, a reserve to tap the next time you lose nerve. After I leave Andersen, my boyfriend meets me in ww1 allied and central powers, Biarritz and we drive down the coast, stopping at the beautiful beaches along the way.

At each one, I clutch his arm as I wade into the ocean. When I get comfortable enough, I swim to him where the water is almost my height, asking him to stand farther and farther away from me so that I can test myself. Other times I like to for english b summary just lie down underwater—a rewriting of an ww1 allied and central powers old scene—and look around. I still have to which following is an advantage functional hum to pace my breathing, but instead of the long om, my underwater anthem has become Loudon Wainwright III's The Swimming Song, which a friend sent me during my studies at the Y. It goes like this: This summer I went swimming, This summer I might have drowned. But I held my breath and I kicked my feet. And I moved my arms around, I moved my arms around.

This summer I swam in the ocean, And I swam in a swimming pool, Salt my wounds, chlorine my eyes. I'm a self-destructive fool, a self-destructive fool.

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essay night twelfth (A portion of this essay was published in Midsummer Magazine , Summer 1991.) Shakespeare seems preoccupied with madness and folly in Twelfth Night . The word fool and powers its variants (foolery, foolish, and so forth) appear eighty times in natural the play, and the word folly occurs seven times. There are, in addition, other means of powers indicating foolishness such as Maria's Now, sir, thought is free (1.3.67). As Feste suggests, Foolery . does walk about the is an of a functional project organization? orb like the ww1 allied sun; it shines everywhere (3.1.39-40). Robert Armin, who originated the role of Feste, was fascinated by fools and wrote Foole upon Foole , a book which treated this subject. Synopsis Of The Great Gatsby! David Wiles writes that Armin was a pioneering realist in his study of how fools actually behaved. His stage fools were based on observation rather than on and central powers, the recreation of an emblematic stage type (158). He goes on to point out which of a functional organization?, that Armin's interest in fools allowed Shakespeare to ww1 allied, tap one of the romeo monologue richest veins in the medieval dramatic tradition: the idea that the Vice reveals vice to be folly (158). M. C. Bradbook notes that Armin did influence Shakespeare's writing. From the time that Armin joined the and central company Shakespeare very noticeably began to Playground Bully Gibson, give his clowns the catechism as a form of jesting.

Feste catechizes Olivia on why she grieves and proves her a fool for ww1 allied powers doing so; later, in literary criticism examples the guise of the curate, he catechizes Malvolio (228). Indeed, Shakespeare seems to have utilized this valuable resource for Twelfth Night , creating a broad spectrum of fools in this play. The actions and words of almost all the play's characters fit the recognized behavior patterns of fools. Feste is, of course, an allowed or professional fool; Sir Toby Belch, like Falstaff, is a Lord of powers Misrule who orchestrates the folly of his cohorts; Maria, with her mischievous practical joking, resembles the spiteful court fools whose malicious capers brought ruin upon many an unwary courtier; Viola in her disguise is a witty fool not unlike Feste; Sir Andrew Aguecheek qualifies as a natural fool; and Olivia, Orsino, and Malvolio all suffer from natural melancholic folly, respectively derived from sorrow, unrequited love, and self-love. Robert Armin brought his observations of actual fools to the role of Feste. And Central! David Wiles points out of The Great, that when Armin played Carlo Buffone in Jonson's Every Man Out Of His Humour , he was impersonating a real tavern fool by the name of Charles (i.e. 'Carlo') Chester (i.e. 'jester') (147). Wiles also sees a connection between this role and that of ww1 allied and central powers Feste: Carlo's most interesting routine is theme, inspired by Armin's researches. Carlo plays the part of ww1 allied and central two courtiers simultaneously. A cruder and natural religion better known example of the technique is of course Feste/Topas (147). Thus it can be seen that Armin's research pervaded his roles and influenced Jonson's plays as well as Shakespeare's. In Reality in a Looking Glass , a comprehensive historical study of powers fools and criticism their roles in medieval and modern society, Anton C. Zijderveld describes and powers classifies the types of traditional medieval fools.

Feste, the Letter to a by Andrea most obvious of Twelfth Night' s fools, belongs to powers, a class of jesters which, according to Zijderveld, were . in full command of their wits. They played at being foolish, often with much wit and ingenuity (92); as Feste himself proclaims, I wear not motley in my brain (1.5.56). He is the allowed fool who can criticize the two absolute rulers of the play#151;Olivia and Orsino#151;with impunity, and he does. Theme B Summary! He takes the liberty to prove Olivia a fool for powers her grief (1.5.56-71) and to chastise Orsino for theme his changeability (2.4.73-79). Feste is the only member of this society who can find fault with his superiors without endangering his position. When Malvolio rather nastily reproaches Olivia for enjoying Feste's jests, Olivia is quick to remind him of his place and to deliver some criticism of ww1 allied and central her own: she replies, You are sick of self-love, Malvolio, and theme for english taste with a distempered appetite (1.5.90-1). In this way Feste serves as an ww1 allied and central, emotional and critical outlet for the subjects of absolute rulers. Zijderveld comments that the fool is romeo monologue, irreverent in the face of authority and tries his best to undermine the impression management that is staged by the powerful (28). He says of rulers, The more dictatorial they are, the more they need fools and folly (30).

If the ww1 allied powers Lady Olivia needs fools and folly, she has them in abundance. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria form a society of advantage project organization? fools, the sole aim of which is merry-making and the destruction of any impediment to their pleasure. This society is reminiscent of the ancient Roman Saturnalia, a day of celebration held in Saturn's honor. For this celebration the functions of normal society were halted and the regular order inverted: the slaves, one of whom was appointed lord of misrule, were freed for and central powers the day and exchanged social roles with their masters. Anne Barton notes the similarities between Epiphany#151;the Twelfth Night feast#151;and Saturnalia and explains, It was perhaps inevitable that a celebration which initially was wholly pious should, with time, alter its complexion, attracting to theme for english, itself in the process a good deal of the licence and even the specific customs of the pagan Saturnalia (404).

Lois Potter indicates that the Saturnalian customs which were adopted permitted the licensed irreverence through disguisings, parodies of solemn events, reversals of roles between men and women, masters and and central servants, clergy and laity (18). Accordingly, when Feste takes on Letter to a, the role of ww1 allied Sir Topas for the mock exorcism of Malvolio, he inverts the proper role of the priest (18). Sir Toby's society is a grotesque inversion of the established hierarchy, a looking-glass image of the status quo (Zijderveld 66), in which the drunken Sir Toby Belch serves as lord and master. Zijderveld writes that in the French city of Lyon there existed some twenty different societies of fools in the sixteenth century, each having its own abbot, admiral, prince, king, court judge, or patriarch as Lord of Misrule (73). Accordingly, Sir Toby is the leader of criticism his friends' drunkenness, the advisor of Sir Andrew's wooing of Olivia, and the director of the duel between Sir Andrew and and central Viola/Cesario. With this in mind, one may wonder why their main practical joke, the deception of Malvolio, is engineered by Maria rather than Sir Toby. One possible explanation for this is that Maria is for english b summary, modeled on the malicious court fools, some of whom were women. In fact, she strongly resembles Mathurine, the female fool of the French kings Henri III (1574-89), Henri IV (1589-1610), and Louis XIII (1610-43).

It is not unreasonable to suggest that Shakespeare would have known of this French fool. Ww1 Allied Powers! In Love's Labour's Lost , Shakespeare uses the political maneuverings and b summary court occurrences of and central powers Henri III and Henri of Navarre (the future Henri IV) as the basis for his plot, demonstrating his knowledge of French affairs (David xxix). Also, as a man of the theatre, Shakespeare would have been interested in Movie Great the actions of powers fools, and which of the following is an advantage management as an associate of Robert Armin, he would have been familiar with their activities. 1. Zijderveld writes of and central Mathurine, Her personality was not all that pleasant. He goes on to say that She was as malicious as an old ape (96).

Just as Maria loathes Malvolio's austere Puritan behavior, Mathurine particularly hated the morally strict and stern Protestants (96). Yet another parallel between Maria and Mathurine is that both of them are associated with the Amazons. Sir Toby names Maria Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons (2.3.177), and Mathurine often wore . the outfit of an Movie Synopsis of The Gatsby Essay, Amazon (96). And Central Powers! Another characteristic of fools which Maria exhibits is her smallness. Viola mockingly says, Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady (1.5.203-4) after Maria, with a sailing metaphor, has urged Viola to get on which of the following advantage of a management organization?, with her business. According to Zijderveld, midgets and ww1 allied powers dwarfs occupied a very special position among fools, and they were valued by their owners (97). Viola is another type of female fool and Gatsby Essay also has much in common with the French fool Mathurine. And Central Powers! Feste commends her for examples her skill at word-play, exclaiming, A sentence is but a chev'ril glove to a good wit. How quickly the wrong side may be turned outward! (3.1.11-13).

Mathurine, one of the few fools who were obviously of good wit, was a smart fool who certainly knew her allies and foes (Zijderveld 96-7). Viola's cross-dressing also fits in with the behavior of ww1 allied and central Mathurine, who was sometimes seen dressed as a military officer with a huge sabre (96). Which Following Is An Advantage Functional Project Management Organization?! Indeed, this sort of sexual ambiguity was not uncommon among medieval fools: They are never clearly male or female, but engage happily in transvestism (4). Maria calls Sir Andrew a natural throughout the play, a title which he thoroughly deserves. In Erasmus's In Praise of Folly #151;which Shakespeare may well have read at school (Levi 80)#151;the personified Folly characterizes the natural fool as that class of men whom we generally call morons, fools, halfwits, and zanies (47). 2 Even Andrew recognizes that people think him a fool at 2.5.82 after Malvolio refers to a foolish knight. David Wiles maintains that when Sir Andrew is given 'a bloody cockscomb' by Cesario, the character's lank, hanging hair completes the effect of a fool's hood (156). According to Sir Toby, Andrew speaks three or four languages . and hath all the ww1 allied and central good gifts of nature (1.3.26-8), yet Andrew does not know the Movie Synopsis of The Gatsby meaning of the word accost (1.3.58) nor of pourquoi (1.3.90). Andrew says, I would I had bestowed that time in tongues that I have in fencing, dancing, and bearbaiting (1.3.90-92), yet we find later on that, as Maria predicts, he is a coward and cannot fence well at all. In short, many do call (2.5.82) Sir Andrew fool, and they are right; he is all folly and ww1 allied powers no wit, unlike Feste, Toby, and Maria, who are deliberate in their foolery, beneath which exists a layer of wisdom.

3. Olivia and Orsino are also unintentionally foolish, though less obtuse than Sir Andrew. Both are melancholic, and from this disorder arises folly; Zijderveld includes in his detailing of the spectrum of folly a kind of fool called melancholicus (35). It is easy to theme, identify the types of melancholy from which the Countess and Duke suffer. Olivia's is clearly derived from her excessive grief over her brother's death; she tells Valentine that she will mourn for seven years. Orsino's melancholy finds its origin in powers his obsessive, unrequited love for Olivia; he enacts the role of the despised courtly lover, surfeiting himself with music, bowers of Synopsis of The flowers, and self-pity#151;indeed, he seems more in love with love itself than with Olivia. Robert Burton's wisdom, Douglas Bush suggests, is like Shakespeare's (298), and so it should be since Burton's treatise on psychology and humours drew on ww1 allied and central powers, materials contemporary with Shakespeare and was published only Letter Essay, seven years after the Bard's death. In the Anatomy of powers Melancholy , Burton calls grief the mother and daughter of romeo monologue melancholy, her epitome, and chief cause. Sorrow, saith Plutarch to Apollonius, is a cause of madness, a cause of many other incurable diseases (225).

Burton likewise says of love-melancholy that if it rage, it is no more Love, but burning Lust, a Disease, Phrensy, Madness, Hell. Ww1 Allied And Central! (651). Feste recognizes Olivia's folly, dexteriously proving her a fool for mourning for her brother's soul, which is in heaven (1.5.57-71), and Olivia later compares herself to Malvolio, lamenting, I am as mad as he, / If sad and merry madness equal be (3.4.13-14). As Juliet Dusinberre writes, The texture of the Letter Essay play is thick with references to Olivia's folly (47-8). Feste also pinpoints Orsino's ailment, proclaiming, Now the melancholy god protect thee, and the tailor make thy doublet of changeable taffeta, for thy mind is a very opal (2.4.73-5). Erasmus writes, A man who is deceived not only in his senses but in the judgement of ww1 allied his mind . is natural, bound to ww1 allied, be considered close to madness (52). Olivia and romeo monologue Orsino, whose reactions are out of proportion with their troubles and who lack temperance in sorrow and ww1 allied love, certainly fit this description.

Malvolio's melancholic folly originates in his self-love. In In Praise of is an project management organization? Folly , Folly asks, What is so foolish as to powers, be satisfied with yourself? Or to admire yourself? (29). Burton calls self-love a delectable frenzy, most irrefragable passion, this delightful illusion, this acceptable disease (253). Of The Great Gatsby Essay! Malvolio certainly thinks highly of himself, fantasizing about marrying Olivia at 2.5.23-81 and grouping himself with the truly wise men who despise all kinds of folly at 1.5.82-89.

Erasmus's Folly, however, has this to say about these supposedly wise men: Even those who arrogate to themselves the part and name of wise men cannot conceal me, though they walk about 'like apes in scarlet or asses in lion-skins'. Although they are wholly of ww1 allied my party, in public they are so ashamed of my name that they toss it up at others as a great reproach (10). The yellow stockings that Malvolio is duped into donning also connect him with fools. Robert Goldsmith writes in his Wise Fools in Shakespeare , Natural fools and idiots often wore long, yellow gowns (3), and Shakespeare and Fletcher mention a long motley coat guarded with yellow (16) in their Prologue to romeo monologue, The Life of King Henry the powers Eighth . Malvolio is Letter Bully Essay, also the only modern man in an essentially medieval society. Ww1 Allied! He is the natural religion prototypical Puritan who threatens to wipe out folly altogether, in himself and in everyone else; he represents the rational man who is too one-dimensional to ww1 allied, be able really to understand the fool (Zijderveld 27). He stands, as a result, in direct opposition to Feste, the traditional medieval fool who strives to literary examples, bring out the foolishness in all his acquaintances. M. C. Bradbrook comments that Feste is Malvolio's first and principal antagonist, parish clerk to Lady Folly (231). That they despise one another is evidenced in Malvolio's insult, I saw him put down the other day with an ordinary fool that has no more brain than a stone (1.5.83-5). Feste's enjoyment of ww1 allied and central his revenge on Malvolio demonstrates that he returns a full measure of antipathy.

Twelfth Night becomes, in effect, a looking-glass for Shakespeare's society and our own. The play takes us from the routine of ordinary life to the realm of dialogues folly. As Zijderveld speculates, If one follows the fool into the reality of his looking-glass, if one adapts to his 'language', his 'logic', his kind of 'reason', the routine and 'normal' reality of everyday life, with its structures and hierarchies, begins to look genuinely foolish (27). Shakespeare shows us the reflection of ww1 allied and central ourselves and our society in the distorted mirror of Twelfth Night , and as a result, we reach a heightened awareness of our own shortcomings and absurdities. Paradoxically, we learn by Movie Synopsis of The Gatsby Essay, laughing, passing beyond seriousness to wisdom. 1 Queen Elizabeth was certainly familiar with European fools. David Wiles indicates that she followed in the tradition of the ww1 allied powers sixteenth-century courts of Paris, Mantua and Ferrara when she kept a dwarf in her court from 1578 to the end of her reign (150). [Return to dialogues natural, text.] 2 The possibility of Shakespeare having read In Praise of Folly seems great since the work was written in Thomas More's home, Erasmus was well known to many Oxford and Cambridge scholars (Coulton 664-6), and at least one of the masters (Simon Hunt) at and central Shakespeare's grammar school during his time there was an Oxford man (Speaight 10-11). [Return to text.] 3 Leslie Hotson comments that Set beside the brain of Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Essay Feste, the little wit of Aguecheek shrinks further into imbecility (91). Powers! [Return to text.] Barton, Anne. Introduction to Twelfth Night.

The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1974. 403-407. Bradbrook, M. C. Robert Armin and Twelfth Night . Twelfth Night: A Casebook . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1972. 222-43. Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Melancholy . Ed. Floyd Dell, New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1927. David, R. W., ed. The Arden Shakespeare: Love's Labour's Lost . London: Methuen, 1951.

Dusinberre, Juliet. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1975. Erasmus, Desiderius. In Praise of Folly . Trans. Romeo Monologue! Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970. Hotson, Leslie.

Shakespeare's Motley . New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Potter, Lois. Twelfth Night: Text Performance . London: Macmillan, 1985. Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare , ed. Sylvan Barnet, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972. Wiles, David.

Shakespeare's Clown: Actor and text in the Elizabethan playhouse . Ww1 Allied And Central! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Zijderveld, Anton J. Reality in a Looking-Glass: Rationality through an Analysis of Traditional Folly . London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1982. Copyright © 1997 by Stephanie Chidester. All Rights Reserved.