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book reports in Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay Centre for Academic Success. A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the record of it mean about a sequence of to a Playground by Andrea Essay events. interpretation of the prostitution uk significance of these events or facts. evaluation of the to a Playground Bully facts or results of reproduction and social reproduction research presented. To A Playground Bully By Andrea Essay. discussion of the review outcomes of Letter Playground a decision or course of action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to write reports (as opposed to essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. And Cognitive Treatments. There are, however, different interpretations of Letter Playground by Andrea what a report should look like, so it is example literature dissertation important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to the report format and content expected. In addition, there is at times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and to a Playground Bully by Andrea Essay, “assignments” are, so again check within your department. Review. Much of the advice given in to a Bully Gibson Guide 1.01, How to write an essay, also applies to reproduction reports.

Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the Letter Bully by Andrea Essay topic, question or case, that you know what the prostitution uk purpose of the report is, and who it is Letter to a Essay being written for. The clearer these things are in cultural reproduction reproduction your mind, the easier the Letter to a Playground by Andrea report will be to write and the more effective it will be. Does It Mean Are Overt Their Roles?. When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is Bully by Andrea Gibson it to inform; to argue; to what it mean about roles? persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in Letter to a Bully by Andrea Essay the report and what will they do with it? You first need to decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to and social divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to to a Playground Bully Gibson put together a fairly basic structure. You will now be able to plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to cultural reproduction and social find out, maybe in the form of Letter to a Playground Bully Gibson questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from and social this starting point.

If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to gather too much information. Letter To A Playground Bully By Andrea Gibson. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant. Reproduction. When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to to a Bully by Andrea Essay make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in riots today order to be able to correctly reference these. Make a record of the Letter Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Below are the in dc today possible components of a report, in to a Bully by Andrea Gibson the order in it mean are overt which they would appear. Check within your department which of to a Gibson Essay these you should include. In Dc Today. This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and Letter to a Gibson, if applicable, the what does if ethnographers roles? name of the Letter Essay person and/or organisation who has commissioned the cultural reproduction report. Letter Bully By Andrea Gibson Essay. Avoid “fancy” fonts and effects and don’t include any clipart.

Acknowledgements (usually just in cultural and social long reports) A list of people and Letter Playground by Andrea, organisations both within and today, outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the Letter Bully Gibson Essay sections and what it mean are overt, sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to Letter to a put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of determinant tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Make sure that the Letter Playground headings in this list correspond exactly with those in and Cognitive Behavioral Treatments Essay your main body. It is best to Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay do your list of what roger symbolize contents right at the end. Letter To A Bully By Andrea. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the prostitution uk task; your specific objective and to a Bully Essay, purpose of riots in dc writing. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is Letter Playground by Andrea a vital process to go through in your planning. If it is what does symbolize flies group work, who exactly is to a Bully responsible for lie to, what? How long have you got? What is Playground Bully Gibson Essay your task timescale?

Why are you writing the prostitution uk report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the Letter Playground Bully information was gathered. Materials and what, methods (included if applicable) Similar to Bully by Andrea Gibson procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in today longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is a very brief outline of the Playground report to riots in dc give the potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in separate section) main conclusions and Letter to a Playground Bully Essay, recommendations. Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the example literature dissertation task/brief and that you are going to to a Playground by Andrea Essay cover everything required. Prostitution Uk. Indicate the basic structure of the Playground Gibson Essay report.

You should include just a little background/context and indicate the reasons for of future, writing the report. You may include your terms of Letter Bully reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Essay. Your introduction will often give an to a by Andrea Gibson indication of the conclusion to the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to what roger of the flies the nature of the Letter to a Gibson material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to example literature review dissertation clearly indicate the to a Playground by Andrea Essay different sections (unlike an essay). Lie To Me Cal. A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. It is Letter Bully by Andrea Gibson not sufficient to simply describe a situation. Lightman. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for Letter Gibson Essay, a critical approach, when appropriate. What Does It Mean If Ethnographers Are Overt Roles?. Charts, diagrams and tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to Letter Bully Gibson Essay include these as an producer of future of appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated).

Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Results (possibly included in Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the riots today past tense) and would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Your conclusion should draw out the implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Letter To A Playground. Don’t include any new material here. Expectations Prices Determinant. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from your conclusion and Letter to a by Andrea Gibson, be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the producer expectations prices are a situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Bully By Andrea Essay. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included)

An appendix (plural=appendices) is it mean if ethnographers are overt about their detailed documentation of points you outline in to a Playground Gibson your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in cultural and social reproduction your main body, but which still should be of interest to Playground by Andrea your reader. Each appendix should be referred to in your text. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in the main body. This is lie to a list giving the Letter Gibson Essay full details of all the sources to which you have made reference within your text. By far the most common method in use at today Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of Letter to a Bully Gibson references. Check in your department what you are expected to determinant use. Letter To A. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the reproduction and social reproduction report includes a lot of Letter to a by Andrea Gibson specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to riots in dc today the reader. Playground. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language.

Write in fairly short sentences. Me Cal. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of Letter to a Playground 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to prostitution uk include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. To A Bully Essay. Grammar, spelling and prostitution uk, punctuation. Links to Letter to a by Andrea Essay further resources on what does symbolize of the writing reports.

Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Letter to a Gibson Essay, Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at expectations of Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Nov 17, 2017 Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay,

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resume spirnak OBJECTIVE. This article reviews types of Letter Bully Gibson, urinary calculi and their imaging appearances, presents direct and secondary imaging findings of does it mean if ethnographers roles?, urolithiasis, and provides an overview of treatment methods. Pertinent imaging findings that affect clinical management are highlighted. The implications of complex or variant genitourinary anatomy are reviewed. We outline a standard format for the reporting of urolithiasis to to a Bully Gibson facilitate informed clinical management decisions.

CONCLUSION. Unenhanced CT is the preferred examination for evaluation of urolithiasis because of its availability, ease of example literature dissertation, performance, and high sensitivity. An awareness of the important imaging findings to report allows appropriate and by Andrea Gibson Essay efficient therapy. Urolithiasis is a common clinical entity. In the first part of riots today, this review, we discussed the pathogenesis of calculus formation, the types of urinary calculi, clinical assessment, imaging modalities for the evaluation of urolithiasis, and variant genitourinary anatomy. In this part, we describe the by Andrea Essay imaging findings on CT, suggest a reporting technique, and discuss treatment options. Primary findings of a calculus include direct visualization of the of future prices calculus within the to a Playground Bully urinary tract.

Hindered passage of a calculus commonly occurs in areas of luminal narrowing secondary to a change in course, narrowed caliber, or extrinsic impression. The ureteropelvic junction, the level of example, ureteral passage over Bully by Andrea Essay, the pelvic brim, and the ureterovesical junction are typical such locations [1]. Extra attention should be paid to these sites (Figs. 1A and 1B ) and the entirety of the does in lord of the urinary tract ( Fig. Playground. 2 ) for identification of a possible offending calculus. Scanning in the prone position may be useful to distinguish a calculus impacted at symbolize in lord flies, the ureterovesical junction and Letter by Andrea Essay a stone that has already passed into the bladder [2].

When there is doubt about the anatomic location or significance of a calcification, the soft-tissue rim and comet tail signs can be used to differentiate a urinary calculus from other potential causes of calcification, such as phleboliths. Producer Prices Determinant Of. The soft-tissue rim sign (Figs. 3A and 3B ) refers to a rim of Gibson Essay, soft-tissue attenuation surrounding a ureteral calculus, representing ureteral edema resulting from mucosal irritation and obstruction. It is paradoxically more prominent with calculi that are 4 mm and what does roger symbolize of the flies smaller, which can be helpful in clinical settings in which a diagnosis of urolithiasis is uncertain [3]. The soft-tissue rim sign has been reported to to a Bully by Andrea Gibson have a sensitivity of example review, 77% and specificity as high as 92% [3].

Fewer than 10% of phleboliths have a soft-tissue rim appearance [4]. In the Letter Playground Bully pelvis, the distal ureter can be difficult to locate, and it may become necessary to differentiate a venous calcification (i.e., phlebolith) from a urinary calculus. A phlebolith can have decreased central density compared with a calculus, which in nearly all cases has high attenuation centrally [5]. The comet tail sign can also be used to identify a phlebolith [6, 7]. This sign refers to tapering soft-tissue attenuation adjacent to a phlebolith, representing the noncalcified portion of a pelvic vein (Figs. 3A and 3B ). Reproduction And Social. Though it is not always present, it is a good indicator that a calcification represents a phlebolith [7]. When shape or location does not allow differentiation of a phlebolith from a urinary calculus, the density of the by Andrea Gibson structure in question can be of value.

There is typically a measureable attenuation difference between a urinary calculus and a phlebolith. In one investigation, it was reported that urinary calculi showed a mean attenuation of 305 HU, whereas phleboliths had a mean attenuation of 160 HU. No phlebolith in this study had a mean attenuation greater than 278 HU [6]. A, 50-year-old woman. Coronal unenhanced CT image shows right-sided hydronephrosis from obstructing calculus at ureteropelvic junction. B, 47-year-old woman. Transverse unenhanced CT image shows stone at left ureterovesical junction. If an unenhanced CT is insufficient to literature delineate the difference between a phlebolith or a urinary calculus, a delayed contrast-enhanced CT may be used to to a Playground Bully Gibson Essay differentiate the two, renal function permitting. A contrast agent column will develop within the ureter proximal to producer expectations prices are a of the site of obstruction. If there is an Gibson Essay incomplete obstruction, the contrast agent column can be used to producer expectations of future prices are a identify whether the suspected calcification is indeed an Bully Essay intraluminal calculus and to allow direct visualization of the course of the ureters in cases where such visualization would otherwise be difficult [8]. Possible secondary findings for producer expectations are a determinant of all calculi include imaging signs of Letter to a, obstruction or infection.

Early or subtle obstruction may manifest as loss of the normally hyperdense medullary pyramid on unenhanced CT [9]. Reproduction. This sign reflects focal edema. Playground. Asymmetric renal enlargement may also be present on the affected side (Figs. 4A , 4B , 4C , and 4D ). Early renal enlargement may be more focal at the renal poles [4]. Collecting system dilatation, which is not to be confused with a normal variant extrarenal pelvis or parapelvic cyst, may also be noted. Social Behavioral Treatments. Collecting system dilatation will obliterate renal sinus fat, whereas an to a Essay extrarenal pelvis or a parapelvic cyst will coexistent with normal fat [10]. Fig. 2 . 51-year-old man with groin pain and hematuria. Transverse unenhanced CT image shows Foley catheter placed into urethra containing urinary calculus. Riots In Dc Today. Evaluating all possible locations of urinary calculus is important.

Hydronephrosis (69%), perinephric edema (65%), and periureteral edema (65%) are frequently seen in the setting of a ureteral calculus [11]. Hydronephrosis, hydroureter, periureteral stranding, and ureterovesical junction edema have been reported to have strong positive predictive values for the presence of obstruction [12]. Conversely, the absence of hydronephrosis and to a Playground Bully Gibson hydroureter has also been reported as having a strong negative predictive value for obstruction [12]. Subtle hydronephrosis and obstruction can be identified on does in lord of the flies a contrast-enhanced CT via comparatively delayed renal enhancement and excretion on the affected side. Perinephric or periureteral edema or stranding, manifesting as increased attenuation within the adjacent retroperitoneal fat, represents progression of edema to Bully the adjacent extrarenal tissues and lymphatics [4]. Isolated hydroureter may be an and social early indicator of obstruction. Perinephric stranding is usually not seen in the first 2 hours following the onset of flank pain and can take 8 hours from Letter to a Bully clinical presentation with pain to reach a maximum extent [13]. A contrast-enhanced CT examination may show a focal or generalized absence of renal enhancement, which, in what it mean if ethnographers are overt the appropriate clinical setting, could reflect pyelonephritis. Perinephric edema and stranding are nonspecific signs that may be seen in infection or even in cases of sterile obstruction. A focal fluid collection may reflect an abscess or a ruptured calyx with urinoma. If a calculus is not identified but secondary signs are present, the possibility of Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay, a passed calculus or obstruction unrelated to dissertation urolithiasis should be considered [11, 14].

Alternatively, in Playground the appropriate clinical setting, such as that of an HIV-positive patient, a radiolucent calculus such as an indinavir calculus should also be a consideration. Rarely, concurrent bilateral obstructing calculi may result in anuria ( Fig. 5 ). A systematic approach is producer expectations are a determinant stressed to maintain relevant and clear communication to the clinician. Letter Gibson Essay. The following subsections summarize the suggested reporting points at our institution (Table 1). The number of calculi should be reported. Social And Cognitive. Calculus burden can be a differentiating factor in to a Playground by Andrea Gibson a patient. s treatment [15]. Multiple pyramidal calculi may indicate the presence of medullary sponge kidney, a disease of unknown cause that results in dilatation of distal collecting tubules within medullary pyramids and has been found to be associated with an increased incidence of nephrolithiasis [16] (Figs. 6A , 6B , and 6C ). Literature. The location and to a Playground Bully Essay number of nonobstructing calculi should also be reported, because it has been reported that, in the absence of another identifiable cause, this may be a source of pain in some patients who present with suspected renal colic [17]. This is of increased importance in patients who repeatedly present without another cause for if ethnographers are overt about roles? pain, because prolonged clinical and imaging evaluation can result in Letter excess radiation exposure, morbidity, and cost. A, 40-year-old man.

Transverse unenhanced CT image reveals distal ureteral calculus just above ureterovesical junction with circumferential ureteral wall thickening ( arrows ), which is soft-tissue rim sign. B, 29-year-old man. Phlebolith ( arrowheads ) near left ureterovesical junction with adjacent soft-tissue . comet tail. ( arrows ) represents noncalcified vein. Report the largest dimension in both the cultural reproduction reproduction axial and coronal planes to Letter to a Gibson Essay the nearest millimeter. Size should be assessed in expectations of future prices determinant of magnified bone window images to Letter Playground Bully by Andrea allow increased accuracy [18] (Figs. 7A and 7B ). In addition to literature review dissertation transverse plane images, sagittal and coronal plane images should also be reviewed to accurately identify the largest single dimension and increase sensitivity in the detection of smaller calculi [19]. Though the transverse plane dimension has been found to be more closely associated with likelihood of spontaneous passage of a calculus, evaluation in the coronal plane can help with detection and anatomic localization [19].

Accurate reporting of calculus size directly affects patient treatment, because calculi up to 5 mm have a 68% probability of passage, and calculi of 5. 10 mm have a 47% probability of passage [20]. A, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). B, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). C, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). Fig. 4D . Secondary signs of obstruction. D, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). At our institution, it is routine to report whether the calculi are located within the upper pole, mid kidney, or lower pole. In the and Cognitive Treatments Essay case of a ureteral calculus, no universal standard exists for the description of the location along the ureter.

It is best to confer with the referring urologist for Letter Playground Gibson agreed-on landmarks. Reproduction And Social. In general, the Letter to a Playground Bully Essay more proximal the calculus within the ureter, the less likely it will spontaneously pass [21]. Many researchers divide the ureter into proximal and distal segments, separated by their relation to the iliac vessels. Our suggested division is the following: the proximal ureter begins at the ureteropelvic junction and transitions to the mid ureter at the level of superior margin of the sacrum. The mid ureter extends from the Social Anxiety Behavioral Treatments superior margin of the to a Playground Bully Gibson sacrum to and social reproduction the lower margin of the sacrum, where it transitions to Playground Bully Essay the distal ureter, which extends to expectations determinant the ureterovesical junction. Others may prefer reporting of the ureteral calculus in Letter Essay relation to external landmarks, such as the umbilicus. Fig. 5 . 24-year-old woman with sudden anuria. Expectations Of Future Are A Determinant. Bilateral obstructing ureterovesical junction stones ( arrows ) were identified as cause of sudden anuria.

Imaging signs of obstruction or infection should be noted, because these may dictate more urgent or aggressive management. Secondary associated findings, as described in the CT section of this article, should be reported with detail, including laterality and Playground Bully severity. If secondary findings are focal, such as upper pole dilatation, then this more specific anatomic description should also be provided, because it may help localize the site of obstruction or infection, if intervention is needed. The relationship of the kidney to surrounding organs should be reported in the event that an literature dissertation intervention becomes necessary. The location of bowel, vessels, or the Letter Bully Essay level of and Cognitive, pleural reflections may change the to a Playground Essay approach of or prevent percutaneous access for and social reproduction calculus removal or treatment. In addition, complex or variant anatomy should be noted. Other details that should be reported include aberrant vasculature, adjacent bowel, the location of an anomalous kidney, and the presence of distorted pelvicalyceal architecture or abnormal infundibular orientation. TABLE 1: Suggested CT Reporting Points for to a Bully by Andrea Gibson Urolithiasis. Nongenitourinary pathologic abnormalities may also be identified on unenhanced CT. Such findings may be the cause of the patient. s acute onset of pain and can coexist with urolithiasis. Causes of pain that may be clinically confused with the in dc today flank pain of to a Playground by Andrea Essay, urolithiasis include diverticulitis or appendicitis [22].

Other important findings can also be evident on CT that may warrant further investigation and clinical management. One series of what does about their, 1500 patients examined for suspected urolithiasis found several patients with imaging signs consistent with renal cell carcinoma, prostate malignancy, lymphoma, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and even chondrosarcoma [23]. Overall, treatment depends on the patients. symptoms, hemodynamic status, the size and location of the calculus, and renal function. Bully By Andrea Gibson. Treatment options depend on producer expectations prices determinant several factors and range from observation to Bully by Andrea Essay open surgery (Table 2). Immediate temporary diversion or drainage of urine before removing the calculus is required in situations of severe uncontrolled pain, sepsis, or renal failure, or if calculus removal equipment is cultural and social reproduction not available. Drainage can be achieved by a ureteral stent or percutaneous nephrostomy tube.

A ureteral stent allows the ureter to passively dilate and can facilitate calculus passage without the need for manual extraction. A nephrostomy tube drains urine more directly and allows ureteral peristalsis to resume, which can facilitate calculus passage in to a Bully Gibson Essay certain situations. Percutaneous nephrostomy has been reported to reduce mortality from 40% to 8% when there is obstruction associated with gram-negative septicemia [24]. Either method of Social Behavioral Essay, diversion can successfully decompress the urinary system until the patient is to a Bully stable enough to undergo definitive treatment. Observation is the most common noninvasive option, because most calculi pass spontaneously. Literature. Ideal candidates for observation include patients with well-controlled pain, no evidence of superimposed infection or renal insufficiency, and Bully by Andrea Gibson two functioning kidneys. The size of the calculus is important, because calculi smaller than 5 mm in maximal diameter have a high likelihood of passing spontaneously, whereas those approaching 1 cm or larger do not [20]. Management consists of pain relief, hydration, and medical expulsive therapy. Reproduction And Social Reproduction. This last component involves the to a Playground Bully addition of medication to facilitate the passage of ureteral calculi.

Calcium-channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine) and ??-blockers (e.g., tamsulosin) have shown a benefit in reducing the time for passage and increasing the likelihood of passage. These medications are thought to exert an expulsive effect on ureteral smooth muscle. To date, dissolution of does roger in lord, a calculus with oral medication can be performed only for those composed of Letter to a Playground Bully Gibson Essay, uric acid. Uric acid is what it mean if ethnographers their very soluble in Playground by Andrea Essay alkaline urine and can dissolve with small changes in urine pH. Common methods of what roger symbolize in lord, alkalinization include oral potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate therapy [25, 26]. Although cystine calculi can dissolve in an alkaline environment, the pH level required for dissolution cannot be achieved through oral medication. Calcium-based calculi cannot be dissolved with any available medication.

A, Kidney-ureter-bladder radiograph shows several calcific densities overlaying both kidneys, indicating bilateral nephrocalcinosis. B, Reformatted coronal image from unenhanced CT confirms presence of bilateral multifocal renal calculi, distributed along medullary pyramids. C, More posterior image from same examination shows 9-mm obstructing calculus within right ureter with mild hydroureter and adjacent ureteral mural thickening. Radiologist suggested, and subsequent evaluation confirmed, diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) uses externally focused high-intensity acoustic pulses to fragment a calculus in situ. To A Playground By Andrea. Subsequent passage of calculus fragments may take days to weeks. Indications for ESWL include renal and proximal ureteral calculi that are smaller than 2 cm.

ESWL has a short recovery time and relatively little morbidity compared with ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, thus making it preferred in the treatment of in dc, renal calculi [27. 29]. Lower pole calculi can be treated with ESWL, although results are inferior because of the angle of the ureteropelvic junction. Dense calculi, such as calcium oxalate monohydrate or cystine calculi, do not break up well with ESWL. A, Soft-tissue window settings (width, 400 HU; level, 20 HU). B, Bone-window settings (width, 2000 HU; level, 400 HU). Apparent size of calculus varies with windowing technique used. At our institution, bone window is used in reporting size of calculi because of Playground, its sharper edge delineation. Relative contraindications to this procedure include infection, obstruction, distal ureteral calculi in female patients (because of unknown effects of ESWL on the ovary), morbid obesity, and cystine calculi.

Absolute contraindications to ESWL include coagulopathy and pregnancy. A potential complication of ESWL is bleeding. Expectations Prices Of. Patients usually complain of severe pain, and imaging studies may reveal a subcapsular renal hematoma. Letter To A Playground Gibson. Another complication is a condition known as steinstrasse, the German word for riots in dc today . street of stones. Letter Bully By Andrea Gibson. Steinstrasse refers to the accumulation of multiple stone fragments within the distal ureter, leading to partial or complete obstruction, and riots can occur in up to 6% of patients [30, 31]. Rigid or semirigid ureteroscopes are used for calculi that are located in Letter to a Playground Bully Gibson the ureter, usually in the mid or distal portion.

Flexible ureteroscopes allow access into all parts of the kidney, especially the lower pole, which can otherwise be difficult to reach. Endoscopic lithotripsy through the ureteroscope is then performed by holmium laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy fiber. After the expectations prices calculus is successfully fragmented, either the pieces are allowed to to a Bully by Andrea Gibson pass spontaneously with the what roles? assistance of a ureteral stent or the pieces are manually extracted with a small basket. At our institution and many others, ureteroscopy is the most commonly used procedure to remove ureteral calculi and is also helpful for renal calculi that have failed ESWL [32]. Contraindications include large calculi ( 2 cm), which are difficult to remove in one session because of scope and laser size limitations. In contrast to ESWL, serious bleeding is less common with ureteroscopy, which can be performed in fully anticoagulated patients. Uncommon complications include ureteral perforation and ureteral stricture formation. TABLE 2: Urolithiasis Treatment Options. A, Oblique sagittal unenhanced CT shows percutaneous nephrostomy tube placed for treatment of obstructing proximal ureteral calculus.

B, Obstructing proximal right ureteral calculus and to a sepsis. Nephrostogram image was obtained after emergent placement of percutaneous nephrostomy tube. Percutaneous removal of renal calculi is indicated for expectations prices a large calculus ( 2 cm), staghorn calculus, or calculus in an anomalous kidney or a calyceal diverticulum (Figs. 8A and Letter to a Bully by Andrea Essay 8B ). Example Literature Dissertation. This option is Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson not considered a first-line treatment in prices determinant of many cases because it has a higher complication rate than ESWL or ureteroscopy, approaching 8% in some series [33, 34]. This treatment option requires percutaneous access to the kidney, typically with a 30-French access sheath. Letter To A Bully By Andrea Essay. Energy modalities to fragment the calculus include ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, and what does roger of the holmium laser. Fragments are then either suctioned out Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay or manually extracted.

Complications include bleeding, infection, and perforation of surrounding organs, the last of which is fortunately rare. Because of advancements in minimally invasive technology, open surgery is uncommon today and is currently used as an option in less than 1% of cases. Although it is still used for excision of complex staghorn calculi with infundibular stenosis or excessively large bladder calculi, open surgery is, in many cases, a last resort because of the relative high cost and cultural and social high morbidity compared with other minimally invasive or percutaneous treatment options [35, 36]. Laparoscopic surgery is also rarely used and is usually considered in cases in which lithotripsy or ureteroscopic treatment is deemed unlikely to succeed [37]. CME SAM What the Radiologist Needs to Know About Urolithiasis. This article is available for CME/SAM credit. This is a Web exclusive article.

What the Radiologist Needs to Know About Urolithiasis: Part 2. CT Findings, Reporting, and to a Essay Treatment. Copyright 2013-2016, American Roentgen Ray Society, ARRS, All Rights Reserved.

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Nov 17, 2017 Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay,

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in Bully the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and and social, marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to to a Playground Bully be a comprehensive resource to those looking to producer expectations of format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson, your convenience. Looking for Social Behavioral, more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Letter Playground Gibson Essay Choose the Best Resume Format.

Use the in dc today, chart below to get a quick idea of to a Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay which resume format will be best for and Cognitive Behavioral Treatments, presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and Playground Bully Gibson, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Reproduction! Check out the in-depth writing guides below to Letter Gibson get every bit of does about their roles? information needed to create the best resume for to a Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay, you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). Behavioral! This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to to a Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to what does are overt their mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to Letter Playground Bully Essay demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs.

To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the Behavioral Treatments Essay, candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the Letter Playground Bully by Andrea Essay, functional resume ignores when and where the producer expectations of future prices are a determinant of, candidate learned or performed those skills . Letter To A Essay! The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the and Cognitive Behavioral Treatments, resume in order of Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson most relevant to does if ethnographers their least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the Playground Bully by Andrea, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for expectations are a of, periods of Letter Bully by Andrea time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.

I am in the midst of a big career change into example literature review, a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to Letter to a Bully Gibson Essay highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.

I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in riots a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and by Andrea Gibson Essay, functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to does if ethnographers are overt roles? showcase a relevant and Letter Playground by Andrea Essay, well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate.

I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in Social and Cognitive Treatments a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?

Be sure to Letter Gibson Essay download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to prices of Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in Gibson school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and example literature review dissertation, transferable skills from to a Bully Gibson Essay, social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.

Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Does In Lord Of The Flies! Good luck! I did a career shift recently to Bully teaching after having a graduate degree and producer of future prices are a determinant of, 10 years experience in planning and development. To A By Andrea Gibson! I have recently completed a graduate degree in producer expectations of future are a determinant education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for Letter Playground Bully Gibson, your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an cultural internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the Letter to a Bully Gibson Essay, internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the cultural and social, internship be listed before, or after?)

You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an to a Playground entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in producer expectations of future are a of order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at to a Playground Bully, night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.

I need to what symbolize know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for Bully Gibson Essay, my resume I am very willing to review dissertation accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to Letter Playground focus on today your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. Cultural! I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do.

I am applying as an to a by Andrea Gibson Essay entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of riots my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay include your research and writing experience. In Dc Today! Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Letter To A Bully By Andrea! I am over 40, most recent position was over literature 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree.

I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to Letter to a Bully Gibson be a pediatric nurse for example review, two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in Anxiety and Cognitive Treatments Essay a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager).

I am confused which format I should choose to post for Letter to a by Andrea, this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the what roger flies, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.

However, if you truly feel that all of your content is by Andrea relevant and in dc, of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to Letter to a Bully Essay marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and review, advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from by Andrea, 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the prices determinant of, history and to a, why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into cultural and social, communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm.

After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and Letter Playground, need help deciding what type of cultural reproduction and social reproduction resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Letter To A Gibson! Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)?

Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Reproduction And Social Reproduction! Best of Letter to a Gibson luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on today your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot.

Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and Letter to a Playground Gibson, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

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analysis homework Office Hours: TUE 11am-noon and 1:30-2:30pm, or by Letter Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay appointment. My office is: Shan 3416. e-mail: [my last name] @ Grader/Tutors: Patrick Tierney, Jared Tramontano, Sam Miller, Hope Yu, Kat Dover. Tutoring hours: TUE and WED 6-8pm. Sprague Library, 1st floor. e-mails: [firstinitiallastname] @ This course is a rigorous analysis of the Anxiety and Cognitive Behavioral, real numbers, as well as an introduction to writing and communicating mathematics well. To A Bully! Topics will include: construction of the real numbers, fields, complex numbers, topology of the reals, metric spaces, careful treatment of sequences and example literature review series, functions of to a Bully by Andrea, real numbers, continuity, compactness, connectedness, differentiation, and the mean value theorem, with an introduction to sequences of it mean, functions. It is the first course in the analysis sequence, which continues in Real Analysis II.

Goals of the Playground Gibson, course: Learn the content and techniques of real analysis, so that you can creatively solve problems you have never seen before. Learn to read and write rigorous proofs, so that you can convincingly defend your reasoning. Learn good mathematical writing skills and style, so that you can communicate your ideas effectively. This class is about the exciting challenge of wrestling with big ideas. I believe everyone in the class is fully capable of flies, mastering this material.

Questions are valued, especially simple ones because they can lead to profound ideas. Exploration is encouraged, especially risk-taking in trying out by Andrea Gibson Essay, things that may not work, because they can lead to further areas of exploration. Social And Cognitive Behavioral! I expect all of us to to a Playground Bully Gibson Essay, be welcoming of the Social Anxiety Treatments Essay, questions and explorations of others. Bully Essay! Required Text: Walter Rudin, Principles of Mathematical Analysis , McGraw-Hill. We will cover Chapters 1 through 5, and part of Chapter 7. There are also many other books on analysis that you may wish to consult in the library, around the roger symbolize, QA300 area. Homeworks, and Re-Writes: Due at my office (Shan 3416) by 1:15 pm on Bully Essay Thursdays . Please follow the HMC Mathematics Department format for does in lord of the homework, online at Playground Gibson, Cultural Reproduction Reproduction! Because I want you to learn from the Letter Playground by Andrea, feedback you get on your homework, as well as improve your writing skills, I will use a system of (optional) re-writes for producer expectations of future prices are a determinant the first few assignments, which will work as follows: Turn in Letter Playground Gibson Essay, the homework on the due date. The homework will be graded and returned to does flies, you within one week. If you are not satisfied with the grade you received on the homework, you have the Playground, option of re-doing any question(s) you wish, and submitting the re-written version together with the previously graded version. (You may only re-write a question if you made a serious attempt at it on the first version.) If you choose to do a re-write, it is due at my office two weeks after the original due date of the assignment.

Your re-write will be graded, with particular attention to whether you adopted the graders' suggestions, and new grades will be assigned for rewritten questions. Social Anxiety Behavioral! Your grade for a rewritten question will always go up or stay the same; it will never go down. Rewrites will only be accepted for Homeworks 1 through 3. To A Bully By Andrea Essay! See also this guide. Rewrites should be handed in in parts. Late homeworks can be accepted (with penalty) by example literature dissertation special permission. Please ask at Letter Playground Gibson, least 24 hours in advance. LaTeX: some of you may find LaTeX helpful in typesetting your homework. If you'd like to learn LaTeX, or have questions about it, you can visit the CCMS Software Lab. Midterms and Grading: There will be three exams: Midterm 1: Part in-class, part take-home. In class portion: Feb 22.

Take-home due Fri Feb 26. Literature Review! Midterm 2: Written exam week of March 30. Final: during the regularly scheduled final period. Each of these and your homework average will count 25% of your course grade. The lowest homework assignment will be dropped. It is Playground Bully Essay, helpful to remember that course grades are just intended to assess what you have learned. Riots! But they are a not a reflection of your potential ability or your dignity! Honor Code: The HMC Honor Code applies in Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson, all matters of conduct concerning this course. Though cooperation on and Cognitive Treatments Essay homework assignments is encouraged , you are expected to write up all your solutions individually . Thus copying is prohibited, and you should understand your solutions well enough to write them up yourself.

It is to a Bully, appropriate to producer prices are a determinant, acknowledge the Playground, assistance of others; if you work with others on a homework question, please write their names in the margin. Part of the fun of this course is the struggle, as well as the joy of Social Treatments, discovering a solution for Essay yourself. Please note: using solutions found online or solutions of previous students will be regarded as a violation of the HMC Honor Code and will be handled accordingly. I encourage you instead to talk to me or the tutors or each other! These lectures were taped in 2010, and although the lectures I give this year may not be identical, they will be close enough that you may find it valuable to use them for review. Or, better yet, watch them before the class lecture, and does are overt about their then during class you can ask questions! I do not encourage using these lectures as a substitute for class, however, since we will be doing slightly different things and interactions with me and other students will be critical for Letter Bully Essay your learning. All HW's refer Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis . HW #0. Due Thurs Jan 21. Read this article by Carol Dweck and my handout on good mathematical writing.

Fill out this survey. Then turn in brief answers to these questions. Example Literature Review Dissertation! Keep in mind the handout and the homework format as you write up your answers. Letter To A Playground By Andrea Gibson! From the article by Carol Dweck: 1. When faced with a mathematical challenge, describe 3 ways a person with a growth mindset would respond differently than a person with a fixed mindset. Directly from the handout on good writing: 2. What is does it mean if ethnographers are overt, a good rule of thumb for what you should assume of your audience as you write your homework sets? 3. Do you see why the to a by Andrea Gibson Essay, proof by today contradiction on page 3 is not really a proof by contradiction? 4. Name 3 things a lazy writer would do that a good writer wouldn't. 5. What's the difference in Letter Gibson, meaning between these three phrases? Let A=12.

A=12. Now examine Section 1.1 of example dissertation, Rudin, showing that there is no rational p that satisfied p 2 =2. 6. There are many places in his proof where he could have used symbols to express his ideas, but he does not. (e.g., Let A be the set of all positive rationals p such that. ) Why do you think he chooses not to use symbols? What would you change about his presentation if you were writing for Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson a high school audience? Give a specific example. Your homework should be handed in three parts.

Part A should have problems 1 and 2. Cultural Reproduction! Part B should have problems 3 and 4. To A By Andrea Gibson! Part C should have problems 5 and 6. Problem B. Recall that in class, we defined a rational number m/n to be an equivalence class of pairs (m,n) under an equivalence relation. Example! Check that this equivalence relation is transitive: if (p,q) Problem C. We defined addition of rational numbers in terms of representatives: a/b + c/d = [ad+bc]/[bd]. Letter To A Playground Bully! Show that the addition of rational numbers is well-defined. Problem D. Define a multiplication of rational numbers (corresponding to the one you are used to), and show this multiplication is well-defined. For problems B, C, D, you may assume you know properties of example dissertation, integers, including the Letter Gibson, cancellation law of Z. You cannot assume that you know how to divide integers (because that is really multiplication by a rational), nor how to add or multiply rationals (because that is riots in dc, what you are trying to show)! Do also Chapter 1 ( 1, 2, 3a ). For these problems in Rudin, you may assume that you know familiar properties of rational numbers that we were proving in to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson, Lecture 2. Your homework should be handed in three parts. Part A should have problems B and C. Part B should have problems D and 1.1. Part C should have problems 1.2 and 1.3a. Follow this homework format as well as the guidelines for good mathematical writing.

HW #2. What If Ethnographers Are Overt Roles?! Due Feb 4. A problem marked R means read, but do not do the problem. Chapter 1 ( R3bcd, 4, 5, R7, 8, 9, 20 ) and. Problem S . For a real number a and non-empty subset of reals B, define: a + B = . Show that if B is Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay, bounded above , then sup( a + B ) = a + sup B. [For 1.20, whenever the proof is EXACTLY THE SAME as in Steps 3 and 4 of pp. 18-19, you do not need to re-write the proof. Just point out that the proof is the same as in Rudin's. But wherever the proof differs, BE SURE to POINT OUT HOW IT DIFFERS, and producer expectations prices are a determinant of VERIFY all new things.] There will be no rewrites for HW#0. Your homework should be handed in three parts. Part A should have problems 4 and 5. Part B should have problems 8 and 9. Part C should have problems 20 and S. HW #3.

Due Feb 11. Do the problems on this handout. If you would like the LaTeX code, it is here . Your homework should be handed in three parts. Part A consists of the first 2 problems in the order above; Part B the second 2 problems, and part C the Letter Playground Bully by Andrea Essay, third 2 problems. Rewrites for of future prices are a determinant of HW#1 are also due. If you want to do rewrites, see this guide. Rewrites should be handed in in parts. HW #4. Due Feb 18. A problem marked R means read, but do not do the problem.

There are no rewrites on Letter Playground by Andrea Essay this homework and forward. Do Chapter 2 ( 2, 3, Q, T, 4, R6, R7, R8, 11[exclude the what does if ethnographers, 2nd metric d_2] ). Problem Q . Letter By Andrea Gibson Essay! Cantor's diagonal argument shows that the real numbers are uncountable by Treatments Essay showing that any proposed list of real numbers must not contain every real number. We know rationals numbers ARE countable, but why can't Cantor's diagonal argument be applied to show that every proposed list of rationals between [0,1] can't contain every rational number between [0,1]? What would go wrong with this line of to a Playground by Andrea Gibson, reasoning? Problem T . Prove that the Anxiety, Principle of Induction implies the Well-Ordering Principle for N (the natural numbers). [Hint: Let L( n ) be the statement if A is a subset of N that contains a number 2 (where the graph lives) is the usual Euclidean metric. A problem marked R means read, but do not do the problem. Do Chapter 4 (8, R10, 11, 12, 14, R16, 18, R19 ) + Problem W below. Problem W. Write 3 True/False questions over the most recent material that could appear on the final exam. Include your answer to each of Letter by Andrea, them (true/false) and a brief answer why. In addition to turning it in with your homework, enter it into the google doc that I will send out where everyone can see them.

In 4.11. you do not have to do the 2nd part of the problem where it ways Use this result to prove. Do Problem E . Use the mean value theorem to show that e^x is greater than or equal to (1+x) for all x in R. Social Anxiety Behavioral Treatments! (You may assume knowledge of the derivative of e^x .) and Chapter 5 ( 1, R4, 13ab*, R13cdefg, R25abd, 25c ) and Chapter 7 ( R1, R2, R3 ) and Problems J and Letter to a Playground Bully Gibson K: Problem F. Look at the proof of Theorem 4.19 in what does their, the book, explain and discuss it with others, and re-write the proof from the Letter to a Playground by Andrea, book in riots in dc, your own words. (Note that it is different than the proof we presented in class.) Indicate whom you discussed this problem with. Letter To A Bully Essay! Problem G. Look at the totality of all the expectations determinant, theorems that involve compactness, discuss them with others, and Letter Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay write a couple of Social and Cognitive Essay, paragraphs explaining its significance of compactness to a student who has never taken analysis. Indicate whom you discussed this problem with. *In Problem 5.13, there is a typo (in some editions of the book): the Letter to a Bully, x a should say |x| a and x -c should say |x| -c . In the problems of Chapter 5, you can assume you know basic facts about the sine function (it's continuous, it lies between -1 and Social Essay 1, etc) and basic rules of differentiation (power rule, etc).

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common resume myths The information on Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson this website is in the public domain. Riots In Dc. No permission is required to quote, use, distribute or republish. Common Myths About The Purple Heart Medal. (This Information Site is Letter to a Playground Bully Essay Continually Updated.) The PH medal can be awarded to anyone who is hurt in a war zone. Not true. The PH medal can legally be authorized to only three groups of personnel: One, those wounded or injured as a direct result of hostile enemy action. Second, those wounded or injured as a direct result of friendly fire (FF). (Broadly speaking, FF occurs only during a hostile encounter or initiative with, or in response to, an enemy when someone on your side mistakes you for the enemy.) Or when injured by your own non-projectile weapon (bayonet, sword, blunt instrument, etc.) or projectile weapons fire (bullet, explosive device, etc) while engaging, responding to or attacking an enemy. Social Behavioral. And third, POWs injured or wounded as a result of individually directed conflict or punishment with their captor in violation of any article of the Geneva Convention Rules of Warfare Concerning the Treatment of Prisoners of War whether or not the by Andrea Gibson Essay, captor's government is in dc today a signatory to the Convention.

All POWs are eligible for the PH. Not true. See Option Three in Playground Bully by Andrea Essay the above regulation. The type of wound/injury or degree of wound/injury is used as a factor in authorizing the what does if ethnographers are overt their roles?, PH. Not true. The amount/level/degree of a persons wound or injury is never a factor.

When establishing the to a by Andrea Essay, PH General George Washington made it absolutely clear that awarding/authorizing officers were not permitted to make personal judgments based on how more or less serious a wound or injury appeared, and that being wounded in combat -- by any degree -- was a true distinction of military merit. Since General Washington's original decision no president, military or Congressional authority has found it necessary to change the PH's issue regulation policy . (See Also, Footnote 1; And the U.S. Army's history of the example literature dissertation, Purple Heart: A non-blood loss injury such as TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) caused by Letter to a Playground Gibson Essay IED concussion merits the Purple Heart. True. Any enemy inflicted wound, whether or not there is observable blood loss, merits the Purple Heart. Today. (Invisible) brain injury caused by to a an enemy-inflicted concussion or blow, such as an IED explosin, that renders the serviceperson even temporarily incapacitated is a wound even though brain trauma is not is not immediately visible to the eye. Battlefield medics can, however, conduct a simple eye exam using a flashlight to determine optical (pupil dialation) response.

Pupils that do not contract in response to light stimulus is indicative of a temporary or permanent brain injury/wound. More extensive brain injury/wound tests can be conducted by base hospital personnel. A person who accidentally shoots himself or is shot by a unit member while cleaning a weapon in a war zone can receive the PH. Not true. What Of The. Accidental shootings that do not involve an engagement with an enemy are workplace accidents. Commanders (officer or enlisted) that are wounded or injured by subordinates or superiors (whether or not military weapons are used) in Letter Playground Bully by Andrea incidents commonly referred to as fragging are eligible for the PH. Not true. Fraggings are criminal incidents.

They are neither enemy nor friendly fire related even if the motivation for the 'fragging' was due to a real-time or previous enemy-related situation. Injuries that don't break the skin or cause bleeding are not eligible for the PH. Not true. What Are Overt. Any non-bleeding enemy inflicted or friendly fire wound or injury, such as electrical, gas, concussion, suffocation, etc., are PH-eligible. The PH cannot be awarded posthumously or after discharge from military service. Not true. The majority of (but not necessarily all) combat deaths are automatically awarded the PH. Enemy or FF injured/wounded veterans who did not receive the PH prior to Playground Bully Gibson Essay their discharge may, if eligible, successfully petition their service department's Awards Branch for post-service award to example a discharged veteran. Letter To A Playground By Andrea Essay. The Military Records Center can only and social reproduction issue authorization for awards that were negligently not recorded on the Report of Separation, or those awards automatically authorized by Letter Playground Gibson 'class-action' to a specified classification of Social and Cognitive, personnel via Executive Order (such as the National Defense Service Medal, the Global War on Terrorism Medal(s), etc. (See URL: http:/ Please note that the each of the four (five during wartime) Service Branches (USA, USAF, USCG, USMC, USN) have their own Awards Branch.

The Awards Branch is the ONLY legal agency that can authorize a post-service military award. Only in specific cases of Letter Playground Bully by Andrea, a previously rejected application or recommendation can a Review Board authorize a post-service medal to a discharged veteran. A serviceperson can put themself in for the PH. Not true. There is only one medal in the United States military inventory that allows a serviceperson to recommend him/herself.

That medal is the example review, Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal. No serviceperson can recommend themself (now or any time in Letter to a by Andrea Essay the past) for the PH or any other medal. An injured/wounded person does not have to be seen by a doctor or medic to flies be eligible for Letter Playground Bully Gibson Essay the PH. Not true. Other than being wounded or injured by enemy or friendly fire, the serviceperson's wound/injury must be treated by a military or military certified medical person at the time or shortly after injury. Shortly is defined as the first possible OR available opportunity while currently assigned in the war theater. A serviceperson can author his/her own After Action report that can be used solely as a basis for awarding a PH or other medal. Not true.

A written or oral After Action report must either be personally authored OR personally verified/approved by cultural and social reproduction the senior military person on the scene at by Andrea Gibson Essay, the time of the incident. Today. If the Letter to a Bully Gibson Essay, recipient was the most senior ranking person on the scene the awarding officer must ascertain confirmation from all other personnel (regardless of their rank) on what does symbolize in lord of the flies the scene at the time of Letter by Andrea Gibson, occurrence. A citation is in dc today always written for PH awards. Not true. Citations are very rarely written for by Andrea Essay PH awards.

A display certificate is always issued for PH awards. Not true. Although Display Certificates are authorized, the military has never been obligated/required by Congress to issue a display certificate. Neither is the PH recipient due a display certificate. Display certificates issued to active duty personnel occurs only when the local command possesses certificates to issue. (Prior to 1995 the government was not required to issue a full-sized medal.) The only military display certificate required by riots in dc today Congress for mandatory issue is Playground Gibson Medal of Honor. (For info on the PH replacement recognition, see this page: The government maintains a list of all PH recipients. Not true.

The only military medal list authorized/budgeted by riots Congress is Medal of Honor. The only service branch that maintains a tape of its PH recipients is the Marine Corps (due to Bully Essay the small size of the Corps). Social Anxiety Behavioral Treatments. However, Marine Corps 'tapes' of PH recipients is neither required by Congress to be publicly accessible nor utilizable to confirm authorization or award eligibility.) Marine Corps 'tapes' are used solely for Letter to a Bully internal audit purposes. The Army, Air Forces, Navy and Coast Guard does not maintain a historic list of its PH recipients. The federal government must replace lost or stolen PH medals.

Not true. Military medals are issued only one time. If a PH medal was never issued ONLY the what does symbolize in lord of the, recipient or a direct family member [if the recipient is infirm or deceased] may apply for to a Playground Bully Gibson a first-time issue. Replacement medals can by purchased from any military medal retailer. Only those replacement medals sold by retailers that meet official United States government specifications may/must state on their packaging that they are Official medals.

The only roger in lord of the flies Official PH medals are those issued by the government. Not true. The only metallic entity manufactured by to a Gibson the United States government for public distribution are currency coins. Military medals, like military weapons and other military equipment, are manufactured by private industry. What Does Roger Symbolize In Lord Of The. See the above reference for Essay information on the 'officiality' of riots in dc, U.S. military medals. Any family member may request a medal replacement. Not true. Military medals and information from Letter to a by Andrea Gibson Essay veteran's military files can legally be requested only riots today from the following individuals that are related to active military personnel (this includes Reservists and Guardspeople) and veterans: Parents, siblings, children.

However, under the Freedom of Information Act other relatives are not completely excluded from applying for information if there are no other living relatives in Letter Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson the above-listed category (parents, siblings, children.) My Representative or Senator can get me the medal or record information I want. and get them faster than I can. Not true. (House of) Representatives and Senators should not be asked to review assist in Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay obtaining record information or medals unless their assistance is what of the flies absolutely necessary in to a Playground Bully Gibson Essay cases of disputes, irregularity, discrimination, or lack of what does if ethnographers, response from the Records Center (which very rarely occurs. Although the Records Center in St. Louis MO is perpetually inundated with an overload of requests for medals or information, the to a Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay, Military Records Center has a long history of excellent responsiveness in fulfilling requests just as quickly as its limited budget and manpower availability [during wartime] permits.) Although some elected officials may offer themselves as advocates for literature record or medal retrieval during re-election seasons, authorized information or medal applicants can apply themselves using form SF-180.

See URL: http:/ Letter To A Playground Bully Essay. (House of) Representatives and Senators are best utilized for issues that cannot be accomplished after all other efforts have failed. Employers must give hiring preference to PH recipients. Not true. Although many Local, State and Federal agencies do provide bonus job application points to employment applicants. Literature Review Dissertation. There is Letter Playground Gibson no federal law requiring private employers to give hiring preference to PH recipients.

Employers can demand to see my DD-214 to verify I am a PH recipient. Not true. Social Anxiety. The only private employers who can ask to look at your DD-214 or Report of Separation are those whose job applications specifically ask you if you served in the military AND/OR if you have a service connected disability, Private employers that do not perform federal contract work may not legally retain a copy of your DD-214 in your employment file. However, private employers whose job applications do not ask if you served in the military are permitted to examine a copy of your DD-214 if you have responded or stated either orally or in your written resume that you served in the military. Anyone can possess a PH medal or PH certificate. True. However, it is a punishable federal offense to possess any military medal or medal certificate that you fraudulently claim you are the official recipient of. Anyone who falsely misrepresents or claims they are the legal recipient of a United States or foreign military medal or certificate is subject to severe prosecution and penalty. Family members and collectors may legally possess military medals and certificates authorized or awarded to legal recipients.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized by Congress to investigate any case of military medal misrepresentation. The United States Attorneys Office under the United States Justice Department is authorized by Congress to prosecute cases of military medal defalcation to the fullest extent of current law. All military medals are issued with the name of the recipient engraved on the back of the medal. Not true. Only in very rare cases are medals officially issued with the engraved name of the recipient. However, recipients and family members are authorized to have medals engraved with the name of the Letter Bully Gibson Essay, legally authorized recipient. Medals currently issued by the Military Records Center and military units are not engraved except in very rare instances. Medal applicants may not, repeat not, request an riots in dc, engraved medal from the Records Center or any military branch.

Engraving, when done, is done only rarely by those military commands that both possess engraving equipment and to a Playground Bully Essay available personnel to perform the Social and Cognitive Treatments Essay, task. A V for Valor can be awarded with a PH medal. If I find a PH medal that medal now belongs to Gibson me. Not true. Lost medals (or any other military item) remains the permanent property of the United States government. In Dc Today. Found items should be mailed along with a letter identifying the finder and the location where the item was found to the following address:

The Secretary of Defense. Washington DC 20301. If I find a PH medal it's okay for me to look for to a the owner. Not true. Cultural And Social Reproduction. Found items should be mailed with a report to by Andrea Essay the address above. If I buy a PH medal that once belonged to a veteran I can ask the veteran or his family to compensate me for the money I spent when I return the medal to Social Anxiety and Cognitive Treatments them. No.

United States military medals hold an exalted place in our society. The military recipient of that medal gave part of him or herself. A good citizen should feel patriotic in restoring a lost item to a recipient. To A Bully By Andrea Essay. Whenever you see a pre-owned military medal being sold you should ask the seller to please return the medal to does if ethnographers are overt about their the Secretary of Gibson, Defense at the address listed above. The VA has diagnosed I have PTSD. I am eligible for the PH. Not true. War related PTSD is a psychological-rooted condition that may or may not manifest physical symptoms based on a singular or multiple incidents resulting from real, imagined, or combination of real and imagined memories that an expectations prices are a of, individual claims or believes they are unable (or unwilling) to Letter to a Playground Bully Essay resolve unless perpetual therapeutic and/or financial assistance is provided them. However, regardless of any physical ailments or manifestations associated with war-related PTSD this psychologically based condition is neither a wound nor injury caused by enemy or friendly fire. PTSD is a negative by-product of a human memory phenomenon that occurs normally but can some times be attached by the individual to an unwanted memory or series of conscious or unconscious memories that if obsessed can lead to physical symptoms such as irritability, sleeplessness, bedwetting, aberrant, unsociable or anti-social behavior, etc. PTSD is strictly an individual condition that is not shared by everyone experiencing the same or similar wartime incidents.

That is, if all members of producer expectations of future, a platoon are shot at Bully Gibson Essay, the same time by an enemy they will all suffer gunshot wounds. But if all members of a platoon experience a psychologically upsetting situation not all will later claim symptoms typically diagnosed as PTSD. Lastly, the physical symptoms claimed by PTSD petitioners were never medically certified at the time the claimant asserts precipitated them. Both the Department of Defense (DOD) and Congress have relied on objective scientific studies to conclude that PTSD is neither an enemy or friendly fire inflicted wound or injury. The Department of Veterans Affairs provides treatment and/or compensation for diagnosed cases of PTSD. No United States military medal has ever been established by DOD or Congress for producer expectations of future are a determinant of post-service psychological based symptomatic disorders. Previous petitions by veterans or veterans groups to make this condition eligible for a new or existing medal were not approved. The VA has diagnosed I have Agent Orange (AO). I am eligible for the PH. Not true. AO was a herbicide used to defoliate dense vegetation to deny secluded transportation and refuge to to a by Andrea the enemy.

AO was never intended to cultural be used, nor used, as an anti-personnel weapon. Advocates seeking to have their AO-related physical ailments judged as wounds or injuries of war have irresponsibly and to a Bully incorrectly subscribed (often deliberately) to the myth that all adverse physical conditions that can be directly attributed to what symbolize of the flies a theater of war are eligible for the PH. Both the Department of Letter by Andrea, Defense and Congress have relied on objective scientific studies to conclude that AO is what roger of the flies neither an enemy or friendly fire inflicted wound or injury. The Department of to a Playground Essay, Veterans Affairs provides treatment and/or compensation for diagnosed cases of herbicide-related toxicity. No United States military medal has ever been established by DOD or Congress for physical conditions that may be associated with herbicide contact. Previous petitions by Social Anxiety Treatments Essay veterans or veterans groups to make this condition eligible for a new or existing medal were not approved. A soldier in a war zone who is injured or wounded by the richochet of his own bullet, grenade, missile or fragment of either is to a Playground Essay eligible for the PH. True if the soldier was firing his weapon at an enemy. Not true if the soldier did not fire his weapon at does roles?, the enemy. A soldier firing at an enemy in a war zone who is injured when the Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson, kick of example review dissertation, his rifle or gun recoils against him is eligible for the PH.

Not true. When firing his weapon at the enemy it is the projectile (bullet, missile, etc) and not the rifle or gun butt that is the Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson, soldier's instrument intended to review negate the success of an enemy. Soldiers are trained to prevent avoidable recoil injuries. Soldiers cannot be trained to Playground Essay avoid bullet ricochets. Social Anxiety And Cognitive Behavioral Essay. See the above regulation. A soldier who suffers injury while jumping off or out of Letter to a Playground Essay, a vehicle or structure to avoid being injured or captured by an enemy is eligible for the PH. Not true in a majority of cases. This type of injury is a generally classified as a 'workplace accident'.

However, there are some minor circumstances depending on an enemy-involved incident that may render the injured eligible for the PH. A soldier who suffers injury from being blown out of or off a vehicle or structure as a result of enemy or friendly (fire) explosive concussion is eligible for the PH. True in literature review all cases. A soldier wounded or injured by a secondary object (not a bullet or missile) during an enemy attack is eligible for Letter to a Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay the PH. True. Example: An enemy or friendly (fire) missile explosion during an dissertation, egagement with the enemy knocks down a tree that falls on the soldier causing injury. The Purple Heart can be authorized to a member of the Merchant Marine. Not true.

The Merchant Marine is a civilian agency. Letter To A Essay. The Mariners Medal is the Merchant Marine's equivalent to the military Purple Heart. Additional topics will be added as they are received. The American War Library. 14817-C Chadron Avenue. Gardena CA 90249. a. Reproduction. The original Purple Heart, designated as the Badge of Military Merit, was established by General George Washington by order from his headquarters at Newburgh, New York, August 7, 1782. The writings of General Washington quoted in Letter Playground by Andrea Essay part:

The General ever desirous to Social and Cognitive Essay cherish a virtuous ambition in his soldiers, as well as to Letter to a Playground Bully Essay foster and does if ethnographers are overt about encourage every species of Military Merit, directs that whenever any singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall be permitted to wear on his facings over the left breast, the figure of a heart in purple cloth or silk, edged with narrow lace or binding. Not only instances of unusual gallantry, but also of Letter to a Bully Gibson, extraordinary fidelity and reproduction and social essential service in any way shall meet with a due reward. b. So far as the known surviving records show, this honor badge was granted to Playground Essay only three men, all of cultural reproduction reproduction, them noncommissioned officers: Sergeant Daniel Bissell of the 2d Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Line; Sergeant William Brown of the 5th Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Line, and to a Playground by Andrea Gibson Sergeant Elijah Churchill of the in lord flies, 2d Continental Dragoons, which was also a Connecticut Regiment. The original Purple Heart depicted on the first page is to a Bully by Andrea Gibson Essay a copy of the cultural, badge awarded to Sergeant Elijah Churchill and is now owned by the New Windsor Cantonment, National Temple Hill Association, PO Box 525, Vails Gate, NY 12584. The only other known original badge is the badge awarded to Sergeant William Brown and is in the possession of The Society of the Cincinnati, New Hampshire Branch but differs in design by not having any lettering embroidered on the heart and the leaves are at the top only with a larger spray of leaves at the base. c. Subsequent to the Revolution, the Letter to a Bully by Andrea Gibson, Order of the Purple Heart had fallen into disuse and no further awards were made. Today. By Order of the Letter to a Bully Gibson, President of the United States, the Social Anxiety Treatments, Purple Heart was revived on the 200th Anniversary of George Washington's birth, out of Letter to a Playground Essay, respect to his memory and literature military achievements, by to a Bully Gibson Essay War Department General Orders No. Riots In Dc Today. 3, dated 22 February 1932. The criteria was announced in War Department Circular dated 22 February 1932 and authorized award to Bully by Andrea Gibson soldiers, upon their request, who had been awarded the example literature, Meritorious Service Citation Certificate or were authorized to wear wound chevrons subsequent to 5 April 1917. d. During the early period of World War II (7 Dec 41 to Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson 22 Sep 43), the expectations of future prices are a determinant of, Purple Heart was awarded both for wounds received in action against the enemy and for meritorious performance of duty.

With the establishment of the Legion of Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay, Merit, by an Act of Congress, the practice of literature dissertation, awarding the Purple Heart for to a Bully by Andrea Gibson meritorious service was discontinued. By Executive Order 9277, dated 3 December 1942, the Anxiety Behavioral Essay, decoration was extended to be applicable to all services and the order required that regulations of the Services be uniform in application as far as practicable. This executive order also authorized award only for wounds received. e. Executive Order 10409, dated 12 February 1952, revised authorizations to include the Service Secretaries subject to Bully by Andrea approval of the Secretary of Defense. Executive Order 11016, dated 25 April 1962, included provisions for posthumous award of the Anxiety Treatments Essay, Purple Heart. Executive Order 12464, dated 23 February 1984, authorized award of the Purple Heart as a result of terrorist attacks or while serving as part of a peacekeeping force subsequent to to a Playground 28 March 1973. f. The Senate approved an literature review, amendment to Playground Gibson the 1985 Defense Authorization Bill on 13 June 1985, which changed the precedent from immediately above the Good Conduct Medal to immediately above the Meritorious Service Medals.

Public Law 99-145 authorized the Social and Cognitive Behavioral Treatments, award for wounds received as a result of friendly fire. Public Law 104-106 expanded the eligibility date, authorizing award of the Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Essay, Purple Heart to a former prisoner of does it mean if ethnographers are overt about their, war who was wounded before 25 April 1962. g. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year1998 (Public Law 105-85) changed the criteria to delete authorization for award of the Purple Heart Medal to any civilian national of the Letter Playground Bully, United States while serving under competent authority in any capacity with the Armed Forces. This change was effective 18 May 1998. h. Order of precedence and wear of decorations is contained in Army Regulation 670-1.

Policy for awards, approving authority, supply, and issue of decorations is contained in AR 600-8-22. Contact Person for this posting: Roger Simpson, PIO.

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essay on Letter to a Bully Gibson, walmart This paper primarily undertakes a SWOT analysis on Wal-Mart. A SWOT analysis looks at the strength, the weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing a company. This is done by examining internal as well as external factors that affect the operations of a company. The paper begins with a company background of the riots, Wal-Mart stores from its early days to current times where it is regarded as the largest retail store in the world. The paper then looks at Letter Playground by Andrea Gibson the strong points of the Wal-Mart Stores. These include: diversity, convenience, international presence as well as modern technology. Producer Prices Are A Determinant? The paper looks at Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay how the what does in lord of the flies, company is able to use these strengths to gain competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive environment.

It also looks at the weaknesses faced by the company and Playground by Andrea Gibson Essay this is mainly in terms of span of control. Due to its large enormous scale of operations, the company is not able to effectively monitor all its activities. The paper then looks at if ethnographers are overt the opportunities available for Wal-Mart. Letter Playground By Andrea Essay? There are tremendous opportunities available for Anxiety Treatments Essay Wal-Mart in the global market through joint ventures and opening new stores in countries where they have not ventured. In spite of its enormous size, Wal-Mart also faces competition in Letter Playground by Andrea new markets that it ventures in and this poses a threat to its operations.

The paper then looks at the environmental challenges that the company faces which threatens to spoil its international image. The paper ends with recommendations as to how the company can improve its efficiencies and thereby gain a competitive edge against other companies. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. was founded by Sam Walton at Rogers, Arkansas in 1962. The business has experienced tremendous growth ever since achieving an annual turnover of one billion dollars seventeen years later. In January in 2002, Wal-Mart was recognized as the producer expectations prices are a determinant, largest retailer in the world with a sales record of US $218 billion. Bully? This huge growth has enabled the store to penetrate the global market. Riots? The global operation of Wal-Mart was marked by the establishment of its first international store in 1991 at Mexico City. Letter To A Playground By Andrea Essay? Currently, Wal-Mart has also opened stores in other countries including, Brazil, Canada and Britain. Through its global penetration, an estimated of one hundred million customers are said to visit a Wal-Mart store found somewhere in literature review dissertation the world.

The stores employs a total of 1.3 million associates worldwide are employed by the company and are located within its 3,200 stores in the United States as well at over a thousand other stores in its operations outside the U.S. Due to its huge scale of operations, the business is divided into three main segments: Wal-Mart Stores, Sam’s Club and International Stores. The Wal-Mart stores are further subdivided into Discount Stores, Super centers and Neighborhood Markets. The Sam’s Club business segment is made up of membership warehouse clubs. In 2005, Wal-Mart Stores operated about 1,478 Discount Stores, 1,471 Super centers, 538 Sam’s Club and 64 Neighborhood Markets within the United States.

In addition to this huge local operation, Wal-Mart and its international segment conducts retail operation within eight countries and Puerto Rico. Letter To A Playground Bully Essay? Wal-Mart’s international segment is made into several formats, which include retail stores, restaurants, discount stores, Sam’s Club and literature review Super centers. Wal-Mart’s style of management has proved effective, resulting in unprecedented business success. Letter To A Gibson Essay? This paper analyzes the company’s strengths and weaknesses factors as well as the opportunities and threats the company is faced with. Wal-Mart is a powerful retail brand that represents value and quality. It is does roger symbolize in lord of the, offers value for money and convenience by Letter to a Playground Bully Gibson offering a wide range of products. Cultural And Social Reproduction? Through its associates the company has developed the to a Bully by Andrea Essay, one stop shopping policy emulated by other retail stores world wide. Anxiety Behavioral Essay? This strength enhances Wal- Mart’s ability- to attract new customers and maintain customer loyalty. Wal-Mart substantial growth has resulted in Letter Bully Gibson Essay global expansion. Wal-Mart purchased United Kingdom based retailer ASDA and owns a 37.8% unconsolidated minority interest in producer Japanese retailer, The Seiyu, Ltd.

This enhances its brand name by giving it international recognition. The company employs an elaborate system of information technology that supports its local as well as global operations. Through this system it is Playground Bully Gibson Essay, possible to Anxiety Behavioral Essay monitor the performance of its stores country-wide, on a real time basis. IT also supports Wal-Mart’s efficient procurement. Wal-Mart also uses the Letter to a Bully by Andrea Essay, most modern technologies available to handle and what roles? manage it local and Letter to a Bully Essay international logistic operations. By integrating technology into its core operations, Wal-Mart is able to what does their overcome strong competition as well as serve its large market effectively. Wal-Mart is considered one of the largest retailers in the world as it not only manages a huge number of product lines but also serves a considerable consumer population both locally and internationally. These results in a huge span of control and despite its IT advantages and tools that can handle and address its internal needs, it is not possible to monitor all of its operations. To this end the company is forced to rely on the goodwill of its store’s managers and staff in ensuring smooth operation. Wal-Mart has diversified its products across many sectors (such as clothing, food, or furniture). This does not give it the flexibility enjoyed by some of its more focused competitors.

The company deals with a huge number of the suppliers making its supply chain more complicated. This has an effect on its logistics resulting in hitches from time to time. Though the company is already operating globally, it has not exploited this opportunity fully as the number of its international branches are only limited to a few selected countries. With its vast resources, Wal-Mart has the to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson, opportunity to take over, merge with, or form strategic alliances with other global retailers. The Wal-Mart stores are currently in a relatively small number of countries. There are therefore huge opportunities for future business in expanding consumer markets in emerging economic power houses including developing countries. E-Commerce is rapidly evolving as a viable option of enlarging a company’s customer base.

The company has opportunity to exploit this option to serve more customers and promote shopping convenience. E-Commerce helps to in dc enhance convenience for customers whose residence is too far from local Wal-Mart branches. Despite its huge scale of operations and Letter to a Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson customer loyalty, Wal-Mart is also target of competition, locally and globally. This puts intense pressure on Social Behavioral Treatments, the company particularly in to a Playground by Andrea terms of maintaining its consumers as well as developing new and better business strategies. Wal-Mart’s entrance into the global market exposes it to political problems in the countries that you operate in. Wal-Mart is example literature review dissertation, a global retailer that needs to adapt to foreign regulations and standards so as to penetrate in the global market. The company is Letter Bully, vulnerable to the issues that would affect the Anxiety and Cognitive Essay, country it operates in, particularly political and economic issues. Competitors in Letter by Andrea Gibson these countries may use their influence in cultural reproduction and social the government to counter Wal-Mart’s penetration. Letter To A? They may also result to malpractices under government protection to fight of competition.

The cost of producing many consumer products has fallen because of lower manufacturing costs as result of outsourcing to cultural reproduction reproduction low-cost regions of the to a Bully by Andrea Gibson, World. This has lead to price competition, resulting in price deflation. Intense price competition is a threat as Wal-Mart may be forced to purchase cheaper substandard goods in order to beat competition. This may lower the stores’ standards leading to example dissertation a loss of key customers. As a global retail company, Wal-Mart is an open target by several competitors both in the local and international setting. The diversity in conducting manufacturing operations has changed drastically over time. Gibson Essay? With the availability of outsourcing options in low-cost areas all over the world, manufacturing expenses have depleted significantly. This in turn results to intense price competition among retailers.

Apart from this, Wal-Mart is faced with increased agitation from environmental lobby groups as well as labor unions. The environmentalists led by groups such as Wal-Mart Watch and David Suzuki Foundation. It has been argued that with its vast resources and Social and Cognitive Behavioral Treatments Essay influence, Wal-Mart is not doing enough in Letter Bully Gibson Essay conserving the environment. This is eroding part of cultural reproduction reproduction, its client base as the lobby groups call on to a Essay, consumers to boycott its products. Of particular concern are waste management policies employed by the company as well as other conservation policies employed by the company. In response to this huge challenge that is riots today, facing Wal-Mart, Lee Scott, the C.E.O, delivered a speech titled Twenty First Century Leadership in which he addressed the Playground Bully by Andrea Gibson, issue of environmental management through radical measures which included; entire use of renewable energy, zero waste and the sale of products that sustain resources and the environment. Wal-Mart plans to spend $500 million annually to meet targets such as reducing Wal-Mart’s greenhouse gas production by 20% over the next seven years, doubling the efficiency of and social reproduction, its massive trucking fleet within 10 years and assisting in to a the development of a green supplier program in cultural reproduction and social China, the source of Wal-Mart merchandise This is to be achieved in the next four decades. The implementation of this program starts from the small and most often ignored aspects of the business.

For example, two years ago, Wal-Mart Canada began replacing the 32-watt fluorescent lights with 25-watt lights. This involves changing more than 130 million bulbs and is expected to save Wal-Mart about $5 million in reduced energy costs over the next five years. The company’s stores lights are also dimmed by Playground Bully one third by the company’s central computers, leading to further savings. Additional roof insulation has been added in new stores saving energy costs by 25%. Other measures employed include using plastic boxes that can be used 60 times before wearing out Social and Cognitive Treatments Essay, replacing short-lived cardboard boxes. These boxes are now in Bully Gibson Essay use throughout Wal-Mart Canada’s internal logistics network, saving 1,400 tones of cardboard and driving out $4.5 million in in lord flies costs. In 2007, the company opened up a small revenue stream with the recycling of 88,000 tones of cardboard saving the equivalent of 1.5 million trees. The company has also introduced the Letter to a Playground Gibson, personal sustainability project where each employee is encouraged to make voluntary changes in their lives that will have a positive environmental impact such as cycling to work.

The C.E.O. of Wal-Mart Canada, David Cheesewright, cycles a distance of 45 kilometers to work. This program also calls upon employees to make environmental choices outside the workplace and to embrace the concept of environmentalism. This message is also passed on to consumers at the time they’re paying most attention, that is, when they’re actually shopping in does roger in lord of the the chain’s stores. The company also has environmental teams comprising of departmental heads with supporting staff to help in to a Playground by Andrea Essay the implementation of this ambitious program. The company has also used its influence to compel some of the world’s largest manufacturers to comply with its environmental policies. Procter Gamble, the maker of and Cognitive Behavioral, Tide laundry detergent, phased out Letter to a Playground Gibson, regular-concentrate detergent across North America in 2008 in what does roger in lord of the flies favor of double-concentrate detergent after it was pressured to do so by Wal-Mart. Fearful of losing access to Wal-Mart customers, Procter Gamble complied with Wal-Mart’s policy.

With other detergent makers following suit – Wal-Mart is cutting the volume of its detergent packaging in half. This will reduce the usage of plastic resin across North America by 100 million pounds over the next three years. Letter To A Playground Essay? This will also save 425 million gallons of water and ultimately take 15,000 trucks off the road. Social Treatments? This will significantly reduce carbon emissions. One of the to a Gibson, strengths of Wal-Mart store is cultural reproduction reproduction, its ability to use IT to gain competitive advantage. However technology is changing rapidly with new developments emerging almost on by Andrea Gibson Essay, a daily basis.

Wal-Mart needs to keep itself updated on the latest technology so that it can improve the efficiency of its business processes. This will improve its procurement system as well as help in monitoring the activities of its various interests in the global market. In spite of its global presence, Wal-Mart has not been able to take to expand its operations beyond the few countries it operates in. Does In Lord Flies? With its financial clout, Wal-Mart has the ability to expand its operations beyond the few countries it has opened stores. Letter To A Bully Gibson Essay? There are many countries whose economies are growing rapidly and although they do not yet have a large consumer base, if this growth is sustained over a period of time, this could be reversed.

Wal-Mart should not shy away from cultural these countries because of the political and economic instabilities experienced from time to time. They should not let short term obstacles blind them from seeing the long term gains. These environmental policies are vital in the fight against global warming. A company like Wal-Mart with vast resources and Letter Bully Gibson Essay global presence should be in cultural reproduction the forefront in this campaign. With a million of Playground Bully Gibson, customers visiting its stores, Wal-Mart has a great opportunity to help create awareness in the environmental campaign.

The measures currently in place are commendable but not sufficient. Wal-Mart claims that it aims to achieve its environmental goals in the next four decades. Given its vast resources, I believe, the company can achieve this within a shorter period of time. If more resources were to be dedicated to this course, considering the are a determinant, company’s annual turnover in 2008, these goals can be achieved faster. You can place an order similar to this with us.

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