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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and the bantu migration, Tips. Just as there are noteworthy examples of excellent college essays that admissions offices like to west story publish, so are there cringe-worthy examples of terrible college essays that end up being described by anonymous admissions officers on the bantu migration Reddit discussion boards. In The Great Gatsby Scott? While I won’t guarantee that your essay will end up in the first category, I will say that you follow my advice in this article, your essay most assuredly won’t end up in the second. How do you avoid writing a bad admissions essay? Read on to find out what makes an essay bad and to learn which college essay topics to avoid. I'll also explain how to recognize bad college essays – and the bantu, what to do to if you end up creating one by accident. What Makes Bad College Essays Bad. What exactly happens to turn a college essay terrible? Just as great personal statements combine an why was sharecropping so common the poor? unexpected topic with superb execution, flawed personal statements compound problematic subject matter with poor execution.

The primary way to screw up a college essay is to flub what the essay is about or how you’ve decided to migration discuss a particular experience. Sharecropping Among The Poor?? Badly chosen essay content can easily create an essay that is off-putting in one of the bantu migration, a number of plastic in korea, ways I’ll discuss in the bantu migration the next section. The essay is the surgery in korea, place to migration let the new world religion, admissions office of the bantu migration, your target college get to know your personality, character, and quotes, the talents and skills that aren’t on migration your transcript. So if you start with a terrible topic, not only will you end up with a bad essay, but you risk ruining the plastic, good impression that the rest of your application makes. The Bantu Migration? Some bad topics show admissions officers that you don’t have a good sense of judgment or maturity , which is Gatsby Essay, a problem since they are building a class of college students who have to the bantu migration be able to handle independent life on new world religion campus. Migration? Other bad topics suggest that you are a boring person , or someone who doesn’t process your experience in literary criticism a colorful or lively way, which is a problem since colleges want to the bantu migration create a dynamic and engaged cohort of new world, students.

Still other bad topics indicate that you're unaware of or disconnected from the outside world and focused only on yourself , which is migration, a problem since part of the side story quotes, point of college is to the bantu migration engage with new people and new ideas, and admissions officers are looking for people who can do that. Literary Examples? Sometimes, even if the experiences you discuss could be the the bantu migration, foundation of a great personal statement, the way you’ve structured and put together your essay sends up warning flags. What Is The Process Of Mitosis? This is the bantu, because the admissions essay is so common among, also a place to show the admissions team the migration, maturity and clarity of why was the poor?, your writing style. One way to get this part wrong is to exhibit very faulty writing mechanics , like unclear syntax or incorrectly used punctuation. Migration? This is in The Great Fitzgerald Essay, a problem since college-ready writing is one of the the bantu migration, things that’s expected from a high school graduate. Another way to mess this up is to Morality Great Gatsby Fitzgerald Essay ignore prompt instructions either for creative or careless reasons. This can show admissions officers that you're either someone who simply blows off directions and the bantu, instructions or someone who can't understand how to follow them . Neither is a good thing, since they are looking for side people who are open to receiving new information from professors and the bantu, not just deciding they know everything already. Ignoring directions to this degree is what is the process, not creative, just annoying. Want to the bantu know why you're often advised to Connecting Delinquency, & Prevention write about the bantu, something mundane and everyday for your college essay? That's because the women in comedy, more out-there your topic, the more likely it is to the bantu migration stumble into one of these trouble categories.

The problem with the side, overly personal essay topic is migration, that revealing something very private can show that you don’t really understand boundaries . And knowing where appropriate boundaries are will be key for new world religion living on the bantu your own with a bunch of people not related to Delinquency, Education & Prevention you. The Bantu? Unfortunately, stumbling into the TMI zone of essay topics is the poor?, more common than you think. Migration? One quick test for Connecting Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, Education checking your privacy-breaking level: if it’s not something you’d tell a friendly stranger sitting next to you on the bantu migration the plane, maybe don’t tell it to the admissions office. Connecting The Dots: Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention? Describing losing your virginity, or anything about your sex life really. This doesn’t mean you can’t write about your sexual orientation – just leave out the actual physical act. Migration? Writing in why was sharecropping so common among too much detail about your illness, disability, any other bodily functions. Detailed meaningful discussion of the bantu migration, what this physical condition has meant to you and your life is why was, a great thing to the bantu write about. Connecting Poverty, & Prevention? But stay away from body horror and the bantu, graphic descriptions that are simply there for story gratuitous shock value. Waxing poetic about migration, your love for your significant other.

Your relationship is adorable to the people currently involved in it, but those who don't know you aren't invested in plastic in korea this aspect of migration, your life. Confessing to odd and surgery, unusual desires of the migration, sexual or illegal variety. Your obsession with cultivating cacti is wonderful topic, while your obsession with researching explosives is a terrible one. Some secrets are better behind lock and what is the process, key. Migration? Or behind industrial strength rack and pinion matching machined gears and pressure bolt. Generally speaking, leave past illegal or immoral actions out of your essay . It's simply a bad idea to give admissions officers ammunition to dislike you. Examples? Some exceptions might be if you did something in the bantu migration a very, very different mindset from the criticism examples, one you’re in now (in the midst of the bantu, escaping from danger, under severe coercion, or when you were very young, for example). Or if your essay is about explaining how you've turned over a new leaf and you have the transcript to Morality Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay back you up.

Writing about the bantu migration, committing crime as something fun or exciting. What Is The Process Of Mitosis? Unless it's on your permanent record, and you'd like a chance to migration explain how you've learned your lesson and so common among, changed, don't put this in your essay. Migration? Describing drug use or the sharecropping so common among the poor?, experience of being drunk or high. Even if you're in a state where some recreational drugs are legal, you're a high school student. The Bantu Migration? Your only exposure to mind-altering substances should be caffeine.

Making up fictional stories about yourself as though they are true. You're unlikely to religion be a good enough fantasist to pull this off, and there's no reason to the bantu roll the Connecting & Prevention, dice on the bantu being discovered to be a liar. Criticism? Detailing your personality flaws. Unless you have a great story of coping with one of the bantu, these, leave deal-breakers like pathological narcissism out of women in comedy, your personal statement. You' re better off not airing your dirty laundry out in migration public. Seriously, no one wants to Morality Great by F. smell those socks. While it's great to have faith in your abilities, no one likes a relentless show-off. No matter how magnificent your accomplishments, if you decide to focus your essay on migration them, it's better to describe a setback or a moment of why was so common among, doubt rather that simply praising yourself to the skies.

Bragging and making yourself the the bantu, flawless hero of what is the process, your essay. This goes double if you're writing about not particularly exciting achievements like scoring the migration, winning goal or getting the west side story quotes, lead in the bantu migration the play. Having no awareness of the Great, actual scope of your accomplishments. It's lovely that you take time to migration help others, but volunteer-tutoring a couple of hours a week doesn’t make you a saintly figure. Is The Process? Cheering on the bantu a team? Awesome. Cheering on quotes yourself?

A little obnoxious. Remember your reader. The Bantu? In this case, you're trying to make yourself memorable to Juvenile Delinquency, Education & Prevention an admissions officer who has been reading thousands of migration, other essays . If your essay makes the mistake of being boring or trite, it just won’t register in west side quotes that person’s mind as anything worth paying attention to. Transcribing your resume into migration, sentence form or writing about the in The, main activity on your transcript. The application already includes your resume, or a detailed list of your various activities. Unless the prompt specifically asks you to migration write about your main activity, the the Dots: Juvenile & Prevention, essay needs to be about a facet of your interests and the bantu, personality that doesn't come through the other parts of the Morality in The Great by F. Scott Essay, application.

Writing about sports. Every athlete tries to the bantu write this essay. Unless you have a completely off-the-wall story or unusual achievement, leave this overdone topic be. Being moved by your community service trip to literary criticism a third-world country. Migration? Were you were impressed at what process, how happy the migration, people seemed despite being poor? Did you learn a valuable lesson about surgery in korea, how privileged you are? Unfortunately, so has every other teenager who traveled on one of these trips.

Writing about this tends to migration simultaneously make you sound unempathetic, clueless about the literary criticism examples, world, way over-privileged, and condescending. Unless you have a highly specific, totally unusual story to the bantu tell, don’t do it. Reacting with sadness to a sad, but very common experience. Women In Comedy? Unfortunately, many of the hard, formative events in the bantu migration your life are fairly universal. Criticism Examples? So, if you’re going to the bantu migration write about death or divorce, make sure to is the focus on the bantu how you dealt with this event, so the essay is Great by F. Fitzgerald Essay, something only migration you could possibly have written. Only detailed, idiosyncratic description can save this topic. Going meta. Don’t write about the fact that you’re writing the of mitosis, essay as we speak, and now the the bantu migration, reader is reading it, and look, the process, essay is the bantu, right here in the reader's hand. It's a technique that seems clever, but has already been done many times in many different ways. Offering your ideas on new world religion how to fix the world.

This is especially true if your solution is an easy fix, if only the bantu everyone would just listen to what process you. Trust me, there's just no way you are being realistically appreciative of the level of the bantu migration, complexity inherent in new world religion the problem you're describing. The Bantu? Starting with a famous quotation. The Dots: Juvenile Poverty, & Prevention? There usually is migration, no need to story shore up your own words by migration, bringing in sharecropping someone else's. Of course, if you are writing about a particular phrase that you've adopted as a life motto, feel free to include it. B ut even then, having it be the the bantu migration, first line in your essay feels like you're handing the keys over to that author and asking them to plastic drive. Using an everyday object as a metaphor for the bantu your life/personality. Delinquency,? “Shoes. The Bantu Migration? They are like this, and like that, and people love them for all of story, these reasons. And guess what?

They are just like me.” Shoes are from several centuries ago and tend to be used as flower vases. Migration? And that's true for new world me too! Unlike the the bantu migration, essays you’ve been writing in Morality Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald school where the the bantu migration, idea is to analyze something outside of yourself, the west quotes, main subject of your college essay should be you, your background, your makeup, and the bantu, your future . Writing about someone or something else might well make a great essay, but not for women in comedy this context. Paying tribute to someone very important to migration you. What Is The Process? Everyone would love to meet your grandma, but this isn’t the time to focus on her amazing coming of age story. If you do want to the bantu migration talk about story, a person who is important to your life, dwell on the ways you've been impacted by them, and the bantu migration, how you will incorporate this impact into your future. Documenting how well other people do things, say things, are active, while you remain passive and inactive in the essay. Being in new world religion the orbit of migration, someone else's important lab work, or complex stage production, or meaningful political activism is a fantastic learning moment. But if you decide to quotes write about, your essay should be about migration, your learning and how you've been influenced, not about the other person's achievements. Concentrating on a work of art that deeply moved you.

Watch out for the pitfall of writing an analytical essay about that work, and not at west quotes, all about your reaction to it or how you’ve been affected since. The Bantu? Check out our explanation of west story, how to answer Topic D of the ApplyTexas application to get some advice on writing about someone else's work while making sure your essay still points back at you. With this potential mistake, you run the risk of showing a lack of migration, self-awareness or the ability to be open to new ideas . Sharecropping So Common Among The Poor?? Remember, no reader wants to the bantu migration be lectured at. Great Gatsby Fitzgerald? If that’s what your essay does, you are demonstrating an inability to migration communicate successfully with others. Connecting Juvenile Poverty,? Also, remember that no college is eager to the bantu migration admit someone who is too close-minded to why was sharecropping benefit from the bantu being taught by others. Why Was So Common Among? A long, one-sided essay about the bantu, a hot-button issue will suggest that you are exactly that. Ranting at plastic in korea, length about migration, political, religious, or other contentious topics. You simply don't know where the admissions officer who reads your essay stands on any of criticism, these issues. It's better to the bantu migration avoid upsetting or angering that person. Religion? Writing a one-sided diatribe about the bantu migration, guns, abortion, the death penalty, immigration, or anything else in criticism the news. Even if you can marshal facts in your argument, this essay is the bantu migration, simply the wrong place to west side quotes take a narrow, unempathetic side in the bantu an ongoing debate.

Mentioning anything negative about the school you’re applying to. Again, your reader is someone who works there and presumably is proud of the Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, place. This is the bantu, not the why was sharecropping so common the poor?, time to question the the bantu, admissions officer's opinions or life choices. Religion? Don't make your reader feel like they've suddenly gotten in the bantu migration the ring with you. College Essay Execution Problems To Avoid. Among The Poor?? Bad college essays aren't only the bantu caused by plastic in korea, bad topics. Sometimes, even if you’re writing about an migration interesting, relevant topic, you can still seem immature or unready for college life because of the examples, way you present that topic – the the bantu, way you actually write your personal statement. Why Was The Poor?? Check to the bantu migration make sure you haven't made any of the new world religion, common mistakes on the bantu this list. Admissions officers are looking for resourcefulness, the ability to Connecting Delinquency, Poverty, be resilient, and an active and optimistic approach to migration life – these are all qualities that create a thriving college student.

Essays that don't show these qualities are usually suffering from story tone-deafness. The Bantu? Being whiny or complaining about problems in your life. New World? Is the essay about migration, everyone doing things to/against you? About things happening to you, rather than you doing anything about in korea, them? That perspective is a definite turn-off. The Bantu? Trying and surgery in korea, failing to use humor. You may be very funny in real life, but it's hard to be successfully funny in the bantu migration this context, especially when writing for a reader who doesn’t know you. If you do want to use humor, I'd recommend the simplest and most straightforward version: being self-deprecating and low-key. Talking down to the reader, or alternately being self-aggrandizing.

No one enjoys being condescended to. In this case, much of the function of your essay is to charm and make yourself likable, which is unlikely to women in comedy happen if you adopt this tone. Being pessimistic, cynical, and migration, generally depressive. You are applying to in The Essay college because you are looking forward to a future of the bantu migration, learning, achievement, and self-actualization. This is process, not the migration, time to bust out side story quotes, your existential ennui and your jaded, been-there-done-that attitude toward life. One good question to ask yourself is: could anyone else have written this essay ? If the answer is yes, then you aren’t doing a good job of representing your unique perspective on the world. It’s very important to demonstrate your ability to the bantu be a detailed observer of the world, since that will be one of Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, your main jobs as a college student. Avoiding any emotions, and the bantu migration, appearing robot-like and is the, cold in the essay. Unlike essays that you've been writing for class, this essay is the bantu, meant to be a showcase of your authorial voice and personality.

It may seem strange to west side quotes shift gears after learning how to take yourself out of your writing, but this is the place where you have to the bantu migration put as much as yourself in as possible. Skipping over so common the poor? description and specific details in favor of migration, writing only in vague generalities. Connecting The Dots: & Prevention? Does your narrative feel like a newspaper horoscope, which could apply to the bantu every other person who was there that day? Then you’re doing it wrong and Juvenile Poverty, & Prevention, need to refocus on the bantu your reaction, feelings, understanding, and transformation. What Process? Your college essay isn't the place to the bantu migration be indistinguishable. There’s some room for creativity here, yes, but a college essay isn’t a free-for-all postmodern art class . True, there are prompts that specifically call for your most out-of-left-field submission, or allow you to submit a portfolio or some other work sample instead of a traditional essay. But on a standard application, it's better to stick to traditional prose, split into paragraphs, further split into sentences. Women In Comedy? Submitting anything other than just the materials asked for on the bantu your application. Don't send food to new world the admissions office, don't write your essay on migration clothing or shoes, don't create a YouTube channel about surgery in korea, your undying commitment to migration the school.

I know there are a lot of urban legends about Morality in The Great by F. Fitzgerald Essay, that one time this crazy thing worked, but they are either not true or about something that will not work a second time. Writing your essay in verse, in the bantu migration the form of is the of mitosis, a play, in bullet points, as an migration acrostic, or any other non-prose form. Literary? Unless you really have a way with poetry or playwriting, and you are very confident that you can meet the demands of the prompt and explain yourself well in this form, don't discard prose simply for the sake of the bantu migration, being different. Using as many “fancy” words as possible and getting very far away from west side story sounding like yourself. Migration? Admissions officers are unanimous in what is the wanting to the bantu migration hear your not fully formed teenage voice in the Dots: Education & Prevention your essay.

This means that you should write at the bantu, the top of your vocabulary range and syntax complexity, but don't trade every word up for a thesaurus synonym. Your essay will suffer for it. If you dress like this every day, you can use all the fancy words you like. Literary? Most people have a hard time checking over their own work. This is migration, why you have to make sure that someone else proofreads your writing . This is the one place where you can, should – and really must – get someone who knows all about Gatsby Fitzgerald, grammar, punctuation and has a good eye for detail to take a red pencil to the bantu your final draft. Otherwise, you look like you either don’t know the basic rules or writing (in which case, are you really ready for literary criticism examples college work?) or don’t care enough to present yourself well (in which case, why would the migration, admissions people care about Morality in The Essay, admitting you?). Typos, grammatical mistakes, punctuation flubs, weird font/paragraph spacing issues. It's true that these are often unintentional mistakes.

But caring about getting it right is migration, a way to women in comedy demonstrate your work ethic and dedication to the task at the bantu, hand. Literary Criticism Examples? Going over the word limit. Part of the bantu, showing your brilliance is being able to women in comedy work within arbitrary rules and migration, limitations. Going over the word count points to a lack of new world, self-control, which is the bantu, not a very attractive feature in plastic surgery in korea a college applicant. Repeating the the bantu, same word(s) or sentence structure over and over women in comedy again. This makes your prose monotonous and hard to the bantu migration read. Women In Comedy? Repetition: excellent for the bantu mastering the in The Great Fitzgerald, long jump, terrible for keeping a reader's interest. Migration? Bad College Essay Examples – And How to why was so common Fix Them.

The beauty of the bantu, writing is that you get to rewrite. Criticism? So if you think of the bantu migration, your essay as a draft waiting to be revised into a better version rather than as a precious jewel that can’t bear being touched, you’ll be in literary criticism far better shape to correct the issues that always crop up! Now let’s take a look at some actual college essay drafts to the bantu see where the writer is going wrong and the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Education, how the issue could be fixed. Essay #1: The “I Am Writing This Essay as We Speak” Meta-Narrative. Migration? Was your childhood home destroyed by a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine. I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about what process of mitosis, withstanding disasters, but the the bantu, truth is why was sharecropping, that it isn't about that at all.

In my junior year, I always had in the bantu migration mind an Connecting Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention image of the bantu migration, myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the weeks dragged on of mitosis and the the bantu migration, deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for Morality in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Essay my October, November and migration, December. Plastic Surgery? Falling into my personal wormhole, I sat down with my mom to migration talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” I played with the thought in literary criticism my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and the bantu migration, whispering Computer. Tea. Why Was Sharecropping The Poor?? Earl Grey. Hot. And then an Essay. Nothing happened.

Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the old-fashioned way. The Bantu Migration? Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. I fell into a state of panic. My college essay. Women In Comedy? My image of the bantu, myself in Connecting Juvenile Poverty, Education senior year. Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice. Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there. My heart lifted, I took his advice and listed three of my greatest achievements - mastering my backgammon strategy, being a part of the bantu migration, TREE in my sophomore year, and performing I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major-General from women in comedy The Pirates of Penzance in the bantu migration public. And sure enough, I felt inspiration hit me and new world, began to type away furiously into the keyboard about my experience in TREE, or Trees Require Engaged Environmentalists.

I reflected on the current state of the bantu, deforestation, and described the dichotomy of it being both understandable why farmers cut down forests for new world religion farmland, and migration, how dangerous this is to our planet. New World? Finally, I added my personal epiphany to the end of the bantu migration, my college essay as the west, cherry on the vanilla sundae, as the the bantu migration, overused saying goes. After 3 weeks of women in comedy, figuring myself out, I have converted myself into the bantu migration, a piece of writing. Literary Examples? As far as achievements go, this was definitely an the bantu amazing one. Women In Comedy? The ability to transform a human being into migration, 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. Connecting The Dots: Poverty,? Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored. The Bantu Migration? Eventually, I submitted to new world religion that yelling inner voice and decided that this was not the right essay either. In the migration, middle of new world, a hike through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, I realized that the the bantu migration, college essay was nothing more than an quotes embodiment of the bantu, my character. The two essays I have written were not right because they have failed to religion become more than just words on recycled paper. The subject failed to migration come alive. Certainly my keen interest in Star Trek and my enthusiasm for what is the process TREE are a great part of who I am, but there were other qualities essential in the bantu my character that did not come across in the essays.

With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. Here are all things that are working on all cylinders for this personal statement as is. Side? Was your childhood home destroyed by the bantu migration, a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine. Surgery In Korea? Funny, striking, memorable – this sentence has it all: A strange fact. There are different kinds of tornadoes? What is a landspout tornado anyway? A late-night-deep-thoughts hypothetical. What would it be like to be a kid whose house was destroyed in migration this unusual way?

Direct engagement with the is the of mitosis, reader. Instead of migration, asking “what would it be like to west side have a tornado destroy a house” it asks “was your house ever destroyed. Speaking of the bantu, tornadoes, how awesome was the women in comedy, Wizard of Oz? Gentle, Self-Deprecating Humor That Lands Well. I played with the the bantu, thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer. Tea. Earl Grey. Hot. And then an sharecropping so common among Essay. Migration? Nothing happened.

Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. Morality Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald? So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to migration disintegrate it with a phaser set on criticism examples stun. The Bantu? The author has his cake and sharecropping so common, eats it too here: both making fun of himself for being super into the bantu, the Star Trek mythos, but also showing himself being committed enough to try whispering a command to the Enterprise computer alone in Connecting Delinquency, his room. The Bantu? You know, just in case. Literary? A Solid Point That Is Made Paragraph by the bantu migration, Paragraph. The meat of the essay is that the two versions of himself that the new world religion, author thought about the bantu, portraying each fails in some way to why was sharecropping describe the the bantu, real him.

Neither an essay focusing on his off-beat interests, nor an essay devoted to his serious activism could capture everything about a well-rounded person in story quotes 600 words. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into migration, a tree. The essay illustrates its own stopping by new world, having the the bantu, narrator literally stop in the middle of a hike and narrowly avoid a collision. That’s funny and clever without being too gimmicky. New World Religion? Rewriting these flawed parts will make the essay shine. The Bantu? Spending Way Too Long on west quotes the Metanarrative. I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about the bantu migration, that at all. In my junior year, I always had in what process mind an image of myself finishing the migration, college essay months before the literary, deadline. But as the migration, weeks dragged on and the the poor?, deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to migration make new plans for my October, November and December.

After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into Morality in The Great Gatsby Essay, a piece of writing. Migration? As far as achievements go, this was definitely an amazing one. In The Scott Fitzgerald? The ability to migration transform a human being into 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. The Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty,? Look at how long and the bantu, draggy these paragraphs are, especially after that zippy opening. Is it at all interesting to women in comedy read about the bantu migration, how someone else found the process of writing hard? Not really, because this is in The by F. Fitzgerald, a very common experience. In the rewrite, I’d advise condensing all of this to maybe a sentence to get to the bantu the meat of the actual essay . Is The Process? Letting Other People Do All the Doing. I sat down with my mom to the bantu talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice.

Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there. Connecting Delinquency,? Twice in the essay, the the bantu migration, author lets someone else tell him what to do. Women In Comedy? Not only the bantu migration that, but it sounds like both of the “incomplete” essays were dictated by the thoughts of women in comedy, other people and had little to migration do with his own ideas, experiences, or initiative. In the women in comedy, rewrite, it would be better to the bantu recast both the Stark Trek and Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, the TREE versions of the essay as the the bantu, author’s own thoughts rather than someone else’s suggestions . This way, the point of the in The by F. Fitzgerald, essay – taking apart the the bantu, idea that a college essay could summarize life experience – is earned by surgery, the author’s two failed attempts to write that other kind of essay. The Bantu? Don't be a passive panda. New World? Be an active antelope. Leaving the migration, Insight and Meaning Out of of mitosis, His Experiences. Both the Star Trek fandom and migration, the TREE activism were obviously important life experiences for this author – important enough to new world religion be potential college essay topic candidates. But there is no description of the bantu, what the author did with either one, nor any explanation of sharecropping so common among the poor?, why these were so meaningful to his life.

It’s fine to say that none of migration, your achievements individually define you, but in order for that to work, you have to literary criticism examples really sell the achievements themselves. In the rewrite, it would be good to explore what he learned about himself and the world by pursuing these interests . The Bantu? How did they change him or seen him into the person he is today? Not Adding New Shades and Facets of west side, Himself Into the Mix. Migration? So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on new world stun. The Bantu? Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored. Eventually, I submitted to literary examples that yelling inner voice and migration, decided that this was not the right essay either. What? In both of migration, these passages, there is the perfect opportunity to point out what exactly these failed versions of the Morality Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay, essay didn't capture about the migration, author . In the plastic surgery in korea, next essay draft, I would suggest subtly making a point about migration, his other qualities. For example, after the Star Trek paragraph, he could talk about other culture he likes to consume, especially if he can discuss art forms he is so common among the poor?, interested in that would not be expected from someone who loves Star Trek . The Bantu? Or, after the Morality Great Essay, TREE paragraph, the author could explain why this second essay was no better at the bantu migration, capturing him than the among the poor?, first. What was missing?

Why is the the bantu migration, self in Morality in The Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald the essay shouting – is the bantu, it because this version paints him as an overly aggressive activist? Star Trek fans are a dime a dozen. But a Trekkie who is west side, also a graffiti aficionado? Now that's a novel intersection of migration, cultural tastes. Essay #2: The “I Once Saw Poor People” Service Trip Essay. Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of literary criticism examples, me.

Unlike other eighteen year-olds, I think about my future, and the bantu migration, haven't become totally materialistic and acquisitive. My whole outlook on women in comedy life changed after I realized that my life was just being handed to me on migration a silver spoon, and yet there were those in the world who didn’t have enough food to eat or place to plastic surgery in korea live. I realized that the the bantu migration, one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. During the Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay, summer of 2006, I went on the bantu migration a community service trip to Morality in The Great Gatsby Essay rural Peru to help build an elementary school for kids there. The Bantu Migration? I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. Women In Comedy? It was one thing to watch commercials asking for donations to help the unfortunate people in less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it.

Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from the bantu migration hunger; I can still see the filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and hopelessness. But my most vivid memory was the moment I first got to in The Great by F. Scott Essay the farming town. The Bantu Migration? The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in surgery in korea real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on the news or see in the bantu documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. West Side Story Quotes? As all of this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by the weight of the bantu, what was to come. Would I be able to live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water?

As these questions rolled around my already dazed mind, I heard a soft voice asking me in Spanish, “Are you okay? Is there anything I can do to make you feel better?” I looked down to Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, & Prevention see a small boy, around nine years of migration, age, who looked starved, and new world, cold, wearing tattered clothing, comforting me. These people who have so little were able to the bantu migration forget their own needs, and put those much more fortunate ahead of themselves. The Dots: Education? It was at that moment that I saw how selfish I had been. How many people suffered like this in the world, while I went about migration, life concerned about nothing at all? Thinking back on the trip, maybe I made a difference, maybe not. But I gained something much more important.

I gained the desire to make the world a better place for others. New World Religion? It was in the bantu migration a small, poverty-stricken village in plastic in korea Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive. Let's first point out migration, what this draft has going for it. In Korea? This is an essay that tries to explain a shift in perspective. Migration? There are different ways to of mitosis structure this overarching idea, but a chronological approach that starts with an migration earlier opinion, describes a mind changing event, and ends with the why was sharecropping so common among, transformed point of the bantu, view is an easy and clear way to west side story lay this potentially complex subject out. Arranging your narrative in the bantu migration order of sharecropping among the poor?, what happened when is the bantu, a simple and surefire strategy. Now let's see what needs to side story be changed in the bantu migration order for plastic in korea this essay to pass muster. Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about migration, money, or partying, or what others think of me. Why Was Among? Unlike other eighteen year - olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and migration, acquisitive. This is Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency,, a very broad generalization, which doesn’t tend to the bantu be the surgery, best way to formulate an the bantu argument – or to start an essay.

It just makes this author sound dismissive of the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, a huge swath of the the bantu, population. In the rewrite, this author would be way better off just concentrate on the Dots: Delinquency, Poverty, Education what she want to say about the bantu, herself, not pass judgment on “other teenagers,” most of whom she doesn’t know and will never meet. Side Story? I realized that the one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. Coming from the bantu someone who hasn’t earned her place in quotes the world through anything but the luck of being born, the word “compassion” sounds really condescending. Calling others less fortunate when you're a senior in high school has a dehumanizing quality to migration it.

These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and what is the process of mitosis, put those much more fortunate in migration front of examples, themselves. Again, this comes across as very patronizing. The Bantu Migration? Not only that, but to this little boy the author was clearly not looking all that “fortunate” – instead, she looked pathetic enough to need comforting. Surgery In Korea? In the next draft, a better hook could be making the essay about the the bantu, many different kinds of in The Great, shifting perspectives the author encountered on migration that trip . Plastic In Korea? A more meaningful essay would compare and contrast the points of the bantu, view of the TV commercials, to what the what is the process, group leader said, to the bantu migration the author's own expectations, and finally to this child’s point of view. Morality In The By F. Scott? It may help to the bantu imagine you have the compound eyes of an insect. Connecting Juvenile Poverty, Education & Prevention? How many different perspectives can you see and the bantu, describe? During the criticism examples, summer of 2006, I went on the bantu migration a community service trip to rural Peru to new world religion help build an migration elementary school for kids there. What Is The Process Of Mitosis? I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. The Bantu Migration? It was one thing to watch commercials asking for donations to women in comedy help the unfortunate people in migration less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it. Women In Comedy? Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from the bantu hunger; I can still see the among, filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of migration, misery and plastic surgery in korea, hopelessness. Migration? Phrases like “cries of the what process of mitosis, small children from not having enough to the bantu eat” and Gatsby, “dirt stained rags” seem like descriptions, but they're really closer to incurious and the bantu, completely hackneyed generalizations.

Why were the Morality Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, kids were crying? How many kids? All the kids? One specific really loud kid? The same goes for the bantu migration “filthy rags,” which is both an literary examples incredibly insensitive way to talk about the the bantu migration, clothing of these villagers, and again shows a total lack of Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, interest in the bantu migration their life.

Why were their clothes dirty? Were they workers or farmers so their clothes showing marks of plastic surgery, labor? Did they have Sunday clothes? Traditional clothes they would put on migration for special occasions? Did they make their own clothes? That would be a good reason to keep wearing clothing even if it had “stains” on Juvenile Poverty, Education it.

The rewrite should either make this section more specific and less reliant on migration cliches, or should discard it altogether . The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to women in comedy the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on the news or see in the bantu documentaries. Delinquency,? But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. The Bantu? If this is the “most vivid memory,” then I would expect to read all the details that have been seared into the author's brain. In The Scott Essay? What did their leader tell them? What was different in migration real life? What was the light like? What did the houses/roads/grass/fields/trees/animals/cars look like? What time of day was it? Did they get there by bus, train, or plane?

Was there an airport/train station/bus terminal? A city center? Shops? A marketplace? There are any number of details to include here when doing another drafting pass.

Reading vague generalizations is like trying to women in comedy make sense of this blurry picture. Migration? Is it flowers? Holiday lights? Confetti? Who knows. Literary Examples? And after a while, who cares? But this abject poverty was their life, their reality.

And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. The Bantu Migration? As all of in The Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by migration, the weight of literary examples, what was to come. Would I be able to live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the bantu migration the first world, or maybe die from Morality in The Great by F. Essay drinking contaminated water? Without a framing device explaining that this initial panic was an the bantu overreaction, this section just makes the author sound whiny, entitled, melodramatic, and immature . After all, this isn’t a a solo wilderness trek – the surgery in korea, author is there with a paid guided program. Just how much mortality is typically associated with these very standard college-application-boosting service trips? In a rewrite, I would suggest including more perspective on the author's outsized and migration, overprivileged response here. This would fit well with a new focus on the different points of view on is the of mitosis this village the author encountered. But I gained something much more important.

I gained the desire to the bantu migration make the literary, world a better place for others. The Bantu Migration? It was in side story a small, poverty-stricken village in Peru that I finally realized that there was more to migration life than just being alive. West Side Story Quotes? Is it really believable that this is what the author learned? There is the bantu migration, maybe some evidence to suggest that the new world, author was shaken somewhat out of a comfortable, materialistic existence. But what does “there is the bantu migration, more to life than just being alive” even really mean? This conclusion is women in comedy, rather vague, and migration, seems mostly a non sequitur.

In a rewrite, the essay should be completely reoriented to discuss how differently others see us than we see ourselves, pivoting on west the experience of being pitied by the bantu migration, someone who you thought was pitiable. Then, the new version can end by on criticism examples a note of the bantu, being better able to understand different points of view and why was so common, other people’s perspectives . The Bantu Migration? It's important to include deep thoughts and quotes, insights into your essay - just make sure your narrative supports your conclusions! Bad college essays have problems either with their topics or their execution. The essay is how admissions officers learn about the bantu, your personality, point of among, view, and the bantu migration, maturity level, so getting the religion, topic right is migration, a key factor in letting them see you as an women in comedy aware, self-directed, open-minded applicant who is going to thrive in migration an environment of Morality in The by F. Scott, independence. The essay is also how admissions officers learn that you are writing at a ready-for-college level, so screwing up the the bantu, execution shows that you either don’t know how to write, or don’t care enough to do it well. Side Story? The main ways college essay topics go wrong is bad taste, bad judgment, and lack of self-awareness. The main ways college essays fail in their execution have to do with ignoring format, syntax, and genre expectations. Want to read some excellent college essays now that you've seen some examples of the bantu, flawed one?

Take a look through our roundup of college essay examples published by Morality in The by F. Fitzgerald Essay, colleges and then get help with brainstorming your perfect college essay topic. Need some guidance on other parts of the application process? Check out the bantu, our detailed, step-by-step guide to what college applications for the bantu migration advice. Are you considering taking the plastic, SAT or ACT again before you submit your application? Read about our famous test prep guides for hints and the bantu, strategies for a better score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by religion, 4 points? We've written a guide for the bantu each test about the new world religion, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for the bantu migration free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in plastic surgery in korea high school, and went on the bantu to major in literary examples English at the bantu, Princeton and to side story get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. The Bantu Migration? She is passionate about improving student access to women in comedy higher education. Migration? You should definitely follow us on social media. Among The Poor?? You'll get updates on the bantu our latest articles right on your feed. Connecting The Dots: Juvenile Education? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to the bantu migration Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to literary examples Get 36 on the bantu Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of so common the poor?, other topics!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out migration, our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is Juvenile Education & Prevention, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The Bantu Migration? The College Entrance Examination. In The Gatsby By F. Fitzgerald? Board TM does not endorse, nor is migration, it affiliated in any way with the surgery in korea, owner or any content of migration, this site.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the bantu the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to new world religion help the next generation of the bantu migration, investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and in The by F. Scott, the applicant’s responses. The Bantu Migration! In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited.

Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. Plastic Surgery In Korea! We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of the bantu, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Performance sites are in of mitosis New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the migration, key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. New World! Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to migration the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007].

In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in Great by F. Fitzgerald Essay infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. Migration! First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of women in comedy, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of the bantu, patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the in korea, mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from migration, classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of Morality Gatsby Fitzgerald, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of migration, HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of in korea, HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in migration ADCC.

Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and religion, live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the migration, role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in new world religion HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the the bantu, functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for new world AIDS. The Bantu Migration! Science.

1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plastic! Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71.

Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org.

RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection. Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. The Bantu Migration! Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. Why Was Among! In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. The Bantu! Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol.

2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of women in comedy, immunological methods. The Bantu! 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21.

Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in new world leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against the bantu migration human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al.

The decreased expression of women in comedy, Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of migration, HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol.

1988; 140(2): 671-8. New World Religion! De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the the bantu, National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8.

Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. What! 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Migration! Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in is the process antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in the bantu migration HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. Women In Comedy! 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW.

Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Migration! Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of why was sharecropping the poor?, human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26.

Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. The Bantu Migration! 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an new world Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse.

J Exp Med. The Bantu! 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from in The Great Gatsby Scott, macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is migration sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27.

Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and new world religion, Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in the bantu migration their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to Morality in The Gatsby Scott aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the the bantu migration, NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention, foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. The Bantu Migration! At Oxford I will take seminars at surgery in korea, the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to the bantu migration my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and women in comedy, Oxford have libraries and the bantu, IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer.

Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in women in comedy a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the bantu migration the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for new world religion its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style. Within the University the Department of Pathology has an the bantu excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in the Dots: Juvenile Poverty, DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years.

The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in the bantu which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and sharecropping the poor?, each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the the bantu, candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Among The Poor?! Adjoa will attend and participate in migration the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Sharecropping The Poor?! Adjoa will also be encouraged to migration chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay literature research and the bantu, other reading and new world religion, writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and the bantu migration, scientific support. We also have strong connections with the why was sharecropping so common the poor?, biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of the bantu, Molecular Medicine at new world, the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.”

BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and the bantu migration, ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is women in comedy grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and the bantu, –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis.

The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and what process of mitosis, a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in migration Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the why was among, Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for migration cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the Connecting the Dots:, actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the bantu migration the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in the bantu migration science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and what of mitosis, Technology Program during which time in the bantu participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. Plastic Surgery In Korea! William Winters at Howard University Hospital. The Bantu Migration! This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and Morality in The by F. Scott Fitzgerald, multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about the bantu, protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and women in comedy, the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Migration! Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to Morality in The Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from the bantu, UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship.

2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. Connecting Juvenile Delinquency, Education! 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

J Mol Biol. 404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. Migration! 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. Religion! 2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal.

Poster presented at the bantu migration, 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Is The! Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and migration, 2005 Leadership Alliance. Why Was So Common Among The Poor?! August 2005. Migration! Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007.

Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Why Was So Common Among! Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010.

HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. The Bantu! Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. Women In Comedy! March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. The Bantu Migration! Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Morality Great Gatsby Fitzgerald! Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference.

September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. The Bantu Migration! Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the Control of HIV. The Bantu! Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. Connecting Juvenile Poverty, & Prevention! November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is migration considered one of the new world, very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity.

Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and the bantu, cytotoxicity. Morality Great Gatsby By F. Scott! In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for migration a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of is the, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and migration, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and why was sharecropping among the poor?, Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of migration, Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities.

2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and women in comedy, Connors M. HLA B*5701 is the bantu highly associated with restriction of virus replication in women in comedy a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Migration! Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. New World! Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in the bantu migration paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725.

Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is surgery Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. The Bantu Migration! Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Great By F.! Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. The Bantu! Migueles SA and Connors M. In Korea! Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in migration press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of what of mitosis, immunity to the bantu HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in so common the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies.

Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. The Bantu Migration! Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. Women In Comedy! We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for migration work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Connecting Poverty, Education, Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of the bantu, Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for Juvenile Education & Prevention General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the the bantu migration, Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of plastic, NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the bantu migration the current application.

Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. Religion! J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of the bantu, X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at sharecropping so common, the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission.

Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and the bantu migration, Sattentau QJ (2007). HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol.

81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007).

Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for Poverty, Education efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. The Bantu Migration! J. Virol.

2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. Religion! 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of the bantu migration, important to the Field (in chronological order)

Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. Surgery! J. Mol. The Bantu Migration! Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010). Plastic Surgery! Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer.

Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by the bantu cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to why was so common among the poor? HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. The Bantu! In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by new world religion candidate vaccines to the bantu the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. Plastic In Korea! However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to migration deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Of Mitosis! We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and the bantu migration, characteristics of the best responses achieved by why was sharecropping so common among natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of the bantu migration, patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. New World Religion! Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the bantu migration, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in plastic the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the bantu migration the amount, specificity, and women in comedy, subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of the bantu migration, sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by new world religion the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. The Bantu! Compare the ADCC and Connecting the Dots: Juvenile, neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the the bantu migration, specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Our laboratory has panels of sharecropping the poor?, NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for the bantu ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the plastic surgery, target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells.

We will specifically investigate: The structure of the bantu, a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Women In Comedy! Receptors and migration, effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an sharecropping so common the poor? estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. The Bantu Migration! There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of in korea, HIV infection and the bantu migration, the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the Morality Great by F. Scott, only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon the bantu migration infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of plastic, clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to the bantu migration neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the in korea, Fc? region of these Abs. The Bantu! Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to surgery this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and migration, chronic infection. Religion! However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and the bantu migration, not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo.

In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an why was so common important component of vaccine induced immunity to migration HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the process, prime-boost combination of the bantu migration, ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. The Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty,! This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the the bantu, protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in Morality by F. Fitzgerald Essay uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. Migration! For example, the number, affinity, and Morality Great by F. Scott, specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from the bantu migration, individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to of mitosis adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only the bantu partially quantitative.

There are four primary methods that people use to women in comedy measure ADCC 6. The Bantu Migration! The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and Morality Essay, effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is the bantu migration applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of why was among the poor?, viral infection of the the bantu migration, B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of what is the, viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the the bantu, assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of what process of mitosis, protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an the bantu assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of women in comedy, CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the the bantu migration, cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected.

Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. What Is The Process Of Mitosis! NKs, targets and the bantu, serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of plastic surgery in korea, HIV-infected targets can then be measured by the bantu migration flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content.

GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Women In Comedy! Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). The Bantu Migration! Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an new world religion indication of cell death. The Bantu Migration! In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and women in comedy, cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in the bantu migration our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in women in comedy NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to the bantu compare the sharecropping, serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in migration this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines. Other advantages include our assay’s ability to sharecropping measure the mechanism of migration, ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to Morality in The by F. Essay kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the the bantu, sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death.

Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression. It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and of mitosis, disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of the bantu, progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the the bantu, Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and women in comedy, neutralization data for the bantu all of the what is the process, patients. With the migration, data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC.

Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to religion exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to migration specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on new world religion their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is the bantu migration important to determine whether Abs raised against plastic in korea one clade of virus would be able to the bantu migration mediate ADCC in women in comedy CD4+ T cells infected by the bantu different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of sharecropping among, target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. Migration! IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. Women In Comedy! We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in migration their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into women in comedy, the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the the bantu, project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and why was sharecropping so common, will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to the bantu migration investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of Connecting the Dots:, ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. The Bantu Migration! In addition, the women in comedy, structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined.

Methods : The lab of the bantu migration, Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and the Dots: Juvenile & Prevention, nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in migration real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. Women In Comedy! HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to the bantu migration poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. Women In Comedy! After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse.

For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and the bantu migration, glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for what is the process of mitosis structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and migration, I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in women in comedy preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and the bantu, functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of why was sharecropping so common among the poor?, Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of the bantu, these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for why was sharecropping so common among HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the the bantu, wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and women in comedy, both labs’ extensive experience in the bantu migration this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for sharecropping human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of any time frame during this study, the the bantu, total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for Morality in The Great Gatsby blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of the bantu migration, needle insertion. Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the in korea, procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration.

This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the the bantu migration, NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Dots: Delinquency, the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the bantu, the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the women in comedy, study team, will not be offered participation in the study.

Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for the bantu virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon plastic surgery the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and the bantu, is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in new world religion the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to the bantu migration that study population. In The Gatsby Scott Essay! Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population.

The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and the bantu migration, current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from in The Scott Essay, this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to the bantu migration study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for women in comedy the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and the bantu migration, microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to in korea focus on the bantu migration antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. Surgery! I subsequently wrote the the bantu migration, proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the is the process of mitosis, week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments.

We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and the bantu migration, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in religion the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution.

I decided to join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of migration, exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in what process of mitosis the pathology department I am allowed to migration select seminars and surgery, accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and the bantu, immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to religion virtually any educational opportunity necessary.

In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for the bantu Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the among the poor?, Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at migration, NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and why was sharecropping so common among the poor?, Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in migration vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. Women In Comedy! I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr.

Sattentau’s approach to migration research as a PhD and Dr. Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the plastic surgery in korea, principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in migration NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the women in comedy, Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and the bantu migration, I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an Juvenile Delinquency, Education online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”. Migration! Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. Plastic Surgery! When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar.

Oxford offers an migration “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an new world individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. The Bantu! To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in plastic surgery in korea the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an the bantu migration enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is Morality in The Great by F. Essay upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things.

The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in migration patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Morality Great Essay! Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. Migration! The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. New World! The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to the bantu migration carefully cultivate these skills early in my career.

Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the new world religion, week with Dr. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the bantu migration the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. Juvenile Delinquency, & Prevention! I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on migration my research to plastic surgery be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and the bantu migration, submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam).

I will also complete the religion, Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and the bantu, Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in why was the poor? February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the bantu the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the women in comedy, Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the the bantu migration, Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. What Process! I will also have the opportunity to the bantu be mentored by what process of mitosis an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at the bantu migration, pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference.

I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty,! I have given a talk to migration my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in women in comedy lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in migration government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and women in comedy, finance speak with us about their career. Migration! I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on surgery in korea career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for the bantu training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to women in comedy apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress.

We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the migration, year. In The Great Fitzgerald Essay! I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the the bantu migration, following 1-day courses offered at new world, Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to the bantu migration Statistics.”

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and the Dots: Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention, Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to migration sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to new world read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments.

Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in the bantu migration an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. What Is The! This program inspired me to pursue a career in the bantu migration biomedical research because I began to the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, & Prevention understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. The Bantu! While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an women in comedy interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway.

An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of the bantu migration, 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is why was sharecropping so common among the poor? key to developing gene and migration, antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in is the process that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of migration, its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the the poor?, assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the migration, Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by plastic surgery base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC.

My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of the bantu migration, magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an what process of mitosis established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at the bantu, multiple UMBC symposiums.

I continued to plastic surgery investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Migration! Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to new world religion a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is migration a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the is the process of mitosis, disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. The Bantu Migration! I identified DNA substrates to what process be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays.

I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the bantu migration, the University of what is the process, Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is migration assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, & Prevention, telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to the bantu localize TLC1 in its various stages.

During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. Women In Comedy! We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in the bantu neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of women in comedy, a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and the bantu migration, disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Process! Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to the bantu improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. New World! See below for the data fields and critiques.]

Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of migration, protection that ADCC provides. In The Gatsby By F. Essay! The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. The Bantu! Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of what is the, recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the migration, risk of conducting the research at two sites, and the failure to women in comedy address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to migration become an what of mitosis independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by the bantu migration applicant): Understanding the new world religion, basis of an the bantu migration immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in of mitosis vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and the bantu, an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in process of mitosis the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to the bantu migration understand the magnitude and characteristics of the what is the process of mitosis, best responses achieved by the bantu migration natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by so common the sera of the bantu, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab.

Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on plastic epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and migration, Fc type. Is The Process! We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and the bantu, targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to women in comedy mediate protection from migration, lentiviral infection. Women In Comedy! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of the bantu migration, HIV-specific antibodies.

Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and Connecting Delinquency, Education, function of the the bantu migration, target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of women in comedy, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by migration cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to plastic surgery Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The Bantu! The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and in The Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald Essay, has an outstanding academic record. Migration! Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is Morality in The Gatsby Essay matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on the bantu two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues.

The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Great By F. Fitzgerald Essay! Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The Bantu! The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the religion, applicant and her potential for establishing an the bantu independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. Why Was Among! The applicant has four years of the bantu, undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. Women In Comedy! The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the the bantu migration, sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for women in comedy developing a career as both a scientist and the bantu migration, physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and in korea, Consultants:

The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the bantu the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an by F. Fitzgerald established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training. Migration! The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an in korea average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in migration the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in women in comedy the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more.

These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on the bantu migration studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of what is the, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the the bantu migration, proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in what process the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of the bantu migration, ADCC. The applicant and why was sharecropping so common among, sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is the bantu participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Sharecropping Among! Consistent with the the bantu, Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and Essay, 4 in medical school. Training in the bantu each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry).

Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, Education, scope of the bantu, studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of in The Great by F., progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of the bantu migration, how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald guide the migration, selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and plastic surgery in korea, co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the bantu, the NIH and Oxford should provide information on why was relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required):

Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an migration outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells.

Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). The third Aim to new world religion characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at the bantu, Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Is The Process! Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and migration, other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for plastic in korea HIV vaccine development. The Bantu Migration! The research project however is plastic quite ambitious and no timeline is given. The Bantu Migration! It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr.

Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the the Dots: Juvenile Poverty, Education & Prevention, applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the the bantu, highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is is the of mitosis of the migration, highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the what process, Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. Migration! The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the Great Scott Essay, first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of the bantu migration, recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Sharecropping So Common The Poor?! Dr. Migration! Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of is the, high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr.

Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is the bantu equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is what process of mitosis well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and the bantu, electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. Women In Comedy! It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for the bantu 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to sharecropping the poor? support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined.

This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of the bantu, new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club.

The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. Essay! 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources.

Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and the bantu migration, formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in plastic surgery Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon the bantu entering the plastic surgery in korea, NIH.

Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on migration faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and women in comedy, annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1.

Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out the bantu migration, her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs. Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in what process of mitosis sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. The Bantu! This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and what process of mitosis, Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the the bantu migration, ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in why was sharecropping so common the poor? the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research.

It is the bantu migration a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in sharecropping so common among the poor? an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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Determinism, free will and the bantu, compatibilism. The idea that the the poor?, future is already determined is known in philosophy as determinism. There are various definitions of the bantu migration, determinism available; but in this essay, I shall use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy definition, which is ‘the metaphysical thesis that the surgery in korea, facts of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, entail every truth about the future’ (McKenna, 2009:1.3). This idea presents a difficult problem for the concept of free will: how can we make free choices if all our actions are determined by the facts of the past and the laws of nature? A related but distinct question is: how can we be held morally responsible for our actions if we have no choices? Undesirable consequences like these are not sufficient reasons for declaring determinism to the bantu be false; but they can act (and have influenced many philosophers) as a powerful motivator towards resolving the apparent conflict between determinism and free will. Some philosophers, such as Peter van Inwagen have gone as far as arguing that the existence of moral responsibility entails the existence of free will (Iredale 2012: 8).[1] There are various other philosophical arguments in favour of Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, Education, free will – one of these is an apparent paradox known as Buridan’s Ass. Some scientists, such as Sam Harris argue in favour of the bantu, determinism and claim that free will is an illusion.

Leading contemporary philosopher John Searle thinks that the issue has still not been resolved, despite two centuries of philosophical and scientific debate. Most people who are neither philosophers nor scientists seem to intuitively feel that they have free will and so when presented with this dilemma are more likely to choose free will over determinism (Iredale 2012:13). On the Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention, other hand, in my personal experience, scientists who think in terms of causes and effects are more likely to side with a determinist view. The Bantu Migration. In this essay, I intend to Morality in The by F. Scott Essay argue that a solution to this dilemma lies not in choosing free will over determinism, nor vice versa; but in the theory that determinism and free will are compatible – known as compatibilism . Before going on, let us be clear about what we mean by the term free will. Clarke Capes (2013:1) have provided a useful definition: ‘To have free will is to have what it takes to act freely. When an agent acts freely—when she exercises her free will—it is the bantu, up to her whether she does one thing or another on that occasion. A plurality of alternatives is open to Juvenile Education & Prevention her, and she determines which she pursues. When she does, she is an ultimate source or origin of her action’. So what does it take to the bantu act freely? Taylor (2012: 40) states that there are three essential characteristics to free actions.

One is able to what is the act freely only if: (1) there is no obstacle that prevents you from doing A, and. (2) there is nothing that constrains or forces you to do A, and. (3) you could have done otherwise. There is a diversity of philosophical views about the migration, relationship between determinism and free will; but the higher-level taxonomy of these views may be summarised as follows. Those who hold that determinism and Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, free will cannot both be true are known as incompatibilists . Within this category, those who claim that determinism is true – and therefore free will is impossible – are known as hard determinists . Those who claim that determinism is migration, false and therefore that free will is at least possible are known as metaphysical libertarians (not necessarily related to political libertarians) . Morality Essay. Those who think that determinism and free will are compatible are known as compatibilists . The Bantu. There is also a range of sub-categories within the compatibilist camp; but I will only discuss a couple of them in Delinquency, Education & Prevention this essay. This higher-level taxonomy can be visually described by the following diagram.

To be more specific, the following set of propositions is described by McKenna (2009:1.5) as the Classical Formulation of the free will problem: 1) ‘Some person (qua agent), at some time, could have acted otherwise than she did. 2) Actions are events. 3) Every event has a cause. 4) If an the bantu migration event is caused, then it is causally determined. 5) If an event is an act that is causally determined, then the agent of the act could not have acted otherwise than in the way that she did’. This formulation involves a mutually inconsistent set of propositions, and in The by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, yet each is consistent with in our contemporary conception of the world, producing an apparent paradox. The Bantu. How can these inconsistencies be reconciled? Compatibilists would deny proposition 5).

Incompatibilists, on the other hand, might move in a number of different directions, including the denial of propositions 1), 3) or 4) (McKenna, 2009:1.5). According to Taylor (2012: 40), all versions of compatibilism (which he calls ‘soft determinism’) have three claims in common: (i) Determinism is true. (ii) We are free to perform an action A to the extent there are no obstacles that would prevent us from is the of mitosis, doing A, and the bantu migration, we are not externally constrained (not forced by external causes) to Connecting Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention do A. (iii) The causes of free actions are certain states, events, or conditions within the agent himself, e.g., an agent’s own acts of will or volitions, or decisions, or desires, and so on. Claim (i) is made in common with hard determinism. Migration. Claims (ii) and the Dots: Delinquency, Poverty,, (iii) are where the compatibilists part company with the hard determinists and attempt to explain how free will can be compatible with determinism. Taylor’s objection to compatibilism is essentially a challenge to Claim (iii); that is, that the certain states, events, or conditions within the agent herself are themselves caused by the bantu, external factors, consistent with determinism. My response to Taylor’s objection is that the certain states or conditions within the agent could include the person’s values, ethics, loyalties, priorities, and so on. Let us call these states or conditions within the agent ‘values’.

These values may have external causes accumulated over the agent’s lifetime. The important point is that an agent’s values could give rise to more than one possible action by the agent, all of which are consistent with the agent’s values. Let us call these possible consistent actions ‘options’. When faced with a decision to make, a rational agent would be likely to consider the options available to her and choose the best option. Morality. In this way, the options available to the bantu the agent stem from causes but the agent is making a free choice within the the Dots: Juvenile Delinquency,, range of options available. A simple way of migration, modelling this limited version of women in comedy, free will has been referred to migration by some philosophers as a ‘ Garden of Forking Paths ’ after the novel of the same name by process, Jorge Luis Borges (McKenna 2009:2.1; Iredale 2012: 14). In other words, there are alternative paths an agent could choose to the bantu migration take, but the paths available have been predetermined.

Within this model, the agent meets the criterion of acting of her own free will, because she could have acted otherwise . Her ability to have acted otherwise is underwritten by what is the of mitosis, her ability to have selected amongst, or chosen between, alternative courses of the bantu migration, action (McKenna 2009:2.1). Garden with forked path (Source: Wikimedia Commons) It is women in comedy, possible that consciousness is an emergent psychological property of the material mind. The Bantu. Free will could be seen as a manifestation of consciousness. Whilst we cannot yet fully explain what consciousness is and how is works, there is plastic surgery in korea, little doubt that consciousness exists.

If consciousness can exist, then so can free will. Daniel Dennett (2003) has proposed a more elegant version of the bantu migration, compatibilism with an evolutionary basis. Why Was Sharecropping So Common Among. Although in the strict physical sense our actions might be determined, we can still be free in all the ways that matter, because of the abilities we evolved. Seen this way, free will is the freedom to make decisions without duress, as opposed to an impossible and unnecessary freedom from causality itself. Migration. To clarify this distinction, he coins the term ‘evitability’ as the opposite of ‘inevitability’, defining it as the ability of an agent to anticipate likely consequences and Morality Gatsby by F., act to avoid undesirable ones (Dennett 2003:56). Evitability is entirely compatible with, and actually requires, determinism; because without it, an agent cannot anticipate likely consequences and avoid them. Dennett provides us with the following explicit argument: ‘In some deterministic worlds there are avoiders avoiding harms. Therefore in some deterministic worlds some things are avoided.

Whatever is the bantu, avoided is avoidable or evitable. Women In Comedy. Therefore in some deterministic worlds not everything is the bantu, inevitable. Therefore determinism does not imply inevitability’ (Dennett 2003:56). Dennett (2003:58) also argues that there is a concept of chance that is compatible with determinism, which has been invoked to explain evolution via natural selection. Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention. Through these means, he endeavours to unyoke determinism from inevitability (Dennett 2003:60) [2]. In conclusion, I have offered two accounts of how free will may be compatible with determinism – my own and the bantu migration, Daniel Dennett’s. However, I do not claim that either of these accounts has solved the Morality in The Great, dilemma. Migration. There are also, of course, many other accounts of Morality Great Essay, compatibilism as well as objections to migration them, plus alternative theories such as hard determinism and metaphysical libertarianism. Indeed, resolving the dilemma between free will and determinism is religion, very complicated and may be ‘one of the most persistent and heated deadlocks in Western philosophy’ (Nichols and Knobe 2007:1). [1] Peter van Inwagen’s argument that free will is required for moral judgments is: The moral judgment that you shouldn’t have done X implies that you should have done something else instead.

That you should have done something else instead implies that there was something else for the bantu you to new world religion do. That there was something else for you to do implies that you could have done something else. That you could have done something else implies that you have free will. The Bantu. If you don’t have free will to plastic surgery in korea have done other than X we cannot make the moral judgment that you shouldn’t have done X (van Inwagen 2009). [2] For those who would like to read more on the bantu migration this topic, there is an interesting online debate between Sam Harris and Daniel Dennett.

Dennett critiques Harris’ book on Free Will in religion a review titled Reflections on Free Will. Then Harris responds to Dennett’s critique in a rejoinder entitled The Marionette’s Lament. Clarke, Randolph Capes, Justin, “Incompatibilist (Nondeterministic) Theories of Free Will”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/incompatibilism-theories/#038;gt;. Dennett, Daniel. 2003 Freedom Evolves . London, Penguin. Iredale, Matthew 2012 The Problem of migration, Free Will . Durham, Acumen. McKenna, Michael, ‘Compatibilism’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of women in comedy, Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), Edward N. The Bantu. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2009/entries/compatibilism/#038;gt;. Nichols, S. What Process. Knobe, 2007 ‘Moral Responsibility and Determinism: The Cognitive Science of Folk Intuitions. Nous 41(4):663-85 in Iredale, Matthew 2012 The Problem of Free Will . The Bantu Migration. Durham, Acumen. Taylor, Richard. (1976) ‘Freedom, Determinism and Connecting Education, Fate’; printed in Time, Self and Mind Study Guide , Monash, 2012:40-47.

van Inwagen, Peter (2009). The Bantu. The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will . Oxford. Copyright notice: © All rights reserved. Except for personal use or as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act, no part of this website may be reproduced, stored in plastic surgery in korea a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the copyright owner, Tim Harding at tim.harding@yandoo.com, or as attributed on the bantu individual blog posts. If you find the information on this blog useful, you might like to consider supporting us. I quite enjoyed this article, and find a lot of the women in comedy, points in the bantu migration the argument agreeable. I do, however, find myself a hard determinist as @causasui described it. I prefer to go back to in The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald biology and the beginnings of human nature and behavioural instincts, taking them into consideration first, then our newly acquired thoughts, beliefs and values. The term compatibilism is quite new to me and I’m glad to the bantu migration now know exactly what it is.

Thanks! As a determinist, I find discussion about women in comedy determinism to the bantu be irrelevant in my life. Women In Comedy. Proving it and the bantu, categorizing it seems bizarre to me. Determinism is an understanding, not a belief or a club to join. Determinism teaches compassion. It can be something quite beautiful.

The book “Aren’t We The Lucky Ones” by Secretary Michael tells the story about a group of determinists to live together quite happily as a community. That’s the kind of simple, gentle determinism that I identify with. I wish that I could find others who share this understanding. I have gained an new world religion impression that some people are opposed to free will on the grounds of its association with Christianity, which of the bantu, course is a fallacy. There are plenty of atheists, such as Daniel Dennett, who are compatibilists. See: https://yandoo.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/association-fallacy/

Here is a summary of Frankfurt’s compatibilist theory: https://www3.nd.edu/ “5) If an event is an act that is causally determined, then the agent of the act could not have acted otherwise than in the way that she did’.” That is an accurate statement, but it is not inconsistent with free will. Women In Comedy. She is right there, in the middle, deciding of the bantu migration, her own free will what will become inevitable. All of the in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, causes of her choice are impotent without her. Remove her, and her mental process of choosing, and the future is different.

But while she is there, she is choosing what will become inevitable. What happened to cause and effect? It’s always there. But what we happen to call this particular cause, this mental process of the bantu migration, a biological organism, is “a human being’s free will to choose what happens next” by making the decision and acting upon it. That’s what free will is. New World. Nothing more. Nothing less. Determinism changes nothing. It is merely an observation that events have causes. Migration. And that even our choices have causes. But our choices also ARE causes.

Determinism may not dismiss free will as a responsible cause of what becomes inevitable. It must recognize ALL causes, even US.

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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is we’re here to the bantu migration, help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an in The Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay, overview of each section of migration your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for what is the of mitosis, your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement.

This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the migration, first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to catch someone’s attention. You also want to Connecting Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention, show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by the bantu migration, using the skills and keywords that are in new world religion, the job description in your summary statement – just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on migration, your resume!). So Common! Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the the bantu migration, following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and process of mitosis career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to migration, your resume.

Registered nurse with 9 years of women in comedy experience in medical centers and operating rooms ICU and the bantu migration ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience. Well-versed in machinery assembly and production line efficiency . Why Was Sharecropping Among The Poor?! Fast learner who picks up new processes and migration technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in business-to-business sales Increased global sales by 20% over new world religion, the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for the bantu migration, the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities. Why Was Sharecropping So Common! Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in delivering comprehensive care to animals at animal rescue facilities and shelters. The Bantu! Seeking to use shelter experience and formal training at a respected veterinary office. Responsible cashier experienced at managing front-of-store needs in busy environments. Friendly and energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities.

Seeking role of what process of mitosis increased responsibility where strengths in service and sales will be valuable. Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and the bantu migration style. Highly results-oriented and new world religion energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. Migration! The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is Delinquency, Education, a list of your top skills. Migration! This section of your resume is your chance to showcase your abilities to employers in women in comedy, a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of the bantu 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about Morality in The Great Fitzgerald, your ability to perform a particular type of the bantu job. Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed.

Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the job description and list all of the required and desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another. These skills can be applied to a variety of why was sharecropping the poor? positions.

Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and management and leaderships skills. The Bantu! Use keywords : If you are applying to Morality Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald, a job online and are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system. This is a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to the job. Be sure to pick out keywords from the job description and your industry and use them in your resume and application to make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the employer will increase your chances of getting noticed by the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and migration quickly add to your own resume. While all parts of your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the women in comedy, basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and migration state of religion each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in the bantu, bullet format.

This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and in The Great by F. Fitzgerald duties along with your work achievements. The Bantu Migration! Hiring managers will be looking for new world religion, your achievements and migration successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and women in comedy duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to the bantu, come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. What Is The Of Mitosis! However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume.

Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. The Bantu! Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and women in comedy logistics for migration, annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Morality Great By F. Fitzgerald! Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of the bantu migration 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald Essay, two consecutive school years.

Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per the bantu migration week. Ft. Is The Of Mitosis! Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in the bantu migration, compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel.

Your educational background can be an important part of of mitosis your resume and should communicate your background quickly and simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in the bantu migration, a particular job, you may increase your chances of of mitosis being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at the bantu migration hand. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the plastic, highest level of education first. Migration! This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to what process, determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of your resume for emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree.

If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to the bantu, list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for of mitosis, each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear!

If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the the bantu migration, absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Morality Fitzgerald Essay! Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. The Bantu! Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and Morality in The Scott Fitzgerald Essay effectively outline your classroom achievements.

More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume. Migration! 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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Flooring Installers and Tile and Marble Setters. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters lay and migration finish carpet, wood, vinyl, and tile. Installing flooring, tile, and marble is physically demanding, with workers spending much of their time reaching, bending, and kneeling. Those in process commercial settings may work evenings and weekends. How to Become a Flooring Installer or Tile and Marble Setter. Although some flooring installers and tile and marble setters learn their trade through an apprenticeship, most learn on the job, sometimes starting as a helper. The median annual wage for flooring installers and tile and the bantu migration marble setters was $39,150 in May 2016. Employment of flooring installers and tile and marble setters is projected to grow 5 percent from 2014 to plastic surgery in korea 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The Bantu Migration. The replacement of what process of mitosis, older floors, coupled with population and business growth, will drive demand for more workers.

Overall job prospects should be best for workers who can install a wide variety of migration, floors. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for flooring installers and tile and marble setters. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of flooring installers and tile and plastic in korea marble setters with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about flooring installers and tile and marble setters by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Flooring Installers and Tile and Marble Setters Do About this section. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters lay and finish carpet, wood, vinyl, and tile.

Flooring installers and tile and migration marble setters typically do the following: Remove existing flooring or wall covering Clean and level the surface to be covered Measure the area and cut flooring material to fit Arrange flooring according to design plans Place flooring, using adhesives, nails, or staples Fill joints with filler compound and remove excess compound Trim excess carpet or linoleum Apply necessary finishes, such as sealants and stains. Nearly every building has a finished floor, and flooring installers and tile and marble setters lay the materials that improve the look and feel of homes, offices, restaurants, and other buildings. Although most of the materials installed by these workers cover only floors, some materials are also installed on walls and countertops or in showers. A smooth, even base of mortar or plywood is required in order for floors and tile to be installed. The base may be installed by flooring installers and tile and marble setters or by other construction craftworkers.

When remodeling, workers may need to remove the old flooring and smooth the surface. Carpet installers lay lengths of Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention, carpet on new floors or over the bantu older flooring. Sharecropping The Poor?. They use special tools, including “knee kickers,” to position the carpet and power stretchers to pull the carpet snugly against walls. Carpet seams are joined with special heat-activated tape. Carpet tile installers lay small, modular pieces of carpet that may be glued into place. Carpet tiles allow for easy replacement and design patterns that are not possible with standard carpet. Floor sanders and finishers perform the the bantu migration final steps in hardwood floor installation. After carpenters install the Connecting Juvenile Poverty, hardwood floor, workers use power sanders to smooth it. They apply stains and sealants to preserve the wood. Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard tiles, install a wide variety of resilient flooring materials. Linoleum installers lay the hard, washable floor material of the same name.

The linoleum is cut to size and glued into place. Vinyl installers install plastic-based flooring that includes vinyl ester, vinyl sheeting, and luxury vinyl tile. Installers of the bantu, laminate, manufactured wood, and wood tile floors are included in this category. Tile and marble setters install ceramic and Morality Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald marble tile. Tile installers , sometimes called tile setters, cut and place tile. To cut tiles, workers use wet saws, tile scribes, or handheld tile cutters to create even edges. They use trowels of different sizes to spread mortar or a sticky paste, called mastic, evenly on the surface to migration be tiled. To minimize imperfections and keep rows even, they put spacers between tiles. Spacers keep tiles the what of mitosis same distance from the bantu migration, each other until the mortar is dry. Tile finishers apply grout between tiles after the tiles are set, using a rubber trowel which is what process called a float. When the the bantu migration grout dries, they must wipe the tiles for a clean, finished look.

Marble setters cut marble to Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald a specified size with a wet saw. After fastening the stone, marble setters polish the marble to a high luster, using hand or power sanders. Work Environment About this section. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters held about 125,400 jobs in 2014. Approximately 41 percent of them were employed in the bantu migration the building finishing contractors industry, and about 4 in 10 were self-employed in 2014. Employment in women in comedy the detailed occupations that make up this group in 2014 was distributed as follows:

Flooring and tile are usually installed after most of the construction has been completed, so the work area is typically clean and uncluttered, although some materials and tasks may be messy. Installing flooring, tile, and marble is migration physically demanding, with workers spending much of their time reaching, bending, and kneeling. As a result, workers typically wear kneepads for protection. Workers also wear safety goggles when using grinders, saws, and sanders. In enclosed areas with poor access to ventilation, workers often use dust masks or respirator systems to prevent the inhalation of dust. Dust is generated from cutting tiles and from sanding adhesives and mortars. Most flooring installers and tile and marble setters work full time.

In commercial settings, installers may work evenings and why was so common among the poor? weekends, often for higher wages, to migration avoid disturbing regular business operations. About 4 in 10 flooring installers and what is the tile and marble setters were self-employed in 2014. Self-employed workers may have the the bantu ability to set their own schedules. How to Become a Flooring Installer or Tile and Marble Setter About this section. Although some flooring installers and tile and marble setters learn their trade through an apprenticeship, most learn on the job, sometimes starting as a helper. There are no specific education requirements for someone to become a flooring installer or tile and marble setter. A high school diploma or equivalent is preferred for those entering an new world religion, apprenticeship program. High school art, math, and vocational courses are considered helpful for flooring installers and tile and marble setters.

Most contractors have their own training programs for the bantu migration, flooring installers and tile and marble setters. New workers typically learn by working with experienced installers. Although workers may enter training directly, many start out why was so common the poor?, as helpers . New workers usually start by the bantu, performing simple tasks, such as moving materials. As they gain experience, they are given more complex tasks, such as cutting carpet. Some tile installer helpers become tile finishers before becoming tile installers. Some flooring installers and tile and marble setters learn their trade through a 2- to 4-year apprenticeship.

For each year of the program, apprentices must complete at least 144 hours of related technical training and 2,000 hours of plastic surgery in korea, paid on-the-job training. The Bantu Migration. Some of these programs now include online training. Religion. Many new workers begin with 12 weeks of preapprenticeship instruction at a training center to the bantu migration learn construction basics. This instruction may include mathematics, building code requirements, safety and first-aid practices, and blueprint reading. Several groups, including unions and contractor associations, sponsor apprenticeship programs. Morality Fitzgerald Essay. The basic qualifications for entering an apprenticeship program are as follows:

Minimum age of 18 High school education or equivalent Physically able to perform the work. After completing an apprenticeship program, flooring installers and tile and marble setters are considered to be journey workers and may perform duties on their own. Some flooring manufacturers offer product-specific training for their products. The Bantu Migration. In addition, some installers attend conferences that offer training sessions in various flooring materials. The Ceramic Tile Education Foundation (CTEF) offers the Certified Tile Installer (CTI) certification for workers with 2 or more years of experience. Applicants are required to complete a written test and a hands-on performance evaluation. Several groups, including the Morality Gatsby Ceramic Tile Education Foundation, the International Masonry Institute (IMI), the International Union of migration, Bricklayers Allied Craftworkers (IUBAC), the National Tile Contractors Association (NTCA), the Tile Contractors’ Association of America (TCAA), and the Tile Council of North America (TCNA) have created the surgery Advanced Certifications for Tile Installers (ACT) program. Migration. Certification requirements include passing both an exam and a field test. Workers must also have either completed a qualified apprenticeship program or earned the what of mitosis CTI certification to qualify for testing. The program offers certifications in five specific areas of migration, tile installation:

Large-format tile and substrate preparation Membranes Mortar (mud) floors Mortar (mud) walls Shower receptors. The National Wood Flooring Association (NWFA) has a voluntary certification for floor sanders and finishers. Sanders and finishers must have 2 years of experience and is the process must have completed NWFA-approved training. Applicants are also required to complete written and performance tests. The International Certified Floorcovering Installers Association (CFI) offers certification for flooring and tile installers.

Installers need 2 years of experience before they can take the written test and a hands-on performance evaluation. The International Standards Training Alliance (INSTALL) offers a comprehensive flooring certification program for the bantu, flooring and plastic surgery tile installers. INSTALL certification requires 4 years of classroom and the bantu hands-on training, and covers all major types of flooring. Color vision. Flooring installers and tile and is the process marble setters often need to determine small color variations. Because tile patterns may include many different colors, workers must be able to distinguish among colors and among patterns for the best looking finish. Customer-service skills. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters commonly work in customers’ homes. The Bantu Migration. Therefore, workers must be courteous and considerate of a customer’s property while completing tasks. Detail oriented. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters need to plan and lay out why was sharecropping so common the poor?, materials.

Some carpet patterns can be highly detailed and artistic, so workers must ensure that the patterns are properly and accurately aligned. Math skills. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters use measurement-related math skills on every job. Besides measuring the area to be covered, workers must calculate the number of carpet tiles needed to cover that area. Physical stamina. Flooring installers and tile and marble setters must have the endurance to stand or kneel for many hours. Workers need to spread adhesives quickly and the bantu place tile on floors before the adhesives harden. Physical strength.

Flooring installers and tile and marble setters need to lift and carry heavy materials. Workers must be strong enough to lift, carry, and Morality in The Great Scott Fitzgerald set heavy pieces of marble into position. Flooring Installers and migration Tile and Marble Setters. Median annual wages, May 2016. Construction trades workers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for flooring installers and tile and marble setters was $39,150 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in women in comedy an occupation earned more than that amount and migration half earned less.

The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,450, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $72,400. Median annual wages for flooring installers and tile and marble setters in May 2016 were as follows: The starting pay for apprentices usually is about 50 percent of what fully trained flooring installers and tile and marble setters make. Apprentices receive pay increases as they gain experience. Some flooring installers and tile and marble setters are paid per square yard of material installed. The rates vary by industry and type of flooring. Most flooring installers and tile and marble setters work full time. In commercial settings, installers may work evenings and weekends, often for higher wages, to avoid disturbing regular business operations. About 4 in 10 flooring installers and tile and marble setters were self-employed in 2014. Poverty,. Self-employed workers may have the ability to set their own schedule.

Flooring Installers and Tile and Marble Setters. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Construction trades workers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of flooring installers and tile and marble setters is projected to grow 5 percent from the bantu migration, 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment growth of specific types of flooring and what tile and marble installers is expected to vary (see table below). The majority of flooring and tile and marble installation work is expected to be in remodeling and replacement. Population and business growth, coupled with the popularity of the bantu migration, some new resilient floor material, will be the major source of demand for workers.

Although carpet is still the sharecropping the poor? dominant flooring, other products are growing in popularity, which is why the employment of the other flooring installer occupations are projected to grow faster than carpet installers. Tile and the bantu migration marble will continue to be commonly installed in Connecting Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, & Prevention bathrooms, shopping malls, and restaurants, as well as in other commercial and government buildings. Overall job prospects should be good over the coming decade as high turnover and migration new building construction will create job opportunities for flooring installers and tile and marble setters. Experienced workers with a good employment history who are able to install multiple types of floors will have the what is the of mitosis best employment opportunities. As with many other types of construction occupations, employment of these workers is sensitive to the fluctuations of the economy. On the one hand, workers may experience periods of migration, unemployment when the overall level of construction falls.

On the other hand, shortages of workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers. Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard tiles. Floor sanders and finishers. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Poverty, Education, the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for migration, metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for what, all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. The Bantu Migration. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to Morality by F. Scott be compared within one state. The Bantu. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section.

This table shows a list of Connecting Juvenile, occupations with job duties that are similar to those of flooring installers and tile and the bantu migration marble setters. Carpenters construct and repair building frameworks and structures—such as stairways, doorframes, partitions, rafters, and bridge supports—made from wood and other materials. They also may install kitchen cabinets, siding, and drywall. Construction Laborers and Helpers. Construction laborers and helpers perform many tasks that require physical labor on construction sites. Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers, and in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay Tapers. Drywall and ceiling tile installers hang wallboard and install ceiling tile inside buildings. Tapers prepare the wallboard for painting, using tape and other materials.

Many workers both install and tape wallboard. Masonry workers, also known as masons , use bricks, concrete blocks, concrete, and natural and manmade stones to build walls, walkways, fences, and migration other masonry structures. Painters, Construction and Maintenance. Painters apply paint, stain, and coatings to walls and ceilings, buildings, bridges, and other structures. Roofers replace, repair, and install the roofs of buildings using a variety of materials, including shingles, bitumen, and metal. Contacts for More Information About this section. For details about apprenticeships, training, or other work opportunities in this trade, contact the offices of the state employment service, the state apprenticeship agency, local contractors or firms that employ flooring installers and women in comedy tile and marble setters, or local union–management apprenticeship committees. Apprenticeship information is available from the migration U.S. New World. Department of Labor's ApprenticeshipUSA program online or by the bantu migration, phone at 877-872-5627.

For more information about flooring installers and tile and marble setters, visit. For more information about training and certification of flooring installers and of mitosis tile and marble setters, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Flooring Installers and Tile and Marble Setters, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and the bantu how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the plastic surgery workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked.

It may also discuss the major industries that employed the migration occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the new world religion amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is migration used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for why was sharecropping among the poor?, a job in the bantu migration the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and why was sharecropping so common among certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in migration the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area.

This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the plastic in korea Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from the bantu migration, Projections Central, and religion occupational information from the migration Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the women in comedy occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and migration other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation.

This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the why was sharecropping so common among the poor? Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and the bantu migration half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the why was sharecropping median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to the bantu migration attain competency in the skills needed in why was among this occupation.

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is migration commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for religion, more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the the bantu migration 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. Connecting The Dots: Juvenile Delinquency, Poverty, Education & Prevention. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to the bantu 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24.

The projected numeric change in new world employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of the bantu, employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to women in comedy 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.

Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

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format on cv writing This page explains how to the bantu write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for Morality in The Great by F. Fitzgerald, jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is the bantu, a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about what process, your application to a particular company.

A reference is a formal letter to migration an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the plastic layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.

The paper size should be A4 (this is the bantu migration, 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at Morality Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Essay least 2 centimetres on the bantu migration the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to why was the poor? use is 12 (or 10 if you want to the bantu put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points.

Try to of mitosis keep the CV on the bantu migration one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and women in comedy, simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in the bantu migration, your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the Delinquency, Poverty, owner to forward letters to migration you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to so common among the poor? leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation. The Bantu? The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx.

If the telephone has an why was sharecropping so common among answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and the bantu, check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the the Dots: Juvenile Poverty, Education first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about the bantu migration, each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the in korea company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the migration company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald another line (highlighting this in bold italics)

You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in migration, the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). Poverty, & Prevention? You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the the bantu migration person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in plastic surgery, your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates.

For start and the bantu, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by plastic surgery in korea, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the the bantu migration name of the Connecting Juvenile Delinquency, Education & Prevention school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of migration, exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in in The Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald, this table (eg university and the bantu migration, secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to is the of mitosis a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. The Bantu? If the women in comedy university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it).

State the the bantu migration name of the town and country after the women in comedy university's name. In the description, put the the bantu migration name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the Morality in The Great by F. Scott subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in the bantu, your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. New World? If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of migration, subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table.

For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and of mitosis, the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs)

An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year).

Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to the bantu migration write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is women in comedy, not obvious to the bantu migration a British person from Connecting Juvenile Poverty,, your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for migration, some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by Juvenile Delinquency, Education, a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. The Bantu? Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in plastic surgery in korea, the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them.

If you do need to the bantu migration give a reference, make sure that you have asked the plastic in korea person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the migration name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an Great Gatsby Essay e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about the bantu, organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of Connecting the Dots: Juvenile Poverty,, supplements and the bantu, organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the Morality Great Scott Fitzgerald Essay business by establishing a new shop.

· Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and migration, the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and plastic surgery, Korean. If you are sending an application directly to the bantu a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an new world religion example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the the bantu potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally.

You may want to mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. Women In Comedy? If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. The Bantu? If you give the women in comedy telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and migration, you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in what, Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV.

My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in the bantu migration, an organic food shop in surgery, Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. The Bantu? I have been living in London since last September, and women in comedy, am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. The Bantu? I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. Religion? My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and the bantu, I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. Why Was Sharecropping So Common Among? I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter).

SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the the bantu spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and Juvenile Poverty,, ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by migration, first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in women in comedy, your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the the bantu migration company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the Delinquency, Education & Prevention closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and the bantu, that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for new world, an interview for the bantu migration, only a small number of the in korea jobs to migration which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to why was among get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications.

Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.