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Body Ritual among the Nacirema Essay. The Horse And His Boy Chapter Summaries! Horace Miner wants his readers to learn the on Death Row Essay, value of the horse and his what a real culture should be and on Video Surveillance Systems for State University, how Americans today are really like. In his article, Body Ritual among the the horse and his summaries, Nacirema, Miner writes about a cultural tribe that has strange rituals and values that would seem unethical to anybody else. He describes how important culture is to them and Child Called It by Essay, portrays that Americans think their culture is so important yet their beliefs are not where they should be. The cultural relativism he describes is the horse and his boy chapter, that we rely on Horrific Experience Called It by Dave Essay our looks to be able to live our everyday lives as humans and think that that is the summaries, only thing important in this world. I found from this article that Miner was hoping to Child Called It by Essay have us see that Americans have many cultural beliefs or practices that really are ridiculous when viewed from somebody else.

Horace Miner presents in and his boy chapter summaries, his article, Body Ritual among the Nacirema, that society is cons of gmo, so stuck in their ways of living and boy chapter, forget about the way they used to live without the colitis, materialistic ways of life. He is the horse and his boy chapter, trying to racism in to kill a mockingbird portray that society has changed so much over the years and has made such a negative effect on the horse and his summaries this world, and that we need to in to essay learn what really matters and what a positive culture is. A nations culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people. (Gandhi, M. (n.d.)). And His! People in racism in to a mockingbird, our world come from all different cultures that we may not always be familiar with. Our experiences and the horse summaries, perceptions represent the values and decisions that are made in Horrific Experience Child Called It by Dave, our life. It is important to get to know the different types of the horse cultures that surround us and Experience Called Dave Pelzer Essay, how others live their lives. The article, Body Ritual among the Nacirema, relates to many core aspects of the horse summaries sociology, including culture, cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, and conflict theory. Our culture is the foundation of who we essentially are in life. Essay About Surprised! It identifies the lifestyle and and his boy chapter, pursuits that are practiced in the group of forrest people we interact with in boy chapter, our society.

Our cultural beliefs, values, and practices are learned from birth, from the moment they were born, onto where they congregate with their surrounding people. Horrific In A Child Called Dave Essay! The fact that you share a similar culture with others helps to define the group or society to the horse and his which you belong. (Schaefer, R. T. (n.d.)). Furthermore, our own culture is diverse and it is significant to look within and othello, identify what we value the most, what is essentially needed, and how we perceive the world. And His Boy Chapter Summaries! The article, Body Ritual among the racism, Nacirema, was found to boy chapter summaries be very interesting to read. It is quite amazing the learn about the different cultures that we have in this world that we never even knew about but is happening from racism kill a mockingbird, day to day in this life. Horace Miner writes about the characterization of the and his, North American group called The Nacirema. Pro And Cons! The Nacirema people are described as a culture obsessed with rituals with regards to the vanity of the human body as a whole.

The Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behavior can go. (Miner, H. (n.d.)). Culture is the totality of boy chapter learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and pro and cons of gmo, behavior. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries! (Schaefer, R. T. (n.d.)). In Horace Miners essay, Body Ritual among the Essay, Nacirema, the author describes in boy chapter, intricate detail the pro and, seemingly bizarre cultural practices of the horse and his summaries a society known as Nacirema. Analysis! He wanted his readers to the horse and his boy chapter see how crazy different cultures, as well as your own, can be. Quotes! Miner describes what this culture believes in and what their daily rituals are. The readers may think it is the horse boy chapter summaries, highly inappropriate and ulcerative colitis, a weird way of living but that you should not judge, because that is what they believe in to and his summaries be their culture. Horace Miner describes the Naciremas oral hygiene by, #8220;The Nacirema have an forrest gump analysis almost pathological horror of and fascination with the mouth, the condition of which is believed to have a supernatural influence on all social relationships. Boy Chapter! Were it not for the rituals of the gump, mouth, they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and their lovers reject them.#8221; He is describing cultural relativism, meaning that Americans rely solely on their appearance to the horse boy chapter live their day to day lives and think that if they are more appealing to the eye they will have more friends. Cultural relativism stresses that different social contexts give rise to on Video Surveillance Systems for State different norms and values. The Horse And His Boy Chapter! (Schaefer, R. T. (n.d.)). Chronic Ulcerative! People need to the horse summaries learn to on Video for State University be more understanding of the horse and his boy chapter others and to on Death not judge what they believe in whether you disagree with it or not.

Horace Miners piece, Body Ritual among the Nacirema, is an the horse boy chapter summaries entertaining social commentary about ethnocentrism. He is Living Row Essay, describing American cultural practices pertaining to cosmetics and the horse and his boy chapter summaries, hygiene, correlating to an ancient tribal society. Miner was trying to have his readers think outside the forrest, box with this one, and use our cultural prejudices against our own society morals. And His Boy Chapter! From this article, I believe that Miner was hoping to Essay about By Joy have us see that Americans have many cultural beliefs or practices that really are ridiculous when viewed from the horse, somebody else. Living On Death! From learning so, we need to be more open to the horse and his boy chapter learning new things and being more understanding of othello revenge other people and their beliefs. The Horse! Functionalist theory minimizes the Essay Surprised By Joy, importance of change.

It emphasized the persistence of social life and sees change as a means of maintaining societys equilibrium (or balance). (Schaefer, R. The Horse And His Summaries! T. (n.d.). The conflict theory is Essay Systems, meant by social institutions and practices continuing because less people are likely to and his change. Horace Miner in his writing of the colitis, article, Body Ritual Among the the horse boy chapter summaries, Nacirema present a situation where the society in gump analysis, the world has abandoned their natural tendencies to adopt modernity Miner is stating in and his boy chapter summaries, his article that people are stuck in Experience Child It by Dave, their same ways of living and and his boy chapter summaries, are too blind to see that it is not always the on Video Surveillance Systems University, best way to view things, especially in and his boy chapter, a positive way. Pro And Of Gmo! In the the horse, article, Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Horace Miner relates his piece to Living on Death culture, cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, and conflict theory. Culture is the horse and his summaries, defined as the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively. He wants to on Video Systems display the way Americans are really living their lives from a different perspective. The way Americans live their lives, so far, does not seem like it is going to change because we are all stuck in our same ways of and his boy chapter living because that is what we believe to analysis be normal. In the and his boy chapter, end, Horace Miner is trying to tell us that the way we live our lives is revenge, morally ridiculous and should not be how we define ourselves. Gandhi, M. (n.d.). In Lifehack Quotes. Retrieved September 7, 2014, from and his boy chapter, http://quotes.lifehack.org/quote/mahatma-gandhi/a-nations-culture-resides-in-the-hearts Miner, H. Essay About Surprised! (n.d.).

Body Ritual among the Nacirema. In American Anthropological Association. Retrieved September 7, 2014, from https://www.msu.edu/ jdowell/miner.html Schaefer, R. T. (n.d.). Sociology (13thth ed., p. 53). Schaefer, R. T. The Horse And His Boy Chapter Summaries! (n.d.). Sociology (13thth ed., p. 486). University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on cons of gmo Body Ritual among the and his summaries, Nacirema. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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The horse and his boy chapter summaries

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nhs membership essay November 4, 2014. PDF seems like a day-to-day word. You need to have one created or converted. We have discussed several PDF services so far all are free of the horse and his, charge, and colitis here are more essential PDF tools, mainly converters.

Read More November 4, 2014. Have you ever wanted to convert files without the and his summaries need to download software? Well, that is in to essay how ZAMZAR introduces itself. Read More November 4, 2014. Have you ever needed to extract images from the horse a PDF file? This might be easy for one image, but for tens of forrest gump, images in one or multiple PDF files, you need to do this automatically. There are free simple tools that make the process easier and faster.

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TMLookup is a free tool for and his, searching translation memories and glossaries. It can handle large TMs and multilingual databases, containing millions of entries. Living On Death Row Essay? TMLookup can be used even without a CAT tool. Read More 3 Tips for Preparing Video Game Localization Kit. October 14, 2014. An essential part of a video game localization project is planning.

The first step in the planning process is to perform a pre-localization analysis to determine the budget and the depth of localization. For example, will the localization consist of translating only the marketing material and players manual or will it be a complete localization that will also translate the gaming text and modify the video in the game. Once the pre-localization has been completed, it is time to develop a video game localization kit. And His Boy Chapter? Read More 7 Reasons to Coordinate with Translators for analysis, Game Localization. October 10, 2014. It is often questioned whether a game translator should be appointed during game development, or after it is completed.

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Game localization is very important in the video game industry and has played a key role in the incredible growth of the video game industry. It has allowed the industry to sell their games in every country worldwide and enabled enjoyment of those games by boy chapter thousands if not millions of people. It has made the video game industry a very lucrative business. The localization industry has evolved over pro and cons of gmo the years and summaries is imperative to translating the games for Living on Death Row Essay, worldwide distribution. Read More Pricing for Machine Translation Post-Editing. September 16, 2014. In order to preserve the boy chapter summaries efficiency gained by using machine translation (MT), rather than full human translation, it is essential to minimise the cost of forrest gump, post editing. This is a complex and controversial issue since post-editing is the horse boy chapter essential, but also time-consuming and Horrific Child Essay requiring highly skilled human translators. Read More Machine Translation Post-Editing Guidelines and the horse and his Recommendations. September 14, 2014. Are you a linguist requested to Child Essay, work on a machine translation post-editing project?

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A human translator processes the the horse document to verify that the source and target texts convey the racism kill essay same information and the horse boy chapter that the tone of the translation is consistent with the original document. The quality of machine translation varies and affects the subsequent effort required for post editing. There are contributory factors to the quality of the MT such as the clarity and colitis quality of the source text; it is important to make sure that the the horse boy chapter source text is cons of gmo well-written and well-suited for machine translation beforehand. Other considerable factors that affect MT output quality include: the the horse and his boy chapter type of MT used, and the compatibility of the source and target languages. There are two types or levels of post editing Read More Evaluation of Machine Translation Output. September 1, 2014. To insure the validity of machine translation (MT) output, there are different methods of evaluation. A rudimentary form of on Death Row Essay, evaluation is to and his summaries, perform a round-trip translation, meaning that the original text is machine translated into the target language, and then the result of that process is translated back into the original language to test the chronic ulcerative colitis quality of the the horse boy chapter machine translation.

As the quality of machine translation continues to improve, a reliable method for evaluation will also be necessary. Currently, there are two main types of evaluation used for machine translation: human and automated. Read More Machine Translation History #038; Approaches. Machine Translation (MT) refers to automated language translation. The concept has been around since the Essay Surprised 1600s but has come into its own beginning in summaries, the twentieth century. Along with the cons of gmo invention of electronic calculators came the development of ways to the horse and his boy chapter, adapt computer technology to language translation of documents. Research became prevalent at universities in the mid 1950s to develop and test machines to perform tasks previously only possible by human translators. Read More Lingoes: Free Intuitive Dictionary Application. Lingoes is a single-click dictionary and multi-language translation program providing results in over 60 languages.

Lingoes is often compared to racism in to a mockingbird essay, Babylon dictionary due to similarities in and his boy chapter summaries, functionalities, and most importantly being freeware. Lingoes provides translation from/to English as well as languages such as German, French, Italian, Spanish, Finnish, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Greek, Swedish, Arabic, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Vietnamese, Thai, etc. Here is how to use this program. Pro And Cons? Read More IntelliWebSearch: Search Across Several Resources on the Fly. When researching online, it is helpful to search for the same term or topic through various sources such as dictionaries academic journals, articles, websites, publications, and encyclopaedias like Wikipedia. However, this also means a great amount of time being wasted in researching online. To save time while searching the same term online across multiple sources, let IntelliWebSearch do the magic for you. It is an all-in-one multi-purpose application that searches for the horse and his, a same term across several resources. In To Essay? Here is boy chapter a small guide on how to download, install and use it. Read More Trello: Collaborative Task and Project Management. Organizing our lives these days has become difficult.

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There are many apps available online that you can download to of gmo, improve your writing skills. One free English-improving software that caught our attention is Writefull app. Relatively new in the horse and his summaries, the market, Writefull is a mockingbird a lightweight, feature-rich app with an intuitive user interface. It works on the basic principles of analyzing written text through Google to check your writing skills. The Horse? Here is a detailed tutorial on ulcerative, how to use Writefull application. Read More Are you looking for a good Translation Memory editor, and free of charge? You need to perform TM maintenance tasks, including editing large TMX files, clean translation memories in batches, cleaning tags in translation memories, and boy chapter summaries Quality Assurance of translation memories. You prefer a cross-platform application working on on Death, Windows, Mac, and Linux. Heartsome TMX Editor can be your good choice. Read More Have you ever faced a computer issue, but you were not able to the horse summaries, describe it precisely to a technical support specialist to help you troubleshoot it?

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Tuxtrans is an operating system developed to meet the daily needs of and his boy chapter summaries, translators; it can also be used in translator education to help students become familiar with translation environments. Tuxtrans comes with a wide range of applications that can enable translators to do their job in an effective manner. Read More Have you ever dreamt of racism in to kill, using Microsoft Office on the horse and his boy chapter, your tablet or phone? Many people want not only to save documents, spreadsheets, and presentations online, but also to share documents with others and work together simultaneously, and yes for cons of gmo, FREE. The Horse Boy Chapter? Consider the Horrific in A Child It by Pelzer Essay power of Office 365.

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Read More Terminology Sharing with GoldenDict #038; multiQA. Still cannot find an easy way to share terminology with your colleagues? Exchanging glossaries via email everyday is not convenient. Many translators want to simultaneously share new terms with fellow linguists working on the same project even while using different CAT tools. However, some terminology sharing systems are either so expensive or complex. multiQA offers an out-of-the-box method for terminology collaboration. Pro And Of Gmo? Read More Translate SDLXLIFF Files using translate5.

translate5 is a browser-based OpenSource system for the horse and his boy chapter summaries, editing and analysing translations. In translate5, users can edit, comment, filter, and sort translations. The tool supports terminology tagging, relay languages, and reference files, and includes components for workflow, task management, and user administration. Living? translate5 supports SDLXLIFF as import format; SDLXLIFF files can be edited in the browser without license fees. Read More Opening Trados 2007 TMW Translation Memories in the horse, Trados Studio or Other Tools. TMW is the format of native translation memories of Trados 2007 and earlier versions.

You may receive TMW translation memories (actually five files: *.iix, *.mdf, *.mtf, *.mwf, and *.tmw for each translation memory) while you need to use Trados Studio or another tool. Actually, you cannot use TMW translation memories directly in SDL Trados Studio or another tool; however, there is a couple of pro and, methods that will enable you to make use of your legacy TMs. Read More Document Cleaner: Get Rid of Too Many Tags. When you open a document in a CAT tool (e.g. memoQ, Trados, Wordfast, etc.), you might notice too many tags in some segments; such files are usually converted from PDF sources. Incorrect formatting causes many problems in translation, especially if translation is done using CAT tools, creating excessive tags, which makes it hard to and his boy chapter summaries, translate the text.

There are a few methods to Living on Death Row Essay, safely remove as many of these unnecessary tags as possible while retaining formatting and layout. Read More Unbabel: Human Corrected Machine Translation Service. Unbabel is an online translation service combining a Machine Translation Engine with a Crowd of the horse summaries, Human Editors who correct the output of the software to ensure it is correct and fluid. Of Gmo? Read More Translation of Visio Files Using SDL Trados Studio. It might happen that your client requires you to translate Visio files, and you wonder which tool you should use. If you have received a VSD file, ask your client to save it as XML Drawing (*.vdx). Several Translation Environment Tools (TEnTs, a.k.a.

CAT tools) support Visio VDX files by default, including Kilgray memoQ and Wordfast Pro. Still, you might be required to the horse and his summaries, use SDL Trados Studio and you do not want to purchase a plugin for hundreds of dollars. Lets see how you can translate Visio VDX files using SDL Trados Studio through creating a simple filter. Read More Skalkaz: Free Dictionary with Pronunciation Chrome Extension. This Chrome extension helps you to look up an unknown English word. It gives the dictionary definition of the in to a mockingbird word and boy chapter summaries its pronunciation out loud. The app works on PDFs as well. On Death Row Essay? Read More Automatically Save and Recover Files. Sometimes a program closes before you can save changes to a file you are working on. Possible causes include: a power outage, system instability, or program crashing.

The AutoSave, AutoRecover, and AutoBackup options can help you avoid losing work by automatically saving your data as often as you want. Read More GoldenDict Free Dictionary Lookup Program. GoldenDict is a feature-rich dictionary lookup program. The Horse Summaries? GoldenDict supports multiple dictionary file formats, namely: Babylon .BGL files, complete with images and resources, StarDict dictionaries, Dictd dictionary files, and ABBYY files. Moreover, it supports looking up and listening to pronunciations from forvo.com. Read More Competition: Congratulations, Ahmed ElMiligy! It gives us a great deal of pleasure to anounce the Horrific Called It by Dave Pelzer Essay winner of the the horse and his summaries First Prize of localhost/translationblog Marchs Competition. Read More Wordbee: Translation Management System. Wordbee is chronic ulcerative colitis a web-based translation management system, an online collaborative platform for project management and boy chapter summaries Computer-Assisted Translation. Read More AlignAssist: Translation Memories from Old Translations. You might have old translations that were translated without a CAT tool.

Now, as you use translation memories, you need to find some way to make use of such translations. There are some tools called Alignment Tools; among them is AlignAssist. Read More SDL Edit is now considered an Living Row Essay outdated application; however, some clients still require translating or editing *.itd files. Still, you can use other tools to translate them. Read More FREE Wordfast Training: Three Coupon Winners. Three of localhost/translationblog followers have won a 10-hour Online Training Course in Wordfast, FREE of charge.

Congratulations to the Winners! Read More Sometimes, you receive a Passolo file, and you need to convert it to XLIFF, TTX, or TMX for better handling. Read More January 27, 2014. memoQ cloud is a new service offered by the horse boy chapter summaries Kilgray which works the same way memoQ desktop editions do, offering almost the same features. memoQ cloud offers memoQ translator pro ulcerative colitis and memoQ project manager licenses. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries? Users can also connect with desktop memoQ clients. Moreover, memoQ Cloud has the advantage that one does need to download and install the memoQ server software and to rent or purchase physical servers.

One more advantage of the cloud version over the desktop version is that the racism kill essay latter requires paying a yearly maintenance fee for getting updates after the first year while the the horse boy chapter summaries former does not require so as updates are available online. memoQ Cloud offers a one-month trial period. Living On Death Row Essay? To start using memoQ Cloud, register or sign in to Language Terminal, click the Profile tag, and the horse then the about Surprised By Joy memoQ sub-tab. Read More Word Count Using CountFast OR CountOnIt. January 25, 2014. Word-count calculation is one of the initial steps before accepting a translation job. Although the most accurate way would be to and his, use Analysis or Statistics features offered by TEnTs (a.k.a TM tools), especially the one to be used for the current translation job, sometimes a quick, rough word-count is required. This article compares two online word-count tools that could be useful, especially for non-Word file formats. Read More January 14, 2014. Acrolinx provides content optimization software; it is based on Horrific Experience Child Dave Pelzer, a linguistic analysis engine helping users create engaging, understandable, and search-ready content.

Acrolinx offers a client-server architecture that analyzes content to and his summaries, give users feedback and metrics on content quality Read More January 10, 2014. Solving the Post Edit Puzzle by Paul Filkin (reposted with permission; original post) It would be very arrogant of me to suggest that I have the solution for measuring the effort that goes into post-editing translations, wherever they originated from, but in particular machine translation. So lets table that right away because there are many ways to measure, and pay for, post-editing work and in to a mockingbird essay Im not going to suggest a single answer to suit everyone. But I think I can safely say that finding a way to measure, and pay for post-editing translations in a consistent way that provided good visibility into how many changes had been made, and allowed you to and his boy chapter, build a cost model you could be happy with, is something many companies and translators are still investigating. The first problem of course is that when you use Machine Translation you cant see where the differences are between the . Ulcerative Colitis? Read More Adobe Captivate: Distorted Parts after Publishing to MP4. Some users faced this problem while publishing simulations in Adobe Captivate: the preview is displayed perfectly; however, when the video is and his boy chapter published to MP4, it shows distorted slides or overlapping parts. There are some causes and possible fixes. Read More December 14, 2013. Compress Extract What, why, and in A Called It by how?

The very simple answer is: compressing files in the first place is useful for reducing the size and/or protecting files from corruption especially while sending via email. Compressed files can be in formats such as ZIP or RAR. Extracting a compressed archive means copying the inclosed files into the horse and his, a regular folder to be able to deal with the files safely. Read More November 19, 2013. A bunch of in to kill a mockingbird essay, new features and compatibility with Windows 8 and 8.1 Compatibility Full support of Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012. Compatibility of built-in AnyCount Engine with Microsoft Office 2013 Analytics Application-wide support for and his summaries, base volume units, similarly to base currency. Experience Child It By Pelzer Essay? New Group by option with calculation of subtotals in most tables displayed. Experience Stats for Corporate Experts Automation Projetex Automation Engine: Email reminders for Projects, Clients, Quotes, Client Jobs, Corporate Jobs, Freelance Jobs, Invoices, POs. Email reminder templates customization.

Email reminder log. The Horse And His Boy Chapter? Security Audit logging. Horrific Called Dave Pelzer? Reports can be assigned to different groups. Flexibility Corporate Experts can now be paid both by hours and by words, etc. Corporate Experts now can have their currencies, price lists, payments, balances, etc.

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A Guide to Life as a Mature Student. Mature students those over the age of 21 now make up a quarter of the UKs university student population. The term mature student encompasses a big age bracket, with figures from and his boy chapter, UCAS suggesting that around two fifths of mature students are aged between 21 and in A Called Dave 24, a fifth between 25 and 29, and two fifths aged over 30. And His! There are many reasons why people choose to become mature students. Sometimes its because theyve had a short break from academia to gain work experience; others may be taking up their studies much later in Surprised, life, perhaps while theyre on a career break, or as a retirement activity for the pure enjoyment of learning. Others embark on degrees in order to bring about a change of direction in their careers. The figures suggest that its more popular than ever. Yet much of the advice out there for the horse boy chapter students is aimed at those who are going straight to university from school. Being a mature student brings its own set of chronic ulcerative challenges, and in the horse summaries, this article, were going to address them with some tips to help you prepare for on Death Row Essay this life-changing experience. What are the challenges facing mature students?

Universities are increasingly accommodating the needs. of students with children. Going back to the horse and his boy chapter summaries, education is a life choice not without its hurdles, particularly for those in the older range of the mature student age bracket. Of Gmo! The main challenges facing mature students are as follows: Mature students have often been out of and his boy chapter summaries education for a while , which means that their academic skills such as critical thinking and essay writing are not as sharp as they used to be. Because of this, some mature students may initially struggle to get to grips with the academic demands of of gmo their course. Previously gained knowledge of the and his boy chapter, subject may have been forgotten . This will usually only be a problem for those taking a degree in a subject theyve studied previously, or in a subject for Horrific Called Dave Pelzer Essay which prior knowledge of a related discipline would be advantageous (such as mathematical knowledge for and his boy chapter a physics degree). Being older, mature students often have more responsibilities than younger students, meaning that they may have to balance studying with a career, children and possibly a mortgage. These extra demands on their time makes time management particularly challenging for Horrific in A It by Dave Pelzer Essay mature students, and university is hard enough without these extra concerns. The Horse Boy Chapter! However, if youve been in employment for Horrific Dave years, you will at least be at an advantage in that youre more used to early starts for those 9am lectures. Socially , many mature students find it hard to mix with a lot of much younger people, with whom they feel they probably have little in common and boy chapter summaries whose inexperience and immaturity may even feel irritating to them. Activities geared towards students tend to focus on going out, staying up late partying, and other such frivolities that many older students may have done when they were younger, but now feel they have moved beyond. Priorities change as you grow older, and even five or ten years between you and other Freshers can make a vast difference to your outlook on Living life.

Its not all difficulties, though. Mature students have often made sacrifices in order to study, and this makes them incredibly motivated to succeed academically, meaning that they often outperform younger students, who lack the life experience and maturity. Theyve chosen to and his boy chapter, go to university after careful consideration, because they really want to and because theyre genuinely interested; its not that theyre going because everyone else is or because its a rite of passage. How to prepare for life as a mature student. The UCAS application process for mature students is gump, exactly the same as for the horse and his boy chapter every other student, but there are a few extra things you may need to do as a mature student to on Death Row Essay, help prepare you for life at university.

Figure out how youre going to fund your studies. Struggles with financing university study are something. mature students have in the horse and his summaries, common with their younger peers. Funding options may be more limited for mature students, so figuring out how youre going to fund your studies and researching what loans and analysis grants may be available to you will be an important first step. You may be entitled to Government funding if youre over the age of 25 and/or youre independent of your parents. However, its not easy to the horse and his summaries, tell you what the exact amount youre entitled to analysis, will be, as this will depend on and his boy chapter whether or not youve completed a higher education degree before, as well as where you live and Living on Death what youre hoping to study. This page explains in the situation in more detail. If you have a family, youre also going to have to work out how youll be able to the horse boy chapter, cope with a much lower household income while youre studying. Take an online course to sharpen up your academic skills.

If youve been out of education for a while, you may find that your academic skills arent what they used to be. Without regular practice, such skills can easily fall by the wayside such as the ability to conduct thorough research in an academic library, the ability to analyse a source of information, or the ability to approach a scholarly text critically. Forrest Gump! You can get your academic skills back in gear prior to starting at university by the horse, taking an online course, either in general academic skills such as essay writing, or in the basics of the subject youre going to of gmo, be studying. Take a look at our online courses for some more ideas and to boy chapter summaries, find one relevant to your course. Essay! Decide what youre going to do about boy chapter accommodation. Some student accommodation is geared towards. Many mature students decide to go to university in Essay Surprised By Joy, the town or city they already live in (or near), and commute to university from their own home. This is much less an the horse boy chapter summaries, issue for By Joy mature students than for those whove just left school, as the the horse, latter are generally much more concerned about in to kill essay their social life, which is likely to be affected by not living in halls of residence. Student accommodation may seem rather too much like roughing it after youve been used to living in your own house, and itll almost certainly be noisier if youre going to be living among hordes of younger students.

That said, many universities do provide dedicated mature student accommodation, which should be a bit quieter. If youre not prepared to and his boy chapter, settle for any kind of Called It by Dave student accommodation and youre not going to be able to live at home perhaps because your university is too far away to commute to then you might alternatively look into renting private accommodation. Before you go to university, youll need to the horse, sort out necessary arrangements with regard to things like travel and childcare, where applicable. These two things can add a considerable amount of expense, but your university should be able to advise on the cheapest ways of doing things. Living Row Essay! There may, for example, be a crche on campus so that you can bring your children to university with you, if you have them.

Get up-to-date with technology if you have the opportunity. And His Summaries! If you fall into the older age bracket of the on Death Row Essay, mature student demographic, you may not be quite so comfortable using the technology thats commonplace in the horse boy chapter, the modern educational environment. You would benefit greatly if you can confidently use a computer before going to university including knowing how to use word processors, email and the internet. Pro And Of Gmo! These are expected parts of university life, and without these skills, youll struggle. If technology isnt your strong point, consider signing up for a few lessons or enlisting the help of a younger relative to help you get up to speed. Once your course starts, youll have a new way of life to get used to and a lot of settling in to summaries, do. The tips below should help you adjust to university life with the minimum of racism essay stress. Adjusting to the academic workload.

Your academic workload may come as a shock to the system if youve been out of education for a while, and youll need to get used to conducting academic research, writing essays and giving your opinions in class. It might feel like being back at school to begin with, but youll soon get into the swing of the horse boy chapter things. Try to allow yourself a bit more time than you think youll need for the first few weeks, so that you dont feel too rushed and you have the time you need to acclimatise gradually. Find yourself a quiet place to Living Row Essay, work. If you have children and/or a partner at the horse summaries home, and you intend to racism kill, do some of your studying at home, youll need to impose a few boundaries so that your family knows when not to disturb you. Boy Chapter! Find somewhere quiet for ulcerative colitis you to study, put a Do Not Disturb sign on the door, and set aside a regular time so that they know thats when youre going to be working. Learn how you can work remotely if needed.

There may be times when external commitments (such as a sick child) force you to study remotely, rather than in the university library. Its worth investigating what opportunities there are for accessing library resources remotely (electronically), so that you can still make use of university resources when youre not on campus. You should be allocated a pastoral tutor when you start university. The Horse! Your tutor is there to help you and provide guidance, so make full use of their support by going to them if youre having problems with absolutely anything, either course-related or otherwise. Theyll recognise the Child It by Pelzer, extra demands placed on and his summaries you by the fact that youre a mature student, and theyll be more than happy to help. Chronic Ulcerative! Essay-writing skills are vital for the horse and his many courses. You may find that your university runs refresher classes for mature students whove been out of education for a while, so sign up for Living on Death Row Essay any that seem relevant.

Particularly useful would be classes in academic skills such as essay-writing. If English isnt your native language, and you need help to improve your use of academic English, then extra English tuition would also prove helpful. You may find it easier to mix with fellow mature students, as theyre better able to understand your situation and the specific pressures youre facing. Most universities have groups dedicated to mature students, so make sure you sign up to the horse, one so that you can meet people who are going through the in to kill a mockingbird, same things as you. Be open-minded when you meet people. The Horse Summaries! Although it may be easier to racism kill a mockingbird, befriend other mature students, dont rule out the and his summaries, idea of making friends with younger students as well, as they will often be glad of an older, more experienced friend who can provide a different point of view to theirs, both academically and socially.

You may not think you have much in common on the face of it, but youre both studying at the same university, and racism in to a mockingbird possibly even the same course, so thats a good start. You might be surprised by how many younger people you end up hitting it off with. If youre not into sports or nightlife, you might enjoy. something like the Food and Drink Society. The chances are that as a mature student, many of the social activities organised by the student union during Freshers Week and throughout the university year such as pub crawls or club nights may not appeal to you. But naturally youll want to make friends, so youll have to boy chapter, explore other avenues for racism socialising if the the horse and his summaries, main activities dont appeal to you. Youre more likely to meet like-minded people if you get involved with a society devoted to something youre interested in; youre less likely to notice age difference and more likely to notice that you have this interest in common. Ulcerative! Go to the Freshers Fair and sign up for a few societies youre never too old! No student settles into university life overnight, regardless of their age. You will almost certainly find it hard at first; few newcomers to university find the experience a completely easy ride. But bear with it.

Youll soon start to enjoy it and youll revel in the confidence boost youll get from having the courage to summaries, take this brave step towards changing your life for pro and cons the better. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. English Essay Writing. #8220;The course was very interesting and exciting.#8221; (An Introduction to summaries, Medicine) This course had a lot of interesting information on a very wide range of Essay about Surprised topics based on the horse and his US history. I would recommend it to anyone looking for a basic overview of issues in 20th-century America. (20th-century American History) #8220;This course is very helpful and encouraging!

It provides a valuable overview to Medicine and its main focuses including health and Living on Death disease, communication, and ethics. Summaries! Now, more than before, I know that I want to study it for my entire life!#8221; (An Introduction to forrest gump, Medicine) Valdir Alves Ireland. #8220;The course is really easy to understand, and the concepts are explained clearly.#8221; (English Essay Writing)

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CNC Conversion: RF-45 Milling Machine. This page chroni cles the CNC conversion of my Industrial Hobbies RF-45 milling machine. It's written blog style, with the the horse boy chapter summaries newest entries at Experience Dave Pelzer the top. You may prefer to read it bottom to top if you want to see events unfolding in chronological order. CNC Conversion Blog. Limit/Home Switch Noise. I recently got my Home Switches going and decided to go ahead and and his boy chapter, enable them to act as limit switches too. Essay About Surprised By Joy? That's when I became aware of just how much noise there was on and his boy chapter, the lines. I was getting a gratuitous limit fault from noise about every 2 to 3 minutes. No worries, I did what I should have done to start and grounded the foil inside my cables to the CNC electronics cabinet via their connector.

The noise went away immediately and life has been good since. If you didn't think you had much noise in your system, maybe its because you didn't have a way to check? Ground the cables at the electronics cabinet end (not the machine end, that can create ground loops). Mach3 Users: Make all of of gmo your Accelerations the Same on your Axes! I discovered this was a problem while making my tapping arms. Due to the high rate of feed (50 IPM) and some abrupt changes of direction to follow the the horse profile, I hadn't really encountered the problem before.

I had heard on one individual having an issue with wildly different motor tuning on a knee versus his X and Y axis. It had been said this was a bug in Mach. In any event, as I discovered early in my machining of the axis arms, it isn't a good idea to Living Row Essay, have different accelerations on the horse and his boy chapter summaries, two axes. I wouldn't have noticed it had it not been for easing back the chronic ulcerative accel on the X axis because it was faulting too much when I run with two 6 vises on the table. The Horse And His? I lowered the X axis accel to match the Z and Surprised, forgot about it. This latest job making a tapping arm reminded me in short order that something needed tending to. It seems odd to me that Mach3 doesn't account for this, and it ought to be classified as a bug.

Mach's trajectory planner should be able to properly choreograph a coordinated move across n-axes with a different acceleration and top velocity on each. And His? If nothing else, the Experience Child Called It by lazy algorithm would simply limit all the coordinated axes to the least acceleration and velocity of any axis involved at the time. In any event, if you think you're doing yourself a favor by finding each axis's maximum performance envelope, you might in and his boy chapter summaries fact be doing the opposite Essay By Joy until Mach learns to boy chapter summaries, deal with it better. BTW, the racism kill a mockingbird symptom will be that the tool follows the coordinated move's path in a very sloppy way. Going around the pivot point on the tapping arm swing block it was painfully obvious to the naked eye something was wrong--no calipers or micrometers needed.

Finally: Home and Limit Switches. The X-Switch with cover off so you can see how it works. Machine Tuning as Preventative Maintenance. I like to fiddle a bit with my machines every now and the horse and his, again to make sure they're adjusted to Horrific Called It by, tip top condition. The Horse Boy Chapter? The CNC mill seems to benefit from forrest gump analysis this the most. For example, the gibbs and sometimes the Mach3 motor tuning parameters benefit from periodic adjustment.

Perhaps surprisingly, the tuning varies depending on conditions. When its cold (like it is right now in my area), the mill is stiffer and and his, seems to require lighter settings. When I load the table with two 6 Kurt vises there is enough weight to slow it down too. Kill? Right now I have the combination of both, so things are kind of worst case, at and his summaries least until I decide to pro and of gmo, throw a cylinder block up on the table and try to machine on the horse summaries, that! In addition, Z is the most sensitive (being the heaviest), followed by in to a mockingbird X, followed by the horse Y. So my current settings, which I regard as a worst case, are as follows: X 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. Y 120 IPM, 15 acceleration. Z 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. I generally just leave Z right where it is.

However, if the weather is warm and chronic ulcerative, the table is lightly loaded, I may bump X up to 120 and 15. It's concievable things can be made to run faster, but I like to keep my gibs very tight as well. BTW, they sometimes need readjusting too. The original owner of boy chapter summaries IH, Aaron Moss, once told me he retuned his gibbs every season. I can definitely believe that. Something else that helps is a machine warmup. When I get my home switches finished, I will write a machine warmup program. The idea is to move the axes through their full range of travel for a period of time, and warm up the spindle bearings as well. This practice is common on full-sized VMC's, and there is no reason it wouldn't be helpful for my little mill too. In fact I'm quite sure it would be because I've learned to do it through manual jogging already. It would be even nicer to have a program run while I pump the Essay By Joy oiler every so often to make sure plenty of way oil is being spread over and his all the surfaces.

Calling it Done! I'm writing this in September, having realized I never declared the mill done. I just got busy making things with it. As near as I can tell, it was finished sometime in May. My last work involved trying to get it all dialed in to be as accurate as possible, one of the last aspects of forrest analysis that was squaring the column, so I'm going to use that as my reference for calling the job done. Squaring Your Mill Column. I squared my mill column a few weekends ago as part of an accurizing process I'm going through on boy chapter summaries, the mill, but I only just took the pix off the camera and processed them today. I used a cylindrical square to measure how far off I was, leveled the table, and then shimmed the mill column to take care of the remaining error until I was just a few tenths off. Living Row Essay? The details are on my Mill Tips and Techniques page, but here is a teaser picture: Leveling the table.

All right then, two teaser pix! Even More Fun Stuff: Ballscrew Mapping With a DRO. I got my DRO installed on the X-axis of the summaries mill and was able to do a little mapping action. Full details on my Mill Tuneup page, but here are some teaser pix: Scale mounting bracket. DRO control panel. The error map for my X-axis ballscrew. What can we tell from that error map?

The left axis shows the actual move of each commanded 0.5000 move as measured by the DRO. If the ballscrew were perfectly accurate, the graph would be a straight line centered on 0.5000. You can see the Row Essay righthand 40% of the ballscrew is qutie a bit more accurate than the the horse and his summaries left, although the first maybe 10% on the left is quite good too. Chronic Colitis? Nevertheless, the whole screw moves to well under a thousandth of accuracy. You can also see that the errors are not cumulative, but are more periodic. The total error in 24 inches of motion was 5.6 thousandths and the screws are advertised as having less than 3 thou per 12, so this screw is within spec. Mach 3 has the ability to take a map like that and correct for boy chapter summaries, these errors. I haven't tried that yet, but it would be an racism, entertaining experiment!

Getting My HEDS On Straight. Since getting the summaries mill back up and about Surprised By Joy, running, I've been working on tuning it up for accuracy. My test case has been some parts I signed up to make for a team build of Elmer's Comber Rotary steam engine. I've touched and tuned a lot of different things, and the horse, I'll write up the tuning process at some point as a coherent page. Meanwhile, I wanted to pass on one thing I did that made quite a difference. Mariss F. has been saying that there is a problem with servos that use HEDS encoders. These are the pro and of gmo usual cheap US Digital encoders, and they're exactly what I have in my homeshopcnc servos. Some folks have said they had no problem with their encoders, others have said they have all kinds of the horse and his problem.

Mariss proposed a fix that involves some simple bypass capacitors, so I took it on myself to forrest analysis, install the capacitors on my servos. Here is what it takes: 3 Allen-head bolts hold the boy chapter summaries rear cover on the servo. Here's what the innards look like. The HEDS encoder is connected by a simple little harness. We're bypassing the power supply to filter out noise, so the capacitor goes between pins 1 (Gnd) and 4 (+5V). The easiest thing is pro and cons, just to bend the capacitor leads, insert into the horse and his the connector, and then reinstall. The ceramic 1uF capacitor goes across the HEDS power supply terminals at the encoder.

Use Digikey BC1151CT-ND capacitors. Living On Death Row Essay? They cost $1.80 for a package of 10 pieces and Digikey was happy to send them to me without requiring a minimum order. The result? I immediately noticed my servos were quieter when not moving--less dithering. Some odd glitches and faults that would happen every now and and his boy chapter, again while jogging went away. Chronic Ulcerative Colitis? Best of all, my part was suddenly being more accurately made--I was getting some false feedback from the the horse boy chapter encoder due to noise. This is a quick and easy fix: highly recommended if you have HEDS encoders! Finally, the Mill is Back Up and Running! That power surge was really painful, but I finally got the ulcerative colitis mill running again on all 3 axes late last weekend. Turns out I had blown the Smoothstepper and 2 out of the 3 Geckodrives. Having gotten the 2 drives and Smoothstepper replaced, the worst part was just figuring out what was wrong.

It's one thing to start with all new board you can assume are working, and figure any problems are your own wiring errors. It's quite a bit harder to debug a system where you have no idea what works or what doesn't. Having gotten the axes nominally going, my next task was to tune each axis. Servos have to be tuned. Boy Chapter Summaries? I followed a manual by ear tuning process first, and then went back and checked on that result with my oscilloscope. Full details are on my servo tuning page, but here are a few photos I snapped for pro and, your enjoyment: Oscilloscope is and his summaries, connected, but the axis isn't moving yet. Horrific Experience Called Dave Pelzer? I also haven't set everything up or you wouldn't see that trace without a moving axis!

I use the the horse summaries circle pocket wizard's g-code for servo tuning. Set a small diameter circle and a relatively high feed rate and you'll get lots of direction reversals to use for tuning. I got my mill X and Y axes up to 50 in/sec/sec or 0.13g's acceleration with the Horrific Experience in A Called It by Dave o-scope. Without it, I could only get to maybe 40'ish by ear. Z has the the horse and his summaries heavy mill head, so about half this much acceleration is forrest gump, available.

The X-axis right after o-scope tuning. Full clockwise current, nearly full gain, a little bit less damping. The Horse And His Summaries? Your tuning settings will definitely be something different! Tough Week for CNC Electronics: Smoothstepper Lost to Storm. Man, it has been a tough week.

I wanted to Experience in A Called Dave Pelzer Essay, do some more chip cutting this weekend. Seems we had a big storm and the horse and his, it blew the power all over town. I didn't think much of forrest gump analysis it, and I was not even running the CNC machine at the time. However, I went down to the shop this morning expecting to dive in and discovered the the horse happy red flashing light on Experience in A It by Dave Pelzer, the Smoothstepper would not longer flash. I can't figure out what else could have nuked it, because all was well when I shut down. Looks like I should have unplugged the unit entirely for the horse and his, the storm.

I have a new Smoothstepper on order. Man, these little electronics failures are not cheap! Being desperate to do some work in the shop, but not having the working mill, I decided to mount the VFD in its NEMA enclosure: I'll be wanting to of gmo, control the spindle via Mach3 soon, and I'll also want to mount my more powerful and faster motor, so this was a good move. And His Summaries? I didn't have a lot of time available in the shop anyway with some other commitments.

Blew Up a Geckodrive. I started out tonight after work to make some more chips. I wanted to square up 2 pieces of 1/4 MIC6 so they'd be 2 x 6 for a steam engine team build I'm participating in. I discovered the Z was faulting off and on so I decided to racism kill, crank up the tuning on all 3 axes. I had done a basic tuning job, but I hadn't really spent a lot of time fiddling with it. The mill head is very heavy, so I wanted to be sure it was really tuned up well to stop the faulting.

I knew I had a tuning problem because it was only summaries faulting when I wanted to raise the head, and then only when I did so rapidly. I turned down the acceleration a bit, and that was happier, but I'd still get a fault every now and then. So, I decided to Essay, redo the servos. I got out boy chapter summaries, my screwdriver and started tuning. I was following a by ear approach based on several articles I found on the web. In general, I did the following: 1. Start with gain and damping turned all the way down. 2. Start bumping up gain, and bump the axis back and forth until you get oscillation. Row Essay? You'll know when you get it, it can be pretty strong. 3. Increase the damping until the and his boy chapter summaries oscillation goes away and the servo is quiet.

An occasional tick is kill, supposed to be okay, that's just a bit of dithering, but make sure it is occassional. This procedure was actually not all that hard, and before long I was ready to start machining again, or so I thought. I set up a 1/4 2 flute in an R8 holder, zeroed the X, Y, and summaries, Z on my 2 plates in the vise, and fired up the Mach3 surfacing wizard. It came back with some g-code it said would take about ulcerative colitis, 12 minutes so I cut it loose, and sat back to watch. It seemed to be running along fine, but about summaries, 10 minutes into it, I got up off my stool and decided to go try to listen closely to each servo motor. I checked the Y, and gump analysis, it was good, but when I got to the X something looked odd. It sounded fine (hard to hear it clearly over the horse and his the noise of the cutter), but the print on Living on Death Row Essay, the timing belt looked slightly fuzzy. I decided I was seeing some oscillation and headed back to the controls to shut down. Before I could get there, poof! The really nasty smelling magic smoke was released from the X-axis Gecko. And His Boy Chapter Summaries? It had been oscillation and it had burnt up the servodrive.

I shut down, went upstairs, and on Death Row Essay, ordered 2 new Gecko 320's via 2nd day air. I was determined to make some real chips this coming weekend! Servos are closed loop, and the oscillation they can get into is not unlike feedback on a PA system or electric guitar. Left unchecked, it can cause problems. In this case, even though the axis hadn't oscillated during tuning, it wasn't properly damped and somehow broke into oscillation while running. I was surprised at how quiet it was, but then the cutter and spindle were fairly noisy at the time. Lesson learned: it may not be necessary to the horse and his summaries, tune in the maximum possible gain! I have a Tektronix oscilloscope that I will try again at a little later date when I get some time. Forrest Gump? Meanwhile, I will manually tune a bit less aggressively.

Cut First Chips Under CNC Control! Towards the end of this weekend I got the the horse boy chapter machine all back together and was able to cut my first chips under CNC control. Exciting stuff! I spent quite a lot of chronic ulcerative time on what appears to be a dead motor. I took it apart and tested the capacitors.

Looked like a bad starting cap. So I found another starting cap and tried that. Still nothing but a buzz when I flicked it on. At that point I was too eager to get going, so I just swapped the and his summaries motor off the manual mill onto the CNC mill. Nice to have that extra mill! I spent a little bit of time calibrating the Z-axis travel (I had already gotten X and Y calibrated earlier) using a 1-2-3 block and Living, my Z-axis touchsetter: Z-Axis Presetter: When the needle is on zero the cutter is exactly 2.500 above whatever the presetter is sitting on.

Yep, I got it from 800watt on the horse summaries, eBay. There is the forrest gump analysis mill in all its glory. Sun is setting Sunday night, so we need to get this show on the road! I also tried a touch off with paper between the 1-2-3 block and the cutter. I like the Z-axis presetter better.

First chips were nothing special, I just surfaced the aluminum jaw of my vise. After that I cut some 1/4 MIC6 aluminum plate in and his summaries preparation for a steam engine team build I am participating in. Unfortunately, that's all I had time for, more chips will have to wait for next weekend! Dinked Around Modifying the Spindle Mounting Bolts. I spent about 40 minutes in the shop dinking around with the square head bolts I got from McMaster Carr. I ordered 3 3 long 5/8 11 TPI square head bolts.

To make them fit the mill Z-axis saddle you have to grind off the corners a little bit. 3 bolts are also a tad too long. Called Dave? With the boy chapter summaries bolts in forrest gump analysis the saddle I measure that I needed to and his summaries, shorten the bolts about ulcerative colitis, 5/8 for and his summaries, a comfortable clearance. That would mean that 2 1/2 bolts might have worked out Experience It by Essay, okay. Calibrating My Axis Steps per and his boy chapter summaries Inch and Checking the Backlash on the Mill.

I had an electrician come by, so I now have 220 for the mill (and a big compressor and a few extra outlets for other things). Experience Essay? The next logical step is to mount the spindle head, but i'm stuck until I get some parts I ordered from McMaster-Carr. I need the square head bolts needed to secure the spindle to the Z-axis. They got misplaced somehow from the box of parts that came with the mill. I didn't discover this until the work week had begun so naturally they aren't here yet this weekend. So, I was casting about for something else to do on the mill in the meanwhile, and I decide to and his, calibrate the X and Y axis. This is not too hard to kill, do and makes a big difference for the accuracy of the mill. And His Summaries? Here is racism kill, a little video that Hoss just published that tells how he went about it: Hoss calibrating his mill's steps per inch in and his boy chapter summaries Mach 3.

I followed a pretty similar procedure. It went like this: First I trammed in pro and cons a 2-4-6 block so that the back edge was exactly parallel to the travel of the X-axis. Here I am picking up the starting point. When doing this test you want to make sure you travel in one direction only so there is no possibility of backlash. If you change directions accidently, you have to start over.

I jogged slowly up to the indicator until the needle registered about half a turn, then I zeroed the indicator. Then I jogged, being careful to boy chapter, move entirely in one direction until the indicator registered zero against gump the 1-2-3 block I'm using as a back stop. In Mach3 you can job in thousandths or tenths. Try that with your handwheels! Now read the distance off the Mach3 X-axis DRO and compare it to the actual length of the horse and his boy chapter summaries your 2-4-6 block. Surprised? Mine turned out to boy chapter summaries, be 6.0014 long. The X distance travelled was 5.9653 according to the DRO. Gump? The difference between the two tells me how much I need to increase my steps per inch with a simple ratio calculation. The steps per inch I had based on the leadscrew pitch and timing belt pulley ratio was 28,240, but after putting in a value of 28,409.9 and trying again it came out exactly right! Here I am tramming in to do the same thing on the Y-axis.

I won't bore you with all the and his boy chapter details, but this one required a little different factor of Essay about Surprised By Joy 28235.8 steps per inch. Note that in theory X and Y should have been identical. They both have the same pitch leadscrew and the same timing pulley ratios. The fact that they're different shows how important this calibration step can be! Next I measured my backlash on both axes. This is and his boy chapter summaries, easy. Cons Of Gmo? Job up to the 1-2-3 block until the indicator ticks.

Zero the indicator and the horse and his boy chapter, the DRO for pro and cons, that axis. The Horse And His Boy Chapter Summaries? Back off an inch and then jog back in pro and cons until the indicator zeros. Whatever the DRO reads is and his boy chapter summaries, you backlash. I got 0.0003 for Essay Surprised, the Y-axis and the horse and his summaries, 0.0006 for the X-axis. That's not bad, but I'll bet I need a little more preload to get the X-axis tuned up even better. I didn't bother with the Z-axis since I don't have the heavy spindle head mounted yet. On Death Row Essay? I want real readings based on how the mill will be operating, although it shouldn't make a difference. Newsflash: All Three Axes Are Running! I made an adapter for the servo shaft and got the Z-axis running today. Minor tuning was needed, but the the horse and his summaries Z runs pretty smoothly. Not a lot left to be cutting chips: - Mount the mill spindle head.

- Get 220V over to it (easier said than done!). - Tune the Surprised By Joy servos for real. - Get out the dial indicators and get everything calibrates: steps per inch, backlash, squaring the summaries mill, etc. At that stage, I could cut some chips on a provisional basis, and I sure do plan on it! X and Y Axis are Alive! Plus, New Servo Page. Between the wee hours Friday night and pro and of gmo, the morning today I've gotten the X and Y axis servos mounted and running. The servos are really not tuned yet, but even in their rough state I was able to move the table at 180 IPM! I am not suggesting that is something that will be accurate or even usable, it was just play, but it was fun! I tried for and his summaries, 200 IPM, but the servos started faulting again and I didn't want to spend too much time tuning for a scenario that isn't real anyway.

Meanwhile, I added a new page that gathers up all the on Death stuff I had to do to the horse boy chapter, adapt the HomeshopCNC servos to cons, the IH Mill CNC Kit. My next problem is to adapt the servo for the Z-axis, which is going to require a little stronger medicine: I love the performance of the HomeshopCNC servos, but the shafts are really short for this IH kit! Mounting Timing Pulleys on the Servo. I'm going to the horse and his summaries, use 1/8 roll pins to mount the timing pulleys to the servos.

This is the gump method Gene told me is used by Industrial Hobbies on their turnkey systems, and it will provide a very solid mounting--much more so than a couple of set screws. Here is where the hole needs to go on the X and Y axes when the timing pulley is oriented properly to mesh up with the pulley on the ballscrew: I can use the shoulder of the pulley and the end of the motor shaft as my datum reference points. I need an identical offset of 0.220 from the horse and his boy chapter summaries either point to locate the hole in the shaft and chronic colitis, the pulley. Before I Forget: IH Limit Switch Wiring. I spent an hour and a half tracking this down just now on CNCZone. The Horse Boy Chapter? Here is how the IH optical limits are supposed to be wired to a breakout board: This schematic calls for a 270 ohm resistor, but another fella on the thread found a 330 worked better. Lots of Fabrication, Wiring, Testing, and forrest analysis, Diagnosing Went on This Weekend. Result? 3 Servos a-Spinning!

My goal for this weekend was to and his summaries, have the enclosure mounted on the rolling tool cabinet and gump, be able to and his summaries, spin all three servo motors. Easier said than done! Mounting the enclosure was pretty easy, as was installing the electronics and forrest gump analysis, axis modules. Here are some shots of how things looked just now when I was downstairs in the garage: Messy! It sure is nice that I can use a laptop with the Smoothstepepr. Very messy wiring.

After I get everything working, I'll be milling new panels (using this CNC mill of course) and I'll take that opportunity to the horse and his boy chapter summaries, build some real wiring harnesses that clean this up! The wiring is pretty messy, but I'll be rejiggering it to make some real wiring harnesses and clean it up on a future pass. Right now I just want to make it work. Most of gump my difficulties have been with the C17 card and getting it to reliably deal with servo faults. I haven't yet decided whether the board is flaky, or whether I'm just using it wrong. I do know I have seen it do some pretty odd things. When I got everything into the horse and his boy chapter this cabinet, for example, it completely quit closing the relay during the startup sequence. That meant the Geckos would just immediately fault out, which is a bad thing. If you read my diagnosis page, you'll see I keep having this problem over and over.

Each time the fix is a little different. This time I got things going again by connecting the chronic ulcerative colitis switched side of the Start button to the DC supply relay. That ensures it gets closed during the Start cycle regardless of what the C17 chooses to do. As is usual for boy chapter, me, I didn't think of this solution until after I'd slept overnight from a frustrating earlier session. Now I've got all 3 servos spinning. X tends to fault out, but that's just because I don't have the servos in a very good state of tune. Surprised? There's liittle point in it until I can get them mounted on the horse and his boy chapter summaries, the machine anyway because they'll just need returning. Therefore, I will be turning my attention to assembling the servos on the mill. Living On Death Row Essay? I plan to mount the timing pulleys onto the servo shafts using 1/8 roll pins.

This is how IH does it on their turnkey systems and the horse and his summaries, it'll be a lot more solid than trying to use setscrews on the powerful motors I've got. Towards that end, I was researching the proper hole sizes to drill and came across a page from SDP-SI on it here. It's been a busy, but fruitfull weekend! Axis Modules Are Done Pending 2 Cables. All three axis modules are now assembled and tested.

As I was finalizing the last of the three modules, I decided I wanted a quick disconnect on the signal wires, so I made up a cable out of a male and female DB9, and that looks like it will work well. I just need to Horrific Experience Child Called Dave, make 2 more of those cables for use with the other 2 axis modules. Here is the horse, what a finished module looks like with the Experience in A It by Dave Pelzer quick disconnect: To install an axis module in the enclosure requires 2 connections--the quick connect is all the signal level stuff, and then there are the the horse boy chapter main DC power supply + and - that go to bus bars. It should be pretty quick and Living, easy to install one or switch one with another to and his boy chapter, clear up some issue. I could've skipped the quick connect, but I got to thinking about poking and prodding inside that enclosure on my hands and knees and wanted to make it easier.

1. I need to finish making the racism in to kill a mockingbird essay other 2 quick connect cables. That'll be easy to do during the week, I hope. 2. I need to clean up the the horse enclosure itself, get it mounted on the side of the Essay rolling chest, and the horse boy chapter, get the electronics mounted inside and tested. 3. Last step is I need to install the servos on the mill and then see the racism in to a mockingbird axes move. We're getting closer!

Major Milestone: Spinning a Servo! (When Debugging, Whatever Can Go Wrong Will Go Wrong) I just now got 1 servo spinning on the bench after 2 1/2 days of the horse and his boy chapter summaries trial and error debugging. Chronic Ulcerative Colitis? If you want the full story of how I debugged this silling thing, I captured it on a page so you can see how I went about it. It's a painful process as not all of the relevant information you will need is and his boy chapter summaries, captured in one single place. Some of it was out there, but a lot of it I just had to figure out on my own. Here is a concise list of all the things I had to Horrific Experience in A Essay, change from my original attempt to run: Set CNC4PC Master Control Board DIP switches for G320. It acts funny on and his, the other board types whether or not Err/Res is connected. Discovered I had mislabeled the racism in to kill a mockingbird leads from my front panel for the Start and E-stop, so they were connected backwards.

Reverse the motor connections because they were backwards compared to what the encoder indicated, causing an immediate servo fault. The Horse Boy Chapter? In doing #3, I reversed the wrong leads and had to replace the power supply rectifier. I don't think I blew the Horrific Experience in A Called Dave Pelzer Essay Gecko, amazingly! Connect a 47K ohm resistor across pins 1 and 3 of the G320 to ensure the bridge initializes properly. This was buried in a hard to find Mariss note on CNCZone. Now I was getting the servo to hold position, so I played with the tuning trimpots a bit. The Horse? In Mach3, set Step/Dir to ActiveLo. Set pulse width to 5 (the pulse width may be ignored for Smoothstepper). Connect Common on G320 to +5V on breakout card instead of Ground. Experience In A Child Called It By? Another one that's easy to miss unless you read a lot of the horse boy chapter posts on various boards!

Set up the Horrific in A Called It by Dave Pelzer Essay proper motor tuning parameters on Mach3. IH says 115 IPM speed and 0.15g of acceleration, according to another post I found. I also needed 28,240 steps to the horse and his boy chapter summaries, move 1. Set the Smoothstepper jumpers to actually provide +5V to the breakout board. Otherwise, the pro and of gmo terminals marked +5V are 0V! Now I can spin the servo this way and that with Mach3. It can still fault if I rapidly change directions at full jog, but that's just tuning and I need to set it properly on the actual machine instead of with servos flopping around on the floor. I must admit that per the discussion on the Cookbook Blog on the Eternal Servo vs Stepper Jihad, it was a lot harder to spin a servo than a stepper. In general, I encountered a lot of the horse less than obvious things including the CNC4PC DIP switch settings, need for the 47K ohm resistor (that's going to be built into the next generation Gecko servo drives), and bizarre experiences with Common, which has to be +5V, and which didn't get +5V until the Smoothstepper jumpers were enabled.

Here are some photos of my CNC electronics testing lab on the dining room table (my wife is glad it seems to be working and I'm cursing a lot less!): Figuring Out Mach 3 Parameters for My Servos. I have 500 CPR encoders on my servos, which means 500 x 4 = 2000 steps per motor revolution. It takes 5 (leadscrew pitch) * 2.824 (timing belt ratio) rotations to on Death, move the X or Y axes 1. So, I need 2000 * 5 * 2.824 = 28,240 steps per inch of axis motion. IH runs at the horse summaries 100 IPM, so I'll set this maximum speed initially. Wiring Continues, and Powder Coat is On Order. I have been busily making cables and wiring up the enclosure. There are a lot of connections here! I have my wiring diagram and I am coloring in each connection as I finish making it. Everything is point to point, so I am making little wiring harnesses and trying to keep it neat.

At the Living on Death Row Essay moment I'm just trying to get to the point where I can make one axis module active and the horse and his, spin a single servo motor. If that all works, I will assemble and test the other 2 axis modules. Essay About Surprised? After that it will be time to finish up the enclosure. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries? I got a neat powder coating kit from my brother for Christmas, and It by Dave Pelzer, I just ordered some Ocean Blue powder coat from Caswell Plating. I think the Ocean Blue will match the IH mill blue pretty good. Powder coat is very durable. Not really necessary for this application, but I thought it would be fun to try it out! Progress: Wiring Diagram, Board Mounting, et al.

You can be forgiven if you don't think I've been doing anything for 3 weeks. Reallity is I've actually been pretty busy. It takes a ridiculous amount of research to figure out how to boy chapter summaries, wire up one of these CNC projects right, so that's a big part of on Death Row Essay what I've been doing. Ordering various ancillary parts and mounting my various little sub-circuit boards to a big mounting plate that goes in the enclosure would be the other part. Today I got started wiring up. I want to do just enough wiring to the horse, verify I can spin one servo sitting on the bench before I do too much else. Meanwhile, here are some tidbits: Compare this to Dave Pelzer, the diagram directly below. Notice I am reversed. That's intentional, I decided to mount the NEMA enclosure on the horse and his summaries, the side of the rolling cabinet that will be closest to the mill.

Getting Geared Up to Wire the cons of gmo Box. I've been getting in a plethora of odds and ends to start wiring up the enclosure. I've now got everything except a relay I will use for the E-stop circuit and the master AC on/off switch for the front panel. I also did a number of versions of the overall schematic. The latest is on the enclosure page. Based on my latest schematics, I've done a layout for how I'll go about mounting the summaries various sub-boards in the enclosure:

My goal this weekend would be to get the enclosure to the point I can actually mount the boards and begin the wiring process next weekend, and Row Essay, hopefully try spinning some servos (though not on the machine) next weekend as well. There's quite a bit of work to do there, but if I get enough hours I should reach that stage. Fingers crossed! I still need to make an arm to support the keyboard and monitor, I need to mount the enclosure to the rolling cabinet, and and his boy chapter, I also need to Experience in A Called It by Pelzer Essay, paint it. There's still a lot of fussing.

I haven't spec'd or ordered any of the boy chapter summaries auxilliary panel connectors, for example. I have some sitting around the parts bin that will hopefully work. Have to look at them as well. If need be, I can delay VFD and coolant wiring until after the servos are running and it would be no big deal. New VFD Spindle Control Page. After spending a couple of hours last night and this morning studying my VFD and controller board, I wanted to start a new page for the VFD work. Row Essay? The work required to control the mill spindle from the horse and his boy chapter summaries Mach3 is not terribly hard, but there are a lot of details, so I've split it off to a different page to Horrific Experience Child Called It by, make it easier to follow this subsystem. 2 Hours of Progress this Morning.

Two hours this morning, and while I did a lot of the horse different things, it doesn't feel like all that much progress. Living? Doh! I started out with my new treppaning hole cutter from SPI. I've had so much trouble make large holes in and his summaries metal sheet over the years I finally sprung for a professional tool. I started out trying to finish the meter hole on the 3rd axis module. Things got off to in to a mockingbird, a good start and the horse summaries, then got progressively worse until the forrest analysis little tool snapped clean off! Fer cryin' out loud!

I am now convinced the evil mystery metal I got from the hardware store is some sort of steel that work hardens very easily. I can find no other explanation for how difficult it is to work with. In any event, before it broke the cutter almost got through, so I knocked the disk out the horse and his boy chapter summaries, with a ball peen hammer. In A Child Called Essay? I need to clean up part of the hole with an abrasive grinder of the horse some sort, but it'll be fine. I turned from that to mounting the Antek power supply in the enclosure box. That was no big deal: set supply in pro and cons of gmo position, mark holes, drill holes, done! So that's ready to the horse and his boy chapter, go when it's time.

I'll leave the supply out of the box for the time being because there is Essay about Surprised, still more cutting and drilling to do there. Next I turned my attention to the 8 standoffs used to mount the Gecko drive and heatsink to the axis module panel. These 8 had not yet had holes drilled and tapped in either end. So I stuck 'em in and his the lathe, faced as necessary, center drilled, and drilled with the proper bit for the tap. When all 8 were done, I went over to the mill and Surprised By Joy, power tapped each hole with a spiral flute tap. That's two hours of my morning and now it's lunch time. Nothing worth taking a picture of even. Got Most of the Cutouts in and his the NEMA Enclosure.

I will still need holes for the cooling fan, but I want to make sure I understand the of gmo clearances and and his, location of everything else before I try to forrest gump analysis, position the the horse boy chapter summaries fan. Essay About By Joy? My current thinking is to put it in the door next to the hinge and up high to exhaust the warm air. Wish I had a louver punch! Here are some piccys: The panel inserts cover the holes.

4 axes on front, with a master control panel at the top. I could possibly also exhaust the fan at the right side of that control panel. Three rear panel cutouts. Top 2 are for the horse boy chapter, 2 more axes. Chronic Ulcerative Colitis? Bottom will be for all the and his boy chapter summaries auxilliary connectors for limits, coolant relay control, and VFD control. More detail on the enclosure page about how I did the cutouts. Some Progress on the Axis Modules. I've got one pretty well mocked up with all the parts mounted: As you can see I have an pro and, issue with meter clearance and the mounting bolts, so I made an oversized hole to try to create some wiggle room. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries? This happened due to an error in Living Row Essay laying out the big square face during the CAD design. What I need to do is relocate the whole meter 1/4 down the panel and all would be well.

I've gotten it close enough, I think. I can't go much further or I'll lose the mounting holes for and his, the meter as you can see in Experience in A It by Pelzer Essay this behind shot. In the end, I'm planning to remake these panels anyway once the CNC is up and running. I'll make them out of 1/4 aluminum plate and put some engraving and other decorative touches on so they'll look a lot nicer. Soldered the Cables on the Servo Motors. The servo motors come from Homeshopcnc with just a short tail on them, so you'll need to attach a longer cable back to you electronics cabinet. I decided to and his boy chapter summaries, use IES-style power cords for in to, mine. These are the same power cables a PC uses. I chose them becaues they're cheap, the servo only has 3 conductors like a power cord, and they're designed to carry current. My one reservation would be that they're not shielded, so the noise from the boy chapter summaries servos will escape.

That means I need to take care the Living on Death Row Essay rest of the cables, for example the limit switch and encoder cables, are properly shielded for noise and and his summaries, the shields are grounded. I put 10 foot power cords from CableWholesale on the motors. Homeshopcnc Servo Encoder Pinout. Got a note back from my query to Child It by Pelzer, Homeshopcnc on boy chapter summaries, pinout for the encoders. They say the 5 pins on the encoder correspond to the top 5 pins on the DB connector. According to US Digital, that pinout would be: Also worth noting is By Joy, that I have specified 500 CPR encoders on and his boy chapter summaries, these servos. With quadrature, that means 2000 steps per revolution. Miscellaneous Mill Progress Updates: Timing Belts, Martian War Machine Axis Modules, Limit Switches, and cons, Sheet Metal Templates. Tonight was a productive evening in the shop!

I discovered some time back that the 72 tooth timing belts I ordered for the horse and his boy chapter, the X and Y axes were too small. Doh! Turns out I made a minor miscalculation in the geometry involved. I was very concerened I would discover the pro and timing pulleys I had ordered were also not going to work as you can only get belts in certain sizes. Fortunately, luck shined on boy chapter summaries, me and pro and of gmo, I found that a 75 tooth belt works fine. In addition, I got a bunch of legs turned on the lathe so I could start assembling the heat sink modules: Meanwhile I have received a bunch of IES electrical sockets for the servo power cables, a bunch of 3AG fuse holders, and a bunch of female DB-9 connectors, as well as 4 15 amp panel ammeters. It's time to start thinking about the the horse and his sheet metal panels. Gump? I picked up some 22 ga stainless sheet at Orchard Supply and and his, I drew up a template in my CAD program:

About this time I got thinking about the Living one big round hole and the two square holes. Painful to make with my current equipment. I'll have to go buy a hole saw for the big round hole (for my load meter), and the squares have to be made by drilling out the corners as marked on my template and the horse and his boy chapter summaries, them milling or perhaps nibbling across to connect up the holes. All in all its a bit of a nuisance, and its got me thinking about punch and die work. I'd need 3 punches: one for the meter hole and 1 each for the DB-9 and IES power connector square holes. I have a 50-ton H-frame press, so it would be a matter of throwing together some form of punch and die tooling. Horrific Called It By Essay? Realistically, that's even more work than just making the panels the original way I had planned, but it sure is more interesting work.

Gotta think about whether to go there or just git 'er done! Lastly, I got my Industrial Hobbies optical limits installed. They sure are cool. Here are some pix: There is the X-axis limit. It installs in the existing 2 holes on the saddle and is triggered by the table stops in the side T-slot. As the IH directions suggested, you have to put a washer behind the and his boy chapter summaries table stops to keep them from chronic ulcerative colitis wiggling around. Here is a shot of the Y and the horse boy chapter summaries, Z-axis limits as they're being installed. These 2 use long rods with collars. Horrific Experience In A Child Called? An aluminum block such as you see on the Z-axis is bolted to the moving axis and the horse and his boy chapter summaries, when it contacts a collar on the shaft it actuates the switch. Here's a closeup of the insides of one of these nifty switches.

Electronics Enclosure Planning Sketch and forrest gump, Opening Key. This evening after I got done with work I made a key to open my surplus Rittal NEMA enclosures with. It was just a bit of lathe work, some cross drilling on boy chapter, the mill, and a 1/8 roll pin to make it work. I doubt if it took more than 10-15 minutes: First look inside the in to box. This should work out pretty well, I think! Having gotten the silly think open, my thoughts turned to how to stuff my planned electronics into it. I came up with this quick and the horse summaries, dirty planning sketch using Rhino3D: You can see I am planning for gump analysis, up to 6 of what I call Axis Modules, as well as the Antek DC Power Supply. I'll need to the horse summaries, squeeze a few other things in there as well, but it looks roomy enough to do so, eh?

In addition to this planning sketch I've mapped out which other electronics cards I need to order to provide all the functions of essay my CNC control enclosure. Full details on the electronics page. I'm Declaring the One Shot Oiler Done! Got the pump mounted and the Z-axis plumbed. There are minor improvements I might make, but in general, it works well! Here is a roundup of pictures: The pump mounted to boy chapter, the column. Shot of the about By Joy saddle circuits.

And the Z-axis circuits. Ordered a 1000 Watt DC Power Supply to Run the Servos Today. I ordered a PS-10N70 power supply from Antek today to summaries, power the servos on my mill. Racism Kill? Here is a photo: It was $150 + $10 shipping, which seems very reasonable. This is a 70V supply, which leaves a little margin for the 80V limit on the Geckodrives. Antek is run by boy chapter summaries a fellow named John Ango. I've ordered toroidal transformers from him before and he's a good guy to do business with.

For this price I can save my self some effort and be that much closer to running this mill sooner! Block Off and Oil Pump Mounting Plate. Here's a quick shot, details here. Ordered Timing Belts and Pulleys From SDP-SI and Musings About Encoders and Accuracy. The stock timing pulleys for forrest gump, the IH CNC kit are HTD series (semi-circular teeth), 5mm pitch, and 15mm wide. But, the pulleys that came with the kit have a tiny little 8mm bore designed for the servos IH sells.

As I am using HomeShopCNC servos that have a 1/2 bore, they just won't work. There isn't enough meat on them to bore out that much. So, I had to figure out the horse summaries, a new plan. Analysis? After some fooling around to measure the shaft center distance on the bracket (it doesn't adjust, so you had better get it right!), I came up with a distance of 3.769. I plugged this into a Rhino3D drawing as a sanity check along with pulley diameters and and his boy chapter summaries, actually drew up the stock arrangement. Surprised? I came up with the small pulley having 12 teeth and the bigger one having 48 teeth for a 4:1 reduction ratio.

Measuring shaft to shaft with my 850 oz in HomeShopCNC servos. I knew there was a reason I had those big giant calipers! Okay, so what's the boy chapter closest pulley for the motor that will fit my shaft and work with an off-the-shelf timing belt without having to change the shaft to shaft distance or modify the bracket? Turns out SDP-SI has a nifty little calculator for this purpose. It didn't take too much fooling around before I figured out that a 72 tooth belt (instead of the stock 70 tooth belts) and a 17 tooth motor pulley would do the job. I ordered these from SDP-SI at a total cost of about $40.

Not cheap, but the belts were half that and making 2 timing pulleys would consume a lot of time that I could not spend elsewhere. Note after the fact (10/30/08): The 72 tooth belts don't fit but a 75 tooth works great with this pulley combination. My reduction ratio on the X and Living, Y axis will now be 48/17 or about 2.824:1 instead of 4:1. The stock IH kit comes with 410 oz/in servos but I'm running 850 oz/in, so I doubt I'll run short of torque. I'm running the and his summaries 500 resolution encoders, but they're on the motor instead of on the ballscrew like the IH kit. So, IH gears down 4000 cpr encoders (I deduce given their 50 millionths resolution figure, hmmm) by 4:1 getting a resolution of 4000/4 = 1000 counts per motor revolution and 4000 counts per ballscrew resolution. Forrest Gump? Here is a thing about this 50 millionths figure from IH: none of the likely encoders from US Digital come anywhere near 4000 counts per revolution. 1000 was the highest I could find. How can they get to the 50 millionths figure then?

The answer is not so hard, we use quadrature inputs which give us 4x the resolution for the encoder. The Horse And His Summaries? So, if IH uses an expensive 1000 count per pro and cons of gmo revolution encoder in the horse summaries quadrature mode, they get 4000 counts per Horrific in A Child Called Essay revolution. Let's assume I run my 500 count encoders in quadrature mode. I'm running the equivalent of boy chapter summaries 2000 * 2.824 = 2824 counts per ballscrew revolution and 2000 counts per motor revolution. Row Essay? So I appear to have about 70% of the resolution of the IH kit. Instead of 50 millionths, I'll be at 0.7 of a tenth. That's still pretty good! And note that this is actual resolution an encoder can see and a servo drive can do something about. Steppers, by boy chapter comparison, are commanded to cons of gmo, move a step and have to just assume the proper motion occured.

For comparison, let's look at the Tormach, which uses stepper motors instead of the horse and his servos. I'm not claiming one mill is more accurate than the other, I'm just taking a look at ulcerative how the and his boy chapter numbers work out. Tormach claims resolution of a tenth. That is defined as, The minimum discrete position move is Row Essay, 0.0001, this is the resolution of the horse boy chapter motion. What can this mean if we investigate closely? Given their definition, it means that 0.0001 corresponds to one step on their stepper motor. A typical stepper has 200 steps in a rotation, so that implies the about Surprised By Joy gear train from step to table motion is 1.000 / (200 * 0.0001) = 50:1.

That's a very big reduction, in fact it sounds too big. The IH reduction is 4:1 via pulleys and another 5:1 via the ballscrew, or 20:1. Tormach says their rapids speed is 65 ipm. Let's plug these numbers backwards and see what we get: 65 inches / 0.0001 = 650,000 ten thousandths = 650,000 steps per minute. 650,000 steps per minute / 200 steps per revolution = 3250 rpm. Maybe they can rapid the machine while running the stepper motors at 3250 rpm, but that seems really fast for a stepper motor. Most of them in this kind of size range have a torque peak much lower than that.

Tormach's Design Analysis talks about torque falling off rapidly in just a few hundred rpm. My assumption would be that the 0.0001 resolution is not realizable in practice and is based on the horse summaries, something such as microstepping (the Tordrive has 10x microstepping, for example which would mean divide everything by Essay Surprised 10 if we're talking microsteps). If I am right about the microstepping, the real resolution is and his boy chapter, more like 0.001, which is fine, and completely in keeping with the mill's stated performance. Why doesn't microstepping count? Because you can't maintain full torque on a microstep unless it corresponds to a full step. They're largely about Child Called It by Dave Pelzer, smoother acceleration and motion more than they are about the horse and his, accuracy. I like the Tormach mill, BTW, I was just curious to work through the figures and see what I could learn. Update on Tormach. I confirmed a few things from some Tormach owners on CNCZone.

The Tormach direct drives the ballscrews with no reduction, and forrest analysis, the lead on the ballscrews is the same as IH: 5 turns to the inch. So, at full rapids, the Tormach is doing 325 rpm as suspected. And also as suspected, you have to assume 10x microstepping to get to the 50 millionths resolution. My understanding was that you shouldn't count on microsteps for boy chapter, increased resolution because the torque was very low. That turns out to have been wrong. Child? There is a great series of posts by the horse boy chapter Mariss F. on CNCZone that lay it all out. The long and the short of it is Essay Surprised, that you can take advantage of up to 10x microstepping and boy chapter summaries, still have about 70% of the torque and full positional accuracy. Therefore Tormachs 50 millionths resolution claim is quite defensible.

Now of course there are other issues that prevent the machine from being that accurate in Horrific Experience in A Called general, but Tormach only claims about 0.001 precision, which is very plausible provided you run the system in a way that loses no steps. A servo system still have the potential to be more accurate because it can get back on track after the fact. Whether that's acceptible or not to your application is a whole other question I won't delve into here. It was gratifying to see that my math all worked out properly with the real data on the Tormach that I didn't have access to! Getting Closer: Mill Column Installed.

With the help of my brother and an engine hoist, we got the column up onto the horse and his the base. This thing weighs 275 lbs before you put epoxy granite in it! Starting to look like a mill now! Cruel Teaser Sketch. Just the one spy photo of a little something I'm designing: Curious how thee are two different kinds of tool holders, eh? Too premature to say more!

State of the Union: One Shot Works for X-Y and X and Y are On the Bracketl. There's been quite a lot of progress I've been slow to report on, so this is a catchup post in pictures in no particular order: X-Axis is assembled and on-bracket. One shot oiler for the X and Y axes is now up and running well. Between the Horrific Child Called Dave Pelzer way lapping and boy chapter summaries, the one shot, I can tight the gibs as tightly as they can go with a screwdrivers and the axes still move like velvety smooth butter. Here's Where We Stand: One Shot Works Great on pro and cons of gmo, X-Y. Ballscrews and Brackets are Mounted on X-Y. Next Step: Mount the Column.

I made a change from IH's directions. If you mount the the horse and his boy chapter column and then try to install the ulcerative ballscrew, it is hard to access the top of the column without a ladder unless your machine is on the floor. So I mounted everything temporarily and then disassembled it. As soon as I can get my brother over on his day off and the horse boy chapter summaries, we can rig a hoist, we'll put the column up. The holes for the mounting the ballscrew and servo are all drilled and tapped, so it should be fast. After that, I need to: - Plumb the on Death Row Essay Z-axis oiling--note that there is a plugged outlet on the other side of the one shot pump for that. - Make a mounting plate for summaries, the One Shot Pump that goes in the opening for the hand crank on the Z-axis. Racism In To Essay? It'll do double duty blocking off that opening and mounting the pump. - Mount the servo motors.

My NEMA34 frame motors fit the IH brackets just fine (yay!). I need to look at what's required to mount the timing pulleys to these servos, however. I also need to the horse, get a set of belts from IH. - Mount the optical limit switches on all 3 axes. - At this point I'll be mechanically complete on the conversion and Essay By Joy, it'll be time to start looking into the electronics. Things are getting close enough it may be worth trying to push hard through completion! Sears Labor Day Sale Yields CNC Cabinet For the boy chapter Mill.

I've ordered a Sears Gladiator Modular GearBox: Inside is a cabinet with 1 shelf on slides. I plan to store heavy stuff like the rotary table, vises, angle plates, and the like inside the cabinet. I'll be attaching my NEMA electronics box to the side or rear (haven't decided which I like better). The PC and all the mill's electronics will go inside that NEMA box. I'll also attach a swing arm to carry the touch screen, keyboard, and any control panel I wind up building for the mill. Racism? I have a spot in the shop right adjacent to where the and his summaries mill sits that is perfect for this little rolling cabinet. Should make for analysis, a very neat and professional installation. As I am making great progress installing the ballscrews, it won't be long before I need to turn my attention to the electronics piece.

After the the horse and his boy chapter mill is operational, I may get industrious and make some tool holder racking for this cabinet too. More Y-Axis Work: Oil Passage for Ballnut and Casting Relief for Row Essay, Extra Travel. To deliver oil to the cup atop the ballnut mount, I simply connected the boy chapter summaries oiling groove to the cup using a cold chisel and Horrific Experience in A Called It by Dave Pelzer Essay, some gentle tapping. And His Summaries? I only had to go about 1/8, so it wasn't hard to do. The Industrial Hobbies install instructions mention it might be necessary to chronic, grind the underside of the casting to and his boy chapter, get full travel. They are right--there is a travel obstruction. Rather than grind the underside, which is particularly hard to do with my epoxy granite fill, I simply sliced out about 3/4 more on the opening. This works great and yields all the gump travel you can use with no interference. Finished Up the New Y-Ballnut Mount.

The ltitle center hole drops oil onto the ballscrew through a hole in the way above. Just in Time to Start Installing the Kit: We're On Bracket for the Y-Axis! Very spiffy looking, eh? FWIW, I took down the measurements of the horse boy chapter all 3 ballscrews. They 0.2 per pro and cons revolution, 0.75 diameter, and the lengths are: Building a New Y-Ballnut Mount. Made rapid progress in and his summaries a short time on this Y-Ballnut Mount: The factory mount hangs off the edge and cons, you lose 2 bolts. My new mount has all 4 bolts to hold down the boy chapter ballnut.

Just finished threading it and it fits! Finished Tapping and Essay Surprised By Joy, Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for boy chapter summaries, the One Shot. Just back from vaca and had a couple of hours in the shop, so I did the X-axis today. Tapping and forrest gump analysis, Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for the horse boy chapter summaries, the One Shot. See the Experience in A It by Pelzer one shot page for more detail! Z-Axis Ballnut Bracket Finished (Almost) Full details on the web page. The Horse And His Boy Chapter? Here's the chronic colitis ballnut screwed into the newly threaded mount: Fits like a glove!

Finished Epoxy Granite Filling Around the the horse boy chapter Column Bolt Pipe on My IH Mill. Just to make sure I was revved up to go to work on the mill this morning I watched a bunch of CNC videos on CNCZone. Then I went down, donned my nitrile gloves, and got back to making my epoxy granite mud pies: Filling the cavity through the ulcerative narrow slot was easiest with a cheap ice cream scoop I bought at the hardware store for $4. I filled up to about 1/2 from the top of the and his boy chapter summaries pipe, and then I switched to a pure sand mixture to make sure the gump top was free of rock edges sticking up. Preparing for the Column Pour.

Since getting a new job in boy chapter May I've been tied up for colitis, over a month before I could get back to my CNC work. The Horse? I also had to finish up my little steam engine team build. I was able to carve out a little time over this Fourth of pro and July three day weekend to make slight progress. I've basically epoxied a base plate into the bottom of the boy chapter column along with a pipe that provides a bore for the big column bolt to go through: The surface tension works nicely to let me apply a fair amount of on Death Row Essay epoxy. I just want enough to hold the pipe solidly so that when I flip the column over start adding the E/G mixture from above it won't break loose. I'll let this cure all week and then hopefully tackle the column fill next weekend. The Horse And His? I've decided not to fill the Essay about By Joy column all the the horse boy chapter summaries way up. This arrangement will fill the bottom 10 or so and should add considerable dampening without in any way being a clearance problem.

I would think this will really help the Essay By Joy mill to perform better to have this much added dampening mass in the critical junction between the base and the column. And His Summaries? More would be better, but I'm anxious to get on with the rest of the CNC conversion and Experience in A Child Dave, there is a lot of work to do! Hockey Puck Leveling Feet on the Mill. I finished this project a couple weeks ago but didn't get the pix posted. And His Boy Chapter Summaries? Full details on the page describing the process (scroll it's in there!), but they came out real neat: Bought a Set of Servos and Gecko Drives from Experience in A Child It by Dave HomeShopCNC. After reading a note sent to me by Peter Tsukamoto, I got inspired to take a step of the horse boy chapter some kind on the mill to move this conversion forward. Peter started with a Unimat lathe 30 years ago and today he owns a full machine shop in Hawaii.

Guys like that are always an inspiration to me, so I try to listen carefully when they have some advice for me. In Peter's words: See if you can get your CNC mill going as a priority. It will open up new vistas in a way you cannot believe. Essay? It will accelerate any project you work on. Make them way more enjoyable too. He makes a lot of and his summaries sense there. Every time I perform a manual machining operation on my lathe or mill I think about Essay By Joy, what the CNC equivalent would be. In almost every case I could do the job much faster, more easily, and often better with CNC.

There's a reason it took the industry by storm years ago! A couple things have been holding up my progress. First, I've been spending a ton of time lately on a Steam Engine Team Build that has involved creating some tooling and a number of and his other things. The other problem that was distressing me was that I had misplaced the Industrial Hobbies CNC conversion kit somewhere in my house. I'd been looking for it off and on for days, and the number of places it could be was dwindling. Horrific Experience Child Called Dave? After spending 45 minutes in the garage shifting things around and checking every last possible hiding place underneath all the junk, real panic set in.

Paraphrasing Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, when you've eliminated all the the horse and his boy chapter possibles, you have to start considering the impossibles. Eventually I discovered that my kids had pressed the two boxes into racism a mockingbird essay service to summaries, create a stand for gump analysis, their Karaoke machine. They were hidden underneath a black table cloth to make it even harder. I heaved a mighty sigh of relief after making that discovery! So, having located the components, I decided to take another step and the horse and his boy chapter summaries, ordered up a set of servos and drives from HomeShopCNC. I also looked at Keling as another source. HomeShopCNC was just slightly cheaper on Gecko drives, and I liked the nifty anodized housings for the encoders: I like the ulcerative colitis nifty anodized housing for the horse and his boy chapter, the encoder.

These are 850 oz in servos, and Keling had a bigger model at colitis a whopping 1125 oz in. Why not just buy the bigger-is-better plan? Well, because there are trade offs. It's worth noting that the standard IH CNC kit comes with 410 oz in on the X/Y axes and 648 on the horse and his boy chapter summaries, the Z--that mill head is heavy! Their heavy duty kit looks to me like is substitutes the bigger Z servo on the X/Y axes. Either way, I should be fine with 850 oz in. Horrific Experience In A Essay? Now here is the the horse boy chapter rub. The big Kelling 1125 oz in servo peaks out at 3200 rpm whereas the 850's I got are spec'd for 4200 rpm. I don't know if I'll ever get to use the extra rpm to increase my rapids or not, but bigger servos are often slower and the same is pro and, true of stepper motors. I think these 850's will be a decent compromise and and his boy chapter, they'll give me some room to experiment on my feeds and forrest, speeds.

If the Z gives me any trouble I figure I can build a counterweighting system with some gas springs and radically reduce the and his boy chapter force needed there too. While I'm talking about pro and cons, alternatives, I should mention that I did some serious looking around for an alternative to the Gecko drives. The Horse? Why? Customer Service. That's got to come as a surprise because Gecko has some of the best customer service reputation in the industry. The trouble is, I ran afoul of one of the Horrific in A Child It by Dave Essay counter examples of and his summaries that. My GRex for chronic ulcerative colitis, my CNC lathe project has been a disaster. The good news: it was very easy to get it working, and I like the idea of not relying on the parallel port. In theory, it could save me a lot of and his trouble, especially since I had envisioned a fancy control panel for in A Child It by Dave Pelzer, it. The reality? The device has never lived up to the horse and his boy chapter summaries, its original promises.

It has had teething troubles since the racism beginning, and most of it has never gotten fixed. There are problems with 3D profiling on the mill that make it a questionable solution there, and the device doesn't support spindle indexing on and his boy chapter, the lathe, which is a requirement for threading. What good is pro and of gmo, a lathe that can't thread? Many promises were made over the horse and his boy chapter time about this being fixed, and we're talking a span of years. Essay About Surprised By Joy? Unfortunately, it has never panned out. Gecko blames it on the firmware and says it isn't their fault. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries? I think that's silly, and it certainly was not the story at the outset. Kill? I sent Mariss a note offering to trade my perfectly good GRex for a set of the horse and his boy chapter summaries 3 of Row Essay his cheapest servo drives (which combined were less than the GRex cost), and explained my problem with the GRex. I never even got a response back from Gecko.

That's just not good customer service in my book, despite their stellar reputation. So how did I wind up buying another set of Gecko drives anyway? Here's the rub--who else is there? Rutex is in an odd state. The Horse? The parent is Australian, and pro and cons, the designer has gone missing there last I heard.

Reports vary on whether the boards can be gotten here though the US distributor says yes. Last thing I want to deal with is another strange situation with one of these boards though the Rutex has a lot of advantages over the Geckos on the horse boy chapter, paper, and there are certainly those who swear by chronic them. The Horse? I also looked at the UHU family of servo drives. These look to cons, be excellent, but so far they are either awfully expensive if you buy one already built, or you deal with cobbling together a kit. Frankly, I was tempted to go the kit route anyway, just to and his boy chapter summaries, avoid Gecko. I enjoy building electronics and I'm pretty good at it. The trouble is, Peter's words kept nagging at me.

How much would it set back my conversion to have to chronic colitis, build and debug 3 servo controller boards? So I got the Geckos. They were cheap when bought with the servos anyway. Still, it wouldn't have taken much to and his summaries, get me to buy something from someone else. I guess that's the power of customer service. Given his reputation, I can't understand why Mariss wouldn't do something for me. Oh well, I sure hope these new drivers are flawless or I will build the UHU boards.

I'm going to update my To Do list for the mill to a finer level of detail, finish that Team Build, and then try to see how much progress I can make on the mill conversion. Bought a Toroidal Transformer for the Servo Power Supply Today. I plan to Horrific Experience Child Called Dave Pelzer, build a DC power supply similar to the horse boy chapter summaries, the one I did for my lathe to run the servos. I bought a toroidal transformer that delivers 67V, 1KVA (1000 watts) from Antek off eBay today for $100. It's a good price and I've dealt with Antek in the past. You don't have to use a toroid, but they're slightly more efficient than a conventional transformer. When I get done working on the steam engine parts for my team build, the mill will be free again and I plan to Living Row Essay, start building the electronics, so I wanted to be sure to have the parts on the horse summaries, hand if they became available cheaply. Epoxy Granite Mud Pie Test Was Successful. Here's what we got the next morning:

Test was successful! The test was successful. The aggregate is embeded in Surprised the epoxy. The slug took a very accurate impression from the cup--you can even see scratches made in the plastic by the horse and his the gravel's sharp edges are faitfully reproduced. I suspect creating a precision surface in this material is easy if you have a precision mold. The material released easily from the plastic cup--just a couple sharp raps on workbench and it dropped right out. The ugly parts are at the air-epoxy interface from the top of cup. There are various approaches to eliminating the air bubbles, but it doesn't seem like there were many bubbles trapped in gump the material from the mixing process--they're all at the top. A quick pass with a heat gun is rumored to the horse boy chapter, be the quick trick to get rid of those. At this point, I can't see much point in monkeying with success.

It may be that a 10% epoxy formula would be better, but this will work just fine for this project. I plan to keep Epoxy Granite in mind for other projects. I understand it sets up with an accuracy of 0.001 on top if you get rid of bubbles, so you could make a surface plate from it. Making Epoxy Granite Mud Pies. I put together a trial batch of E/G after experimenting with various sand and gravel mixture ratios. It's a mud pie: The mixture I arrived at wound up using these proportions by weight with epoxy resin: That worked out chronic, pretty darned well if I do say so myself as I was shooting for a little under 15% epoxy resin by weight. In terms of volumes, this was 1/8+1/4+1/3 cup of the horse summaries gravel, 1/4 cup of sand, and 1 1/2 pumps each of resin and hardener.

From the look of Essay about Surprised it, I could have reduced the epoxy resin content slightly. The Horse? At one point it seemed to dry, but as I kept stirring and gump, getting all the aggregate coated it turned liquid again and life was good. We'll see how it turns out summaries, tomorrow after it has cured overnight. If the cons test is successful, this is going to be a remarkably easy thing to and his boy chapter, do! Started Working on the Epoxy Granite Fill for the Base. I'm going to fill the base with Epoxy Granite to increase dyname stiffness. Essay By Joy? Check the Epoxy Fill Page for full details, but here is the containment system: Sheet metal and steel tubes will keep the epoxy confined to where it belongs without gumming everything else up! Oil Grooving Completed. I got the X and the horse boy chapter summaries, Y axis ways grooved (more details on the one shot oiling system page):

Started Installing the One Shot Oiling System: Z-Axis Modifications. I got started with my one shot oiling sytsem by about By Joy cutting oil distribution grooves in the Z-slide. The Horse And His Summaries? It works well! I tried it out and got a wonderful even distribution across the ways. Started to Modify the Z-Axis. There is a mockingbird essay, a significant source of slop in the Z-axis that requires a modification. This is the bracket that attaches the Z-axis slide to the leadscrew. This bracket is just a sliding fit to the Z-axis, so there is a small amount of slop that we want to do away with. The modification is described on the Industrial Hobbies web site, and can be done to almost any RF-45 mill.

It involves creating a new bushing that has a shoulder on it so that you can bolt it down and squeeze the Z-axis saddle between the shoulder and the horse summaries, the leadscrew bracket. You can check out my progress with this Z-axis mod as well as adapting the bracket for the ballscrew on analysis, my Z-axis mod page. Here is the boring head gearing up to cut that shoulder. I completed the lapping of all ways yesterday. The hardest part is wrestling the heavy components around. I did the Y-Axis by myself, but talked my brother into being on hand for boy chapter summaries, the table and column. As we finished each axis, I thoroughly cleaned the axis with kerosene, applied generous way lube, adjusted the about gibs until as tight as I could get smooth motion by hand and then checked out the boy chapter summaries feel of the axis. In each case we have very smooth motion with only one very slight tight spot on the X-axis.

The difference in a mockingbird smoothness versus before the boy chapter lapping is like night and day. I have to think this will result in much better operation when I get the machine buttoned up. Here are the two remaining axes shortly after we completed the work: Y-Axis is Lapped! I completed the lapping on analysis, the Y-axis today. I was all set up from the horse and his boy chapter summaries yesterday and only need to Living on Death, go through 220, 320, and 500 grits. All told it took about 40 minutes. Here are some pictures of the event: The mill base is setup on the IH mill stand per their instructions. The lift table (some call it a die table) on the right is the horse and his summaries, essential when moving heavy stuff around the shop.

I used it to get that base up onto the stand, and it now serves as my side table. Here are the pro and of gmo ways after the first two grits: 80 and 120. Cutter marks are still very visible from the and his boy chapter manufacturing process. We're lapping in order to tone them down so the ways have less friction. We apply kerosene to the ways and then a pinch or two of grit. Then the saddle is placed on the ways and pro and cons of gmo, stroked back and forth the requisite number of times allowing for at least 50% overhang at each end of travel. After completing a run with a particular grit, a gray pasty residue is left behind. It consists of the horse and his grit and ground off way material (cast iron). On Death Row Essay? I try to clean it until a paper towel picks up no more residue so as not to contaminate later grits with old coarse grit.

A little closer look at the paste. Note we're not getting right up against the dovetail too well. That's beacuse this is still the 220 and I've only started to the horse and his, put the gib in at this point. That was again per IH instructions. And here is where we got to after the final grit. There are still a few cutter marks and some porosity visible, but it's way better than the picture up above we started from. Experience It By Dave Pelzer? That's what we're looking for! And, as IH says, we aren't going to try to eliminate every last tool mark. To do so is to invite going too far and the horse boy chapter, possibly compromising the trueness of the way.

This is an adequate compromise. Racism In To A Mockingbird? What I think will really help is and his boy chapter summaries, tying these new smoother ways with my one shot oiler, which will ensure much more consistent lubing than I've had in Living on Death Row Essay the past. One thing you notice is that the ways get progressively smoother as you go through the the horse and his boy chapter summaries grits. You can feel this very easily as you're stroking a component back and forth. It is particularly obvious when you insert the Essay about By Joy gib, run for a bit at 220 grit with the gib loose, and then are finally able to the horse, tighten the gib and gump analysis, still get smooth motion. I doubt very much I could've moved the the horse summaries saddle with the Living Row Essay gib in and tightened and nothing but kerosene as a lubricant before I started this process! The process of conversion began today. The Horse And His Summaries? My second IH mill has been sitting on the shelf for a little over one year, and I decided to finally get going on the conversion work.

Fortunately, the mill was disassembled before being put away for racism in to kill, storage. The Horse Boy Chapter Summaries? Equally fortunately, I applied a treatment of Break-Free rust inhibitor to all the bare metal surfaces, so there was no rust to speak of visible anywhere. Why Lap and is it Dangerous for Machine Accuracy? The first step in the process is chronic ulcerative, lapping the ways. The Horse? I'm starting here because my next stops will be installing a one shot oiling system and Living Row Essay, filling some of the and his boy chapter summaries castings with epoxy granite to about Surprised By Joy, help dampen and the horse and his boy chapter summaries, stiffen them. I don't want the one shot oil passages to chronic ulcerative, get grit in them, so I need to finish lapping before I begin that task. Lapping is a highly controversial topic that has been hotly disputed by many an armchair quarterback on the various machinery forums. For that reason, I want to stop here and discuss why I am lapping my mill's ways. First and foremost, I am doing it because after considered discussion with Aaron Moss (the original owner of Industrial Hobbies and likely the world's foremost expert on the horse and his boy chapter summaries, these mills) I am following his advice.

Aaron has lapped many a Chinese mill and on Death Row Essay, swears it is always an improvement. The reasons are twofold. There is a reduction in friction of the boy chapter summaries ways which helps to reduce stick slip and racism in to a mockingbird essay, makes the and his motions smoother. A second reason is that this newfound smoothness allows the machines to be run with tighter gibs. Gump Analysis? The upshot is a more accurate and tighter machine. Whatever we may sacrifice in the ultimate trueness of the ways is more than made up for by smoother motion and the horse summaries, tighter gibs. I trust Aaron totally on this, and on Death, he has the experience to back it up. The second reason is that I looked into the horse boy chapter just how much damage lapping might do to the ways just so I could sleep better at night. Chronic Ulcerative? The difficulty that this discussion always raises is the horse and his, that lapping will by its nature reduce the accuracy of the ways, making them rounded rather than true. I did some Internet research in an effort to quantify how much material the lapping process may be removing, and Living Row Essay, thereby how much inaccuracy might be induced by the process. One source indicates that a typical lapping procedure will remove 0.0002 - 0.0005 of material.

Another article found that the mean rate of material removal using diamond cutting compound (much more aggressive than the simple aluminum oxide that Aaron Moss recommends for lapping ways) was 0.0004 mm/minute = 0.000029/minute. Note that these two references involved use of summaries lapping machines and near optimal conditions for maximum material removal. Let's briefly consider the schedule lapping suggested by Industrial Hobbies: In comparing this schedule to racism, the published material removal rates, let's assume lapping can proceed at the equivalent of 1 stroke per 2 seconds. In essence, we are then talking about 230 strokes being the equivalent of less than 10 minutes of lapping on a machine. Since the grits are made progressively finer, it is probably more equivalent to half that on average, but even if we went at the horse it for a full 1 hour the material removed would be 0.0017 in the absolute worst case. At 10 minutes, we're looking at about 3 tenths. Chronic Ulcerative Colitis? My suspicion is that it is more likely way less than half or even a quarter as much since this approach to lapping is not going to produce optimal material removal rates. In short, material removal in these ranges seems more likely to affect surface finish (and hence friction) than the underlying accuracy of the slideway. In fact, there is an engineering term for the use of lapping to improve the fit between two components-it's called equalizing lapping.

To further cement the case that this is what we're doing when lapping the ways, one uses a hard lap to avoid embedding of the grits in this type of work. Lapping to change the shape of something is called form lapping. It is hard to envision that most Asian machine tools or used Western-made tools are available with an accuracy great enough where such equalizing lapping poses a serious threat. For more information on lapping, consult the Industrial Hobbies web site. And by all means, follow your own conscience on the horse, the matter of whether to Row Essay, lap your ways or leave them alone on an RF-45 mill. Importantly, the latest model IH mills have the the horse ways more carefully ground, so there is no longer a need for cons, lapping on the horse and his, these mills. I followed the lapping directions on the Industrial Hobbies web site to the letter. Tonight I began with the Y-axis. I was able to go through the first two grits, 80 and 120, in about 1 hour. Cons? This included initial setup, dragging the the horse and his mill parts out of storage, setting them up on a table, and the actual lapping itself.

The work itself is extremely simple. I irrigate the in to kill ways with kerosene to act as a lubricant. Next I sprinkle a pinch of the appropriate grit (see the table just above) on each side. Finally, I install the matching piece and stroke it the full length of travel plus 50% overhang the specified number of times. I try to do this smoothly and steadily while keeping the ways in contact on the side without the gib. Initially, we're told to go without the gib and to the horse and his summaries, lap it separately. Row Essay? When I get to 220 grit, it will be time to install the gibs and go from there. At the conclusion of these two grits, the ways were noticeably smoother.

They'd had some ridges not unlike a file when I began and these were all but gone after the boy chapter summaries first two grits. So far so good! Knocking off for the evening as it's about 9:30. GCode is complicated. Do you want to be a better CNC'er in 37 Seconds?

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