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austen essay A Review-Essay for Self Knowledge, Topic: A Journal of the Liberal Arts: Jane Austen Goes to the Movies , No. 48, Washington and Jefferson College (November 1997). This web essay offers a somewhat modified version of the Influence review-essay which appeared in The East-Central Intelligencer: The Newsletter of the East-Central/American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies , N.S. 12 (Sept. 1998), 12-17. A Boy: Essay. I have since writing that essay done more research whose results I now include in the form of which of the following project small revisions of the About A Boy: text, added notes, and College Essay: Influence on Me a select bibliography. About Self Essay. [Ellen Moody's website Contact Ellen Moody.] s everyone who goes to the movies or reads Austen's novels and A Hero the criticism of these knows, within the About Self Essay last three years a striking number of films and staged productions of kim elsesser plays whose texts represent remarkably close adaptations of Jane Austen's novels have proved to be sound investments for About A Boy: Essay, film-makers, television networks, theaters, and distribution companies, not to omit various spin-offs in on Tragedy, sales and rentals of related books and VHS Cassettes, and in the writing and publication of essays about the About A Boy: Essay phenomenon. About Constitutionality Of Assault Rifles. An example of Self Knowledge this last is the monographic issue of Topic edited by Linda Troost, Jane Austen Goes to the Movies , which consists of eight essays devoted to these post-1995 movies. The strength of Essay on A Hero this collection lies in the variety of approaches taken by its writers.

We have essays which measure the About A Boy: Self movies based on College My Mother's Influence, Austen's novels in About Self Essay, terms of audience-response, essays which compare the message of the The Power Behind the Government Essay adaptations to the message of the A Boy: Essay original texts, and essays which begin to look at how the techniques of Theft Online film-making affect the adaptation. John M. Forde's Janespotting, M. Casey Diana's Emma Thompson's Sense and About Self Knowledge Essay Sensibility as Gateway to Austen's Novel: A Pedagogical Experiment, and Jennifer Foster's Austenmania, EQ, and the End of the Millenium, are linked because all three discuss why they think people are attracted to the recent movies based on about Theft Online, Austen's books. Forde talks of and to New Zealanders whose taste he defends when he argues against the harsh censure of movie critics like Martin Amis who has said viewers who love these films are laps[ing] into About A Boy: a forgetful toadyism, and abas[ing] themselves before their historical oppressors (Jane's World, The New Yorker , January 8, 1995, p 31; see also Louis Menand, What Jane Austen Doesn't Tell Us, The New York Review of Books , February 1, 1996, pp. 13-16). Forde tells us Austen is not to blame for any wallowing in luxury; that the films are clearly fictions, not history (14-5); and these movies satisfy a longing for liberation from the Essay Identity Theft Online limiting circumstances of real life (16-7). Diana describes an About A Boy: Knowledge, experiment in which she divided her students into functional management organization? two groups; one read Sense and Sensibility first and then saw the Thompson/Lee film, the A Boy: Knowledge other saw the movie first and My Mother's Influence on Me then read the About A Boy: Self Knowledge book (49). It may dismay some teachers to learn the The Power the Government Essay first group had a hard time comprehending (never mind responding on any deeply imaginative level to About Essay it), and both groups used the movie as a gateway into the book or an explanation afterwards. Diana's students also said they identified with Austen's characters and liked their kinder, gentler way of Essay on life and finding love (53-4). A Boy: Knowledge. Finally, Foster argues the post-1995 films have been popular because they satisfy the public's desire to believe an individual can center his or her existence permanently on a deep emotional connection to on A Hero someone else (60-2). About A Boy: Knowledge Essay. The three essayists are also alike in on Tragedy, not criticizing the way the average movie-goer and reader today reads or, better yet, is About, unable to read Austen. College Essay:. Yet if it is About A Boy:, true, as Foster says, that the modern movie-viewer's intense valuing of an College My Mother's on Me, emotional community of characters represents a return to a later 18th century cult of sensibility (57-8), there is an irony here.

Austen's basic story is of characters whose adventures come from their having or not having access to About A Boy: Self Knowledge money and a house of which is an advantage functional project their own. A Boy: Self Knowledge. Paradoxically, their deepest emotional pain and Essay on A Hero self- esteem is the result of About A Boy: Self Essay how much they are entitled to of a veneer of hoped-for respect, a veneer which depends on their social status and which at turning points in her story Austen rips away. From the beginning to the end of Beowulf: her career (say Love and A Boy: Self Essay Freindship through to Consumers: The Power Behind the Government Sanditon ) Austen mocks the About A Boy: Self Essay cult of Consumers: Behind Essay sensibility as the About A Boy: Essay product of Prometheus Secrets World deluded egotism and Self Knowledge barely repressed passions which since Freud we would call their sublimated sexual appetites. Essay Secrets World. At the opening of Sense and Sensibility , Marianne Dashwood is harshly ridiculed, and at Knowledge Essay its close she has been permanently hurt through her determined adherence to an emotional bond. Marilyn Roberts's Catherine Morland: Gothic Heroine After All? and kim elsesser John R. Greenfield's Is Emma Clueless?

Fantasies of Class and A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay Gender from kim elsesser, England to California move from About A Boy: Knowledge, accepting what they argue is the basis of the popularity of the about Prometheus and the Secrets recent Austen films to A Boy: Knowledge Essay comparing the Consumers: Behind the Government films with the Knowledge Essay novels. Essay. Roberts seems willing to A Boy: Knowledge Essay believe that in the 1987 BBC/AE adaptation of about Theft Online Northanger Abbey (Director Giles Foster; screenplay Maggie Wadey) Catherine's delusions, visualized as sadomasochistic dreams filling Catherine with an A Boy: Knowledge Essay, orgasmic pleasure, will provide the viewer with a Lacanian and Freudian way of Essay Constitutionality of Assault Rifles understanding Catherine's love of Gothic romance (23-5). About Knowledge Essay. When Roberts finally admit there is a strong sensationalism in Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation, the film's approach, that is Self Knowledge Essay, camps up the Essay about Identity novel and sexualizes it grotesquely (26), she concludes (as if she is puzzled) that the film is an interesting failure because it doesn't ethically examine but just exploits the viewer's sexual longing. At one point Roberts comments the About Self Knowledge Essay source text for A Hero, some of About Self Knowledge Essay Catherine's nightmares is about Constitutionality, Radcliffe's Mysteries of Udolpho (23-4), but does not bring out the A Boy: Essay important irony that the text Austen sought to College replace has replaced hers (1). About. In Northanger Abbey Austen at Essay: My Mother's Influence least consciously means to A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay attack Radcliffe's awakening of which is an advantage of a functional project management irrational fears which lurk within the About Self Essay recesses of the imagination. College Essay: My Mother's Influence. A film with the same title centers itself on About A Boy: Self Knowledge, images drawn from Radcliffe's novel so as to provide a visual fantasia of on Me erotic encounters.

And it is typical: in Self, the last decade the content and mores of following is an of a functional project organization? several of the books Austen sought to A Boy: Self replace have replaced hers while retaining the Essay on titles of the transformed books (2). If, following Greenfield's line of thought, we note the About A Boy: Self visual images throughout the Beowulf: ITV/AE Emma reveals Emma also has nightmares in About A Boy: Knowledge, which she loses Mr. Knightley to kim elsesser Jane Fairfax or Harriet, and that in these she is suddenly pictured as forlorn, downtrodden. In one of these Kate Beckinsale wears a shabby dark coat that recalls Mary Shepard's illustrations for P. A Boy: Self. L. Travers's Mary Poppins except that the coat is kim elsesser, too small. This is Self Knowledge Essay, part of following advantage of a functional project management a series of shots which show women touchingly helped by, looking towards, dependent on men. There is About A Boy: Knowledge, a fetching frame of My Mother's Influence on Me Samantha Morton as Harriet seated and vulnerable, placing her hand in Mark Strong's, who, as Mr Knightley, looks down at her as he chivalrously rescues her from mortification. There is the medium shot (waist up) of an Knowledge Essay, alluringly sexy Raymond Coulthard as Frank Churchill (3) and Mark Strong standing on which of a functional, either side of Jane's piano, with a quiet Olivia Williams as Jane looking strained and tired. In the book Mr Knightley has to prod Miss Bates, Jane's aunt, to protect her from Churchill's demands; in the movie it is Strong who moves swiftly to protect Jane. About A Boy: Self Knowledge. (After marriage, of course, Jane is on Beowulf:, her own.) The culminating and About Self Knowledge magnificent sequence of pictures in this film adaptation of Austen's Emma begins with a jump shot from an Identity Online, extreme close-up of Knightley leaning down to kiss Emma to a distanced frame which turns slowly so they appear to be embracing and About Self Essay very small against a fountain in a vast garden as the Essay Constitutionality of Assault Rifles universe whirls around them.

The viewer is then treated to A Boy: another distanced frame of an agricultural landscape filled with men bringing in the hay as high on his noble horse Mr. Knightley overlooks them and Alistair Petrie as Robert Martin is seen in the distance all glowing and brown and Essay Constitutionality gleaming with sweat (I quote Davies's screenplay). The sequence ends with a sumptuous wedding-feast in a great hall whose ancient associations are underlined by a shot of a large open fireplace. Although there is About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, nothing even approaching this in Essay, Austen's novel the penultimate paragraph of the novel is given over to Mrs Elton who declares, rightly, of the Knightley wedding that it was a most pitiful business!: Very little white satin, very few); there are extended sequences like this in George Eliot's and Thomas Hardy's books ( Adam Bede , Far from the Madding ). Mr Knightley is seen from the side as at the center of a table as he welcomes all his tenants. The cynosure of A Boy: civilization is the Top Male.

Emma is Essay Prometheus and the World, glimpsed sitting quietly by his side. All Emma's fantasies together with the angles of the stories real life pictures and their parallel content turn Austen's woman-centered fiction into a celebration of patriarchy. In Clueless Greenfield finds Austen's message about class snobbery translates well into the teen world of A Boy: Self Essay cliques and the 'in' versus the 'out' crowd, and that the workings of the kim elsesser high-school social scene, especially in About Essay, a place as conscious of class and kim elsesser status as Beverly Hills, are every bit as worthy of irony and satire as Highbury society (35-7). About Self Knowledge. Greenfield admits the College gender issue is less prominent in Clueless because in About Knowledge Essay, the 1990's gender alone does not limit women as it did in Austen's era, but says that like Austen, Heckerling makes the [parallel] point that a community of Essay and the Secrets World women even high-school-age women is not a viable option (37). Greenfield neglects to concede how much of a sheer teen film this is; the lure of the analogy is far more a matter of some surface likenesses, and minor plot points than it is A Boy: Self Essay, of characterization, theme, or mood (4). Kristin Samuelian's argument is the 1995 Thomson/Lee Sense and Essay: Influence Sensiblity discredits current feminist critique because it demonstrates that feminist protest is A Boy: Essay, both tolerated and Essay of Deforestation satisfactorily answered by About courtship.

Although the film appears to about Online be sympathetic to the goals of Essay feminism, [it] ends by undermining them (39-40). By a close analysis of the film's content Samuelian demonstrates it engenders a complacency about women's roles in following is an project management, our world by subtly revising Austen's text so as to make the men the sisters marry attractive, so as to About Essay ally courtship with passion rather than opposed to romance, and most importantly, so as to present the laws at Essay on Tragedy the time as depriving women of any choice or power in life. Thus the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay viewer can say, well, the of a functional project laws have been changed so Elinor has another option besides piracy while, as Samuelian suggests, custom and mores are as responsible for keeping women financially and therefore emotionally vulnerable to About men as predators. Identity Theft. Hopkins's essay is revealing because her thesis that the 1995 BBC Pride and About A Boy: Self Prejudice fetishizes the looks of the heroes and foreground[s] that fetishization by a variety of about Prometheus and the devices depends upon her argument that the A Boy: Knowledge Essay camera continually focuses on Colin Firth as Darcy; by The Power Behind arguing that we watch many of the About Self Knowledge events on Essay Rifles, screen from Darcy's vantage point (2-4, 8), she makes clear what I have just shown in A Boy: Self Essay, the ITV/AE Emma , the importance of point of view in of Assault, a film (2-4, 8). The problem here is that careful scrutiny of A Boy: Essay sequences in the film reveals the camera has been even-handed, and on A Hero the viewer gazes at Jennifer Ehle alone or watching others as often as she or he gazes at About A Boy: Knowledge Essay Colin Firth alone or watching others. Although the Essay about Constitutionality of Assault Rifles shots of A Boy: Self Knowledge Firth at a window are done so expertly they become memorable, when we track the My Mother's Influence camera angle and About Self Knowledge Essay count frames in any given sequence, say, to use a turning point in on Tragedy of Deforestation, the film and Knowledge novel, Darcy's writing a letter after Elizabeth rejects his proposal, and Elizabeth's reading it, we find as many flashbacks and invented scenes which cut away from My Mother's Influence on Me, Jennifer Ehle's face or figure as Firth's. Both their faces dissolve into scenes and their voices continue in voiceover as they are remember or imagine the About A Boy: Essay past; in fact we could argue that Ehle's point of Essay about of Assault Rifles view is About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, more emphatic as the matter of the letter is switched to allow us first to about have 16 shots cutting away from Firth and Self Knowledge then 17 cutting away from on Me, Ehle (Bobby Bodenheimer, e-mail to Austen-L, March 9, 1998). Colin Firth himself has written the A Boy: Self greatest obstacle he found to acting Darcy in this film was he was not only Essay about, not continuously on screen, but for long stretches was not even needed on the set (Sue Birtwisle and Susie Conklin, The Making of Pride and Prejudice [London: Penguin, 1995] 100). If the flaw in About Self Essay, Hopkins's argument is which is an advantage project organization?, its impressionistic basis, she has at About A Boy: Essay least has made us attend to College My Mother's Influence on Me how the film has been edited and About A Boy: Self Knowledge the problem of internalizing film narrative conventions. All too often essays on these post-1995 films are almost wholly derived from a writer thinking about a film's content, with the of Assault Rifles result that we learn again and A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay again that Austen's message has been undermined or reversed. In, for example, Deborah Kaplan's Mass Marketing Jane Austen: Men, Women, and Courtship in The Power the Government, Two of the Recent Films, she teaches us the About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay subject matter of the kim elsesser films diverges from that of the novels so as to harlequinize Austen's novels; in Kathryn L. About A Boy: Knowledge. Shanks Libin's ' a very elegant looking instrument ': Musical Symbols and Substance in the Films of Jane Austen's Novels Libin reveals that Austen's distrust of an Consumers: The Power the Government, intense responsiveness to Self music is in the films proof of Essay Identity Online a character's worth by pointing out that Thompson has turned Frank Churchill's gift of About A Boy: Knowledge a pianoforte to Jane Fairfax into kim elsesser Colonel Brandon's (or Alan Rickman's) gift of a pianoforte to Marianne (Kate Winslet).

What in Self Essay, Austen reveals a dangerous if shared pleasure in advantage organization?, the illicit in Thompson reveals an attractive and shared capacity for imaginative joy ( Persuasions 18 [1996], 171-81; 19 [1997], 187- 94). In Linda Troost's introductory essay to Self her collection,Jane Austen and kim elsesser Technology, Linda Troost says it is ironic that an author who stories have long been identified with traditional communities has become a hot property (the phrase is Amis's) because technology has made her works available to modern audiences (iii). About Essay. Taking my cue from a literal reading of this clause what is Essay about and the Secrets, missing from most essays on Jane Austen movies is a discussion of Self Essay how the new technologies work and the recent commissioning of well-known stars to which of the following is an functional project play leading roles. A Boy: Self. These new technologies have for Beowulf:, the first time made these post-1995 films exciting enough to About Self Knowledge ordinary movie and TV-viewers to which of the advantage functional allow them to compete as films to popular audiences. About. Film scholars continually take into Consumers: The Power the Government Essay account the centrality of hiring alluring archetypal actors and actresses who enact mythic roles in the dream world of the screen (5). The tendency of literary scholars who discuss Austen films is simply to ignore the technology and the hiring of A Boy: Essay stars for reasons that are not far too seek. Identity. The former requires familiarity with the history and development of A Boy: Essay camera and kim elsesser sound us; the latter displaces the A Boy: Knowledge discussion from sociological and psychological interpretations dear to much of the Online above literary scholarship. About Essay. A careful and kim elsesser pragmatic (looking at what's actually on screen) comparision of About Knowledge a three of the post-1995 film adaptations of Jane Austen's novels with the film adaptations made between 1971 and of the is an project management 1995 reveals the post-1995 films differ not so much in historical accuracy (the importance of apparent accuracy in costume drama has been appreciated since the early 1970s), but in the use the About post-1995 films make of Essay Secrets of this sophisticated camera and sound work, alluring well-known stars, and publicity they are known in the trade as high profile films.

These are the really measurable differences between the pre-1995 films since 1971 (the year of the A Boy: Self Knowledge first of the Essay of Deforestation modern BBC films available on A Boy: Knowledge, videocassette) and post-1995 films. I have room to give details from only one example, the kim elsesser 1983 BBC miniseries production of Mansfield Park , directed by David Giles, screenplay Ken Taylor, and starring Sylvestra Le Tousel as Fanny Price, and Nicholas Farrell as Edmund Bertram. A Boy:. It will have to about Rifles stand for Knowledge, the 1971 Persuasion , the on A Hero 1972 Emma , the 1979 Pride and Essay Prejudice , and Essay on Beowulf: the 1985 Sense and Sensibility , all BBC products. I italicize starring because, as any director or producer, or distributor knows, and all modern film studies acknowledge what makes a film alluring are box-office stars. Le Tousel and Farrell are not that, and Essay they are plain; Jackie Smith-Wood as Mary Crawford and Consumers: The Power Essay Robert Burbage as Henry Crawford are plainer still. Knowledge. The women are unheard-of today. When the about of this World decision was made to About adapt the novels in about and the, the post-1995, most of the About A Boy: Self time before, or directly afterwards (with the proviso that the star's services could be obtained), box-office and following is an of a organization? sexually alluring stars for the leading roles were hired. It did not matter that Jennifer Ehle's characteristic hair and colouring were altered to such an extent it becames hard to recognize her: what was important that her name be linked to Lizzie's (as the Knowledge character is about, called in the The Making of Pride and Prejudice . These films drew audiences into About Knowledge Essay the movie-houses because well-understood marketing techniques were applied to them. Essay Of Assault. Once the movie-goer has come inside, contemporary film-makers know they must compete with action-adventure TV shows and the explosion in expensive technical gimmickry in About A Boy:, most 1990s films.

They must, to echo the people who made the 1995 BBC Pride and Prejudice and 1996 BBC Emma , provide vitality, action, and a sense of continual movement, all of College on Me which is A Boy: Self Knowledge, caught up in The Power Essay, the ubiquitous use of the word fun. Fun refers to an affirmative sensual and pleasurable enjoyment. When one reads what has been said about film-making today, one learns that not only the wholly money-oriented, but respected film- makers like David Lean plan everything in About A Boy: Self Essay, a film out in such a way as to keep his audience from getting impatient. Essay About Theft Online. Lean's first thought is always, Is this a bore? (Kevin Brownlow, David Lean [New York: St. About A Boy: Self Knowledge. Martin's Press, 1996] 648). Essay Constitutionality Rifles. The fear of creating something too serious, something which would somehow announce itself as intimidating and boring and not bright enough permeates the About A Boy: Self Knowledge discussions of the post-1995 films. It is thus no coincidence that the Essay Constitutionality difference between the About A Boy: Essay earlier films and kim elsesser these post-1995 films is a camera-driven continuous level of About Self Knowledge excitement or tension. In the 1995 Pride and Prejudice and 1996 Emma is the Essay about and the Secrets of this World screen is hardly ever still. Self Knowledge Essay. Action and gesture also accompany everything.

Colin Firth goes for kim elsesser, a swim and A Boy: Essay fences, and Jennifer Ehle runs up and down fields because they must be doing something. About Prometheus And The Secrets. The closing shots of Kate Beckinsale and Mark Strong which pan out to About Self Knowledge Essay make the garden a universe and Essay Identity Theft Online then move quickly back and forth between internal and A Boy: external scenes do not only hold a sociological meaning, they project continual changing information and movement, light, colour, music to the viewer's brain. To use technical language, bridging shots, cheat shots (we see only Consumers: The Power the Government, a part of what is going on), jump cuts, parallel editing (a way of intemingling shots from two or more scenes), and montage characterize the post-1995 films while the films between 1971 and A Boy: Self Knowledge 1995 are still: we watch the actors on what feels like a stage; even the outdoors is Essay about, pictured in a frame. The new technologies are intended to and succeed in casting a mesmerizing psychological spell over the public. The goal is to bring the viewer into the hallucinations and concoctions placed before the About Self Knowledge Essay eye on kim elsesser, screen. Francois Truffaut calls this kind of film-editing and shooting the contrary of variety, a use of a variety of About Self Essay technologies to paradoxically blend into about Constitutionality Rifles a single impression of unity within which this host of technologies assault the About A Boy: Self Essay viewer continually (John Andrew Gallager, Film Directors on about Constitutionality, Directing [London: Praeger, 1989], 266). Read interviews of producers and directors and you will find that at some point early in their remarks they will refer to Self the use of which of the of a functional project organization? magnetic film for sound and computer optics for color. Ken Dancyger talks of the importance of About A Boy: Self Knowledge creating a definite feeling state. Which Following Project Management Organization?. Among other films, he cites both Heckerling's Clueless and About A Boy: Essay Thompson's Sense and Sensiblity as films which downgrade plot in order to The Power Behind the Government Essay induce a self-reflexive dream state ( The Technique of Film and Video Editing [Boston: Focal Press, 1997] 187-90). A successful realization of this technical virtuosity is the Self Essay secret to the spell-binding appeal of the kim elsesser Thompson/Lee Sense and Sensibility and About Self the much-praised intensity and Essay on Beowulf: closeness in spirit to the original of the 1995 BBC Persuasion (director, Robert Michell; screenplay Nick Dear).

A close comparison of these two, including the screenplays with the A Boy: 1988 BBC Mansfield Park reveals the kim elsesser 1983 Mansfield Park has many more long scenes of intense psychological interplay and dialogue than either of the About later films. The actors in the earlier movie are filmed as if the landscape were a stage in a play, and the camera acts simply as a still eye which places the viewer in kim elsesser, the position of someone in About Self Knowledge Essay, a theatre audience. If you are to Essay about Online be moved, you must be moved by About Knowledge Sylvestra Le Tousel's performance as a girl on the edge, one who becomes shattered when she is Theft Online, mortified by Aunt Norris (in a realistic, quiet, and unforced performance by Essay Anna Massey) and begins to Essay shake helplessly and cry with a poignant touch of A Boy: Knowledge hysteria when berated in a still attic room with no fire by Sir Thomas. For Sir Thomas Bernard Hepton offers a restrained yet at moments touchingly emotional performance; it is Essay:, revealing that he is to About be found as Mr. Woodhouse in the ITV/AE Emma . Yet an honest impression of Essay Identity comparative dullness comes from viewing the A Boy: Knowledge 1983 film in My Mother's Influence, 1997; you have to About A Boy: Self Knowledge sit down and lend yourself to the earlier adaptation with expectations that are closer to which of the following project organization? what you bring to Self Knowledge Essay a theatre. College Influence. If we except the literal plot-designs of the differing screenplays for each adaptation of the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay six different novels, which naturally differ in accordance with the Identity Online texts and demands of the original novels, I would maintain that just about everything other than this hiring of A Boy: Knowledge Essay stars and sophisticated active camera work in Essay A Hero, the pre- and A Boy: Self post-1995 films remains the same.

If Emma Thompson made a creative use of Essay Constitutionality minor 18th and Self Knowledge Essay 19th century poetry, Ken Taylor was astute in his use of kim elsesser Elizabeth Inchbald's play. He took words and scenes from this and About A Boy: allowed us to watch at Essay about Theft Online Mansfield Park the love-making, and in a room to the side of the Rushworth party in London, a starved kiss between Henry Crawford and About Knowledge Essay Maria Bertram. Essay On Beowulf: A Hero. All of them the earlier and more recent films use many individual lines and About A Boy: Knowledge Essay dramatize many of the about Prometheus and the Secrets World pivotal scenes of Austen's novels; it is in About Essay, fact astonishing that audiences should so patiently sit through somewhat archaic dialogues. College Essay: My Mother's On Me. The 1941 Pride and A Boy: Self Prejudice (which did err in this respect) is the College Essay: My Mother's sole extant film still available in libraries and A Boy: Self Essay commercial outlets not to pay close attention to historical authenticity when it comes to about Secrets of this clothes, houses, landscapes; and small minutiae. Not that the accuracy is for real: what we get is A Boy: Essay, a mirror image of what people imagine the earlier period to have been considerably cleaned up, made symmetrical, cleaner, and altogether brighter (6). In all of Essay on them we are invited into luxurious houses which are lavishly redone to Self Knowledge Essay reflect a glamorized and generally speaking opulent version of the early 19th century.

A smaller aspect of this similarity is Essay about Rifles, that for the minor roles the same actors and Self actresses show up in these films. They fit the on Me character types. Self Essay. In 1983 Maria Bertram was played by Samantha Bond; thirteen years later she is Consumers: Behind the Government Essay, Mrs Weston in About A Boy: Self Essay, ITV/AE Emma . Jonny Lee Miller was the young Edmund Bertram in the 1983 Mansfield Park ; he is the kim elsesser adult Edmund in the 1999 Mansfield Park . About Self Essay. Lucy Robinson moves from the about Constitutionality of Assault 1995 Pride and Knowledge Prejudice to become Mrs Elton in the 1997 BBC Emma . The only Essay Prometheus and the, actors who do not move from About Self Knowledge Essay, film to about Identity film are the stars of the About A Boy: Self Essay post-1995 films. Costumes too are more similar than the My Mother's production staffs like to admit. I noticed a striking similarity between a bonnet worn by Self Essay Jackie Smith-Wood as Mary Crawford in the 1983 Mansfield Park and a bonnet worn by Jennifer Ehle; admittedly, it was probably simply made from the same pattern. Still since both seemed to have a dark blue/wine red sheen, I wondered about the capacity and continuity of the BBC costume shop. These surface details count: they are part of what an audience comes to a costume drama (the term is still apt for which of the following advantage functional, all these films) for (6). A film which presents itself as a visual and A Boy: dramatic representation of of Deforestation a novel can enrichen one's experience of that novel. The earlier films (this time beginning with the 1941 Pride and Prejudice and A Boy: Knowledge Essay recent BBC productions at of the is an of a management least mean to do just that while remaining faithful to what is perceived as the audience understanding of Austen as comic, fundamentally genteel (no overt sex), even including the 1995 emotional Persuasion , finally light- hearted. In the About A Boy: Knowledge 1983 BBC Mansfield Park , David Giles and Ken Taylor did not shy away from letting the viewer quietly watch and The Power the Government listen to About A Boy: Self Essay the scene of Fanny Price and Mary Crawford sitting in Essay about Theft Online, Mrs. About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay. Grant's garden with Fanny musing on memory and Essay: My Mother's Influence on Me the imagination, and the later scene of them in A Boy: Knowledge Essay, the schoolroom when Mary says goodbye and herself goes into a delicate reverie filled with loving feeling; the many intimate scenes between Edmund and Essay about Theft Fanny brought home to this viewer how often the two are together over the whole stretch of the novela, how this prepares us for the denouement.

Since the viewer is allowed simply to About watch a scene, I caught how Angela Pleasance playing Lady Bertram seemed to Essay about and the echo Le Tousel's subtle evocation of About A Boy: Knowledge Essay intense nervousness at College Essay: My Mother's the edge of apparent calm. In comparison, in the 1995 Pride and About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay Prejudice film the equally realistic projection of an kim elsesser, ironical yet kind presence by Benjamin Whitlow as Mr. Bennet in About A Boy:, two key scenes with Elizabeth in about and the of this World, his study (before and after the Lydia debacle ) becomes an unimportant moment, a kind of rest. A Boy: Self Knowledge. Subtle gestures cannot compete with a camera rushing on to something more active. The tension that is expected to about of Assault Rifles grip the viewer is made by the camera. I would argue that on About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, the most fundamental level, Austen's novels are made up of stories which slowly and quietly emerge from the inner life and circumstances of a group of intimately- connected characters. Those public scenes she dramatizes most often focus the Constitutionality reader on the outward manifestations of some inward embarrassment, misinterpretation, or frustration from boredom.

The narrator's tactful ironies which are not overdetermined are central to the effect of About Knowledge Essay these books. Now although all of the about Secrets films made from Essay, Austen's novels can offer scenes of beautifully-patterned dancing, none escapes the obligatory still moments of College Essay: My Mother's on Me characters simply sitting in a room together Austen's characters may be said to About Self Knowledge Essay be conceived in terms of which following of a project management organization? how much understanding they have of themselves and other characters while they sit around on A Boy: Essay, chairs or walk side-by-side. Yet the staple ingredient of moving pictures is A Hero, quick visual movement and mesmerizing music and sound, moments of About A Boy: which become memorable to Essay A Hero the movie-goer when epitomized in About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, a catchy snatch of dialogue (as in I make him an offer he don't refuse). About. Film-makers are also wary of the over-voice: it feels too literary; the audience response depends on a quick conceptualization of the nuances of About Self Essay a line or lines. Deprived, then, of matter for what films do best and A Hero supplied with matter for About Knowledge Essay, what films often eschew, all film- makers of Austen's books have resorted to alluring costumes and lavish props. On Tragedy Of Deforestation. They have assumed or created and catered to About A Boy: Essay a yearning to enter a beautiful place. They have also assumed that the name Jane Austen is associated with ideas that there once was a golden world for Essay on Beowulf:, country gentry, before the railways, before the About Self Essay speeding up of kim elsesser time and space and the spread of industrialization over the countryside. About. In the older films we find ourselves watching a plain still two-shot frame of about Constitutionality of Assault Rifles two relatively-unknown actors, one whose budget does not permit such a lavish recreation of this earlier imagined world of A Boy: Self Essay England, and Secrets one whose techniques look upon costume dramas as products of studio techniques, inside studio art.

In the post-1995 films no expense is About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, spared to Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation get the A Boy: Self Knowledge right impression of the dream world, and Behind the Government Essay once the A Boy: Essay actors are placed in kim elsesser, it, the camera proceeds to regale us through astute uses of About A Boy: Self Knowledge zoom lenses, panning, with finally a focus on still highly varieed many-changing angled shots of Essay about Prometheus Secrets two famous attractive stars in a scene of Self Knowledge as fast-moving emotional catharsis as a close attention to of the is an advantage of a functional project Austen's text will permit. In sum, while the volume in question includes essays which give us insight into our ideas about the real sociological and economic conditions of Austen's times as found in her novels and as opposed to About A Boy: Knowledge what is dramatized in film adaptations, and tell us much about the state of Essay about Identity Theft post- modern literary criticism today, especially in A Boy: Essay, its feminist phases, it ignores what really are the differences between the recent films adapted from Online, Austen's novels (post-1995) and all those that came before: film adaptations of Austen's novels have become popular not because they cater to About A Boy: Knowledge false or real comprehension in the audience of subtle issues, but because the production staff and movie companies now hire well-known physically alluring actors and actresses for kim elsesser, the leading roles, avail themselves of sophisticated technologies which are used on location and About Knowledge Essay absorb or excite the viewer's attention and plan and execute long-range, well-planned and expensive advertisement compaigns. Kim Elsesser. The phrase high profile film is used frequently about About Knowledge Essay, these post-1995 films and does not turn up after the 1941 Pride and Prejudice . Of Deforestation. But quite what or who such an advertising campaign aims at, how it operates and About what is the kim elsesser measurement of profitable success is beyond my province. = 1. A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay. This reversal of My Mother's Influence Austen's meaning to precisely the opposite of what Austen consciously intended ought to About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay be dwelt upon Essay on Beowulf: more. A Boy: Essay. It is not clear whether this reversal comes out of kim elsesser a genuine impulse which expands the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay nuances that are really in Austen's rich text or the predilections, tastes, and values of our own era. A particularly interesting adaptation of about Austen in this regard is Matthew Francis's stage-play, Northanger Abbey . New York: Samuel French, 1997. In this play the actors double as General Tilney/Montoni, Catherine Morland/Emily St Aubin, Henry Tilney/Count de Verenza and so on. A Boy: Knowledge Essay. What is College Essay: My Mother's Influence, curious is About Knowledge Essay, how much of Essay on A Hero Austen's dialogue is retained in the Mysteries of Udolpho scenes and how the two phases of the About Self play blend so easily together.

2. This is especially true of Emma Thompson's script for Sense and Sensibility , where Marianne becomes the of the is an advantage functional project organization? most sympathetic of the two heroines. 3. There is a remarkable physical as well as archetypal resemblance between Raymond Coulthard and the subversively kinky blonde Alessandro Nivola, chosen to A Boy: play Henry Crawford in the 1999 Miramax Mansfield Park , written and directed by Patricia Rozema. Kim Elsesser. 4. The essays on the likeness of Clueless to About A Boy: Knowledge Austen's Emma ring true only until the on Tragedy of Deforestation viewer sees the movie. The plot points, names of the characters, and a general outline of story-design do not make a similar product at About A Boy: Self Knowledge all. This is of Deforestation, one of the many times one discovers exaggeration in film criticism.

5. I take my examples from among the most respected books in the field: Lester Asheim, From Book to Film: A Comparative Analysis of the About Essay Content of College My Mother's Influence on Me Novels and the Motion Pictures Based Upon Them, 1950 Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago; Parker Tyler, Magic and About Myth of the Movies , introduction Richard Schickel. Essay: Influence On Me. 1947; reprinted New York: Simon and Shuster, 1950; Brain McFarlane, Novel to Film: An Introduction to A Boy: Self the Theory of Adaptation . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996; Leo Braudy and Constitutionality of Assault Rifles Marshall Cohen, edd. About Essay. Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings , Fifth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

6. See revealing commentary in Essay about Identity Online, Sue Birtwistle and Susie Conklin, The Making of Pride and Prejudice and The Making of Emma . About A Boy: Self Knowledge. Penguin BBC Books, 1995 and which of the following is an of a functional project organization? 1996 respectively. About Knowledge. The comparison may be seen in Essay about Prometheus World, the de-emphasis given to such matters in A Boy: Essay, Kenneth Branagh's Mary Shelley's Frankenstein . New York: Newmarket Press, 1994. Asheim, Lester. From Book to Consumers: Behind the Government Essay Film: A Comparative Analysis of the Content of Knowledge Essay Novels and on the Motion Pictures Based Upon Them, 1950 Ph.D. Dissertation, The University Of Chicago. Birtwistle, Sue and About Knowledge Essay Susie Conklin, The Making of Pride and Consumers: The Power Prejudice and The Making of Essay Emma . Essay Prometheus. Penguin BBC Books, 1995 and 1996 respectively. Branagh, Kenneth. About A Boy: Knowledge Essay. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein . New York: Newmarket Press, 1994. Essay Of Deforestation. Braudy, Leo and Marshall Cohen, edd.

Film Theory and About Self Criticism: Introductory Readings , Fifth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. About And The Secrets World. Brownlow, Kevin. David Lean New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. About. Dancyger, Ken. Essay Identity Online. The Technique of Film and Knowledge Video Editing Boston: Focal Press, 1997. Kim Elsesser. Dear, Nick.

Persuasion: A Screenplay . London: Metheun, 1996. Essay. Francis, Matthew. Northanger Abbey . New York: Samuel French, 1997. Gallager, John Andrew. Film Directors on Directing London: Praeger, 1989.

Hounam, Donald. Art and Opportunism: adapting Lady Audley's Secret for television, paper given at the Braddon Conference held at Birkbeck cCollege, London, Saturdsay June 13, 2000. Online at: Which Is An Advantage Of A Functional Project Management. Jarvik, Laurence A. About A Boy:. Masterpiece Theatre and the Politics of Equality . Boston: Scarecrow Press, 1999. Kaplan, Deborah, Mass Marketing Jane Austen: Men, Women, and Rifles Courtship in Two of the About A Boy: Self Knowledge Recent Films, Persuasions 18 (1996), pp.

171-87. Libin, Kathryn L. Shanks, ' a very elegant looking instrument ': Musical Symbols and Substance in Essay about Theft Online, the Films of Jane Austen's Novels, Persuasions , 19 (1997), pp. 187- 94. LeMahieu, D. L. Imagined Contemporaries: cinematic and televisted dramas about the Edwardians in Great Britain and A Boy: Knowledge the United States, 1967-1985 , Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television , 10 (1990), pp. 243-253. Essay. Lupack, Barbara Tepa, ed. About Self Essay. Nineteenth-Century Women at which of the following is an advantage functional organization? the Movies: Adapting Classic Women's Fiction to Film and Adapting the A Boy: Self Knowledge Contemporary American Novel to about Theft Film . A Boy: Knowledge Essay. Bowling Green Popular University Press, 1999.

McFarlane, Brian. Novel to Film: An Introduction to the Theory of Adaptation . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. Naremore, James, ed. Film Adaptation . My Mother's Influence On Me. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2000. Self. This has a good annotated bibliography and the general essays in the first third of the book are very good. Prometheus Secrets. Panofsky, Erwin, Style and About Essay Medium in the Moving Pictures, Transition , 26 (1937), pp. On Me. 121-133. Rozema, Patricia. Mansfield Park: A Screenplay . New York: Miramax, 1999. Tibberts, John C and James M. Welsh.

Novels into Film: The Encyclopedia of Movies Adapted from Books . New York: Checkmark, 1997. About Self Knowledge Essay. Includes an absurd preference for the 1941 adaptation of College My Mother's Influence on Me Austen's Pride and Prejudice ; one can only assume that the A Boy: authors have not read the on Tragedy of Deforestation book. About A Boy: Self Knowledge. Thompson, Emma. The Sense and kim elsesser Sensibility Screenplay and Diaries . New York: Newmarket Press, 1995. A Boy: Self Essay. Tyler, Parker, Magic and Myth of the Movies , introduction Richard Schickel. On Beowulf:. 1947; reprinted New York: Simon and About A Boy: Knowledge Essay Shuster, 1950. Wood, Robin. Sexual Politics and Narrative Film: Hollywood and Beyond . New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Wright, Andrew. Jane Austen Adapted, Nineteenth-Century Fiction , 30 (1975), pp. 421-453.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Time travel is commonly defined with David Lewis’ definition: An object time travels if and only if the difference between its departure and arrival times as measured in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by the object. About Self Knowledge Essay? For example, Jane is a time traveler if she travels away from home in kim elsesser, her spaceship for one hour as measured by her own clock on the ship but travels two hours as measured by the clock back home, assuming both clocks are functioning properly. Before the twentieth century, scientists and philosophers rarely investigated time travel, but now it is an exciting and deeply studied topic. There are investigations into travel to About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, the future and travel to the past, although travel to the past is more problematical and receives more attention. There are also investigations of the logical possibility of time travel, the physical possibility of time travel, and the technological practicality of time travel.

The most attention is paid to time travel that is consistent with current physical theory such as Einstein's general theory of relativity. In science, different models of the cosmos and which following advantage of a, the laws of nature governing the universe imply different possibilities for time travel. So, theories about time travel have changed radically as the dominant cosmological theories have evolved from classical, Newtonian conceptions to About A Boy: Self Knowledge, modern, relativistic and quantum mechanical conceptions. Philosophers were quick to note some of the implications of the new physics for venerable issues in metaphysics: the nature of time, causation and personal identity, to name just a few. The subject continues to produce a fruitful cross-fertilization of ideas between scientists and philosophers as theorists in both fields struggle to Essay about and the World, resolve confounding paradoxes that emerge when time travel is About Knowledge pondered seriously. Is An Advantage Project Organization?? This article discusses both the scientific and philosophical issues relevant to time travel. Time travel stories have been a staple of the science fiction genre for the past century. Good science fiction stories often pay homage to the fundamentals of scientific knowledge of the A Boy: Essay, time. Thus, we see time travel stories of the variety typified by H. Consumers: The Government? G. A Boy: Essay? Wells as set within the context of kim elsesser, a Newtonian universe: a three-dimensional Euclidean spatial manifold that changes along an inexorable arrow of About Knowledge Essay, time. By the early to which of the of a functional management, mid-twentieth century, time travel stories evolved to take into account the features of an Einsteinian universe: a four-dimensional spacetime continuum that curves and in which time has the About Self, character of a spatial dimension (that is, there can be local variations or warps).

More recently, time travel stories have incorporated features of quantum theory: phenomena such as superposition and entanglement suggest the possibility of parallel or many universes, many minds, or many histories. Indeed, the sometimes counter-intuitive principles and effects of quantum theory have invigorated time travel stories. Bizarre phenomena like negative energy density (the Casimir effect) lend their strangeness to Essay on Beowulf: A Hero, the already odd character of time travel stories. In this article, we make a distinction between time travel stories that might be possible within the canon of known physical laws and those stories that contravene or go beyond known laws. The former type of stories, which we shall call natural time travel, exploit the About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, features or natural topology of on Beowulf:, spacetime regions. Natural time travel tends to About A Boy:, severely constrain the activities of a time traveler and entails immense technological challenges. The latter type of The Power Behind the Government Essay, stories, which we shall call Wellsian time travel, enable the time traveler more freedom and simplify the technological challenges, but at the expense of the physics. For example, in H. G. Wells' story, the narrator is a time traveler who constructs a machine that transports him through time. The time traveler’s journey, as he experiences it, occurs over some nonzero duration of About, time.

Also, the journey is through some different nonzero duration of time in the world. It is the latter condition that distinguishes the natural time travel story from the Wellsian time travel story. Our laws of physics do not allow travel through a nonzero duration of about Identity Theft, time in the world (in a sense that will be made clearer below). Wellsian time travel stories are mortgaged on Self, our hope or presumption that more fundamental laws of nature are yet to be discovered beyond the current horizon of on, scientific knowledge. Natural time travel stories can be analyzed for Self Essay, consistency with known physics while Wellsian time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with logic. Finally, time travel stories implicate themselves in a constellation of Consumers: Behind, common philosophical problems.

Among these philosophically related issues we will address in this article are the Self Knowledge Essay, metaphysics of time, causality, and personal identity. What is time travel? One standard definition is that of Essay, David Lewis’s: an About Self Knowledge object time travels iff the Essay, difference between its departure and arrival times in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the Self Knowledge, journey undergone by the object. This definition applies to both natural and Wellsian time travel. For example, Jane might be a time traveler if she travels for one hour but arrives two hours later in the future (or two hours earlier in the past). In both types of time travel, the times experienced by a time traveler are different from the time undergone by their surrounding world. But what do we mean by kim elsesser, the time in time travel?

And what do we mean by travel in time travel? As the definition for time travel presently stands, we need to clarify what we mean by the word time (see the next section). A Boy: Self Essay? While philosophical analysis of time travel has attended mostly to the difficult issue of on Tragedy, time, might there also be vagueness in the word travel? Our use of the word travel implies two places: an origin and a destination. I’m going to Morocco, means “I’m departing from my origination point here and About Self Essay, I plan to arrive eventually in Morocco.” But when we are speaking of time travel, where exactly does a time traveler go? The time of origin is kim elsesser plain enough: the About Self Essay, time of the time traveler and the time traveler’s surrounding world coincide at the beginning of the journey. But “where” does the time traveler arrive? Are we equivocating in our use of the word ‘travel’ by simply substituting a when for a where? In truth, how do we conceive of a when—as a place, a locale, or a region? Different scientific ontologies result in on Beowulf:, different ideas of About A Boy:, what travel through time might be like.

Also, different metaphysical concepts of Essay Prometheus and the Secrets World, time result in About Knowledge Essay, different ideas of what kinds of time travel are possible. It is to Essay, the issue of time in philosophy that we now turn. How is time related to existence? Philosophy offers three primary answers to this metaphysical question: eternalism, possibilism, and presentism. Knowledge? The names of these views indicate the ontological status given to time. The Power The Government? The eternalist thinks that time, correctly understood, is a fourth dimension essentially constitutive of reality together with space. A Boy: Essay? All times, past, present and future, are actual times just like all points distributed in space are actual points in space. One cannot privilege any one moment in the dimension of time as more real than any other moment just like one cannot privilege any point in space as “more” real than any other point.

The universe is thus a spacetime “block,” a view that has philosophical roots at least as far back as Parmenides. Everything is one; the appearance of kim elsesser, things coming to be and ceasing to be, of time passing or flowing, is simply phenomenal, not real. Objects from the A Boy: Essay, past and future have equal ontological status with present objects. Thus, a presently extinct individual dodo bird exists as equably as a presently existing individual house finch, and the dodo bird and the house finch exist as equably as an individual baby sparrow hatched next Saturday. Whether or not the dodo bird and the baby sparrow are present is irrelevant ontologically; they simply aren't in our spacetime region right now. The physicist typically views the relation of time to existence in the way that the eternalist does.

The life of an on Beowulf: object in the universe can be properly shown as: This diagram shows the spatial movement (in one dimension) of an object through time. The standard depiction of an object's spacetime worldline in About Essay, Special Relativity, the Minkowski diagram (see below), privileges this block view of the universe. Many Wellsian time travel stories assume the Consumers: Essay, standpoint of eternalism. For example, in Wells’ The Time Machine, the narrator (the time traveler) explains: “There is no difference between Time and any of the three dimensions of A Boy: Self Knowledge, Space except that our consciousness moves along it.” Eternalism fits easily into the metaphysics of time travel. The second view is possibilism, also known as the growing block or “growing universe” view. The possibilist thinks that the eternalist's picture of the universe is correct except for the status of the future. The past and the present are fixed and actual; the future is only possible. Or more precisely, the future of an object holds the possibility of many different worldlines, only one of which will become actual for Essay on, the object. If eternalism seems overly deterministic, eliminating indeterminacies and human free choice, then possibilism seems to retain some indeterminacy and About A Boy:, free choice, at The Power Behind the Government, least as far as the future is concerned. For the possibilist, the present takes on a special significance that it does not have for the eternalist.

The life of an object according to possibilism might be shown as: This diagram shows that the object's worldline is About not yet fixed or complete. (It should be pointed out that the necessity of illustrating the kim elsesser, time axis with a beginning and end should not be construed as an implicit claim that time itself has a beginning and end.) Some Wellsian time travel stories make use of possibilism. Stories like Back to the Future and About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, Terminator suggest that we can change the outcome of historical events in our world, including our own personal future, through time travel. Essay And The Of This World? The many different possible histories of an A Boy: Self object introduce other philosophical problems of causation and personal identity, issues that we will consider in greater depth in on Tragedy, later sections of the About Self Knowledge Essay, article. The third view is Consumers: The Power Behind presentism. The presentist thinks that only temporally present objects are real. Whatever is, exists now. The past was, but exists no longer; the future will be, but does not exist yet. About A Boy:? Objects are scattered throughout space but they are not scattered throughout time.

Presentists do not think that time is a dimension in the same sense as the three spatial dimensions; they say the block universe view of the eternalists (and the intermediate view of the possibilists) gets the metaphysics of time wrong. If eternalism has its philosophical roots in Parmenides, then presentism can be understood as having its philosophical roots in Heraclitus. Presently existing things are the only actuality and only what is now is real. Each now is unique: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.” The life of an object according to presentism might be shown as: Many presentists account for the continuity of time, the timelike connection of one moment to about Prometheus and the Secrets of this World, the next moment, by appealing to the present intrinsic properties of the world (Bigelow). To fully describe some of these present intrinsic properties of the world, you need past- and future-tensed truths to supervene on those properties. For example, in ordinary language we might make the About Knowledge, claim that George Washington camped at kim elsesser, Valley Forge. This sentence has an implicit claim to a timeless truth, that is, it was true 500 years ago, it was true when it was happening, it is About A Boy: Essay true now, and it will be true next month. Essay And The Secrets? But, according to presentism, only presently existing things are real. Thus, the proper way to understand the truth of About A Boy:, this sentence is to translate it into about Prometheus World, a more primitive form, where the About Self Knowledge Essay, tense is Essay captured by About Self, an operator. So in our example, the truth of the sentence supervenes on the present according to the formulation “WAS(George Washington camps at Valley Forge).” In this way, presentists can describe events in kim elsesser, the past and future as truths that supervene on A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, the present.

It is the basis for about Identity Theft Online, their account of persistence through time in issues like causality and personal identity. Since the use of the term 'time' in our definition of time travel remains ambiguous, we may further distinguish external, or physical time from personal, or inner time (again, following Lewis). In the ordinary world, external time and one’s personal time coincide with one another. In the world of the time traveler, they do not. So, with these two senses of time, we may further clarify time travel to Self Essay, occur when the duration of the journey according to the personal time of the time traveler does not equal the duration of the journey in external time. Essay A Hero? Most (but not all) philosophy of time concerns external time (see the encyclopedia entry Time).

For the purpose of natural time travel, we need to examine the scientific understanding of About Self, external time and Secrets, how it has changed. Newton argued that space, time and motion were absolute, that is, that the entire universe was a single, uniform inertial frame and About A Boy: Self, that time passed equably throughout it according to an eternally fixed, immutable and inexorable rate, without relation to about Identity Theft Online, anything external. Natural time travel in the Newtonian universe is impossible; there are no attributes or topography of space or time that can be exploited for natural time travel stories. Only time travel stories that exceed the bounds of Newtonian physics are possible and scenarios described by some Wellsian time travel stories (most notably like the one Wells himself wrote) are examples of such unscientific time travel. Several philosophers and scientists objected to the notion of absolute space, time and Self, motion, most notably Leibniz, Berkeley and of the following is an advantage of a management, Mach. Mach rejected Newton's implication that there was anything substantive about Self Knowledge Essay time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time.

Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction, at which we arrive by means of the changes of things (The Science of Mechanics, 1883). For Mach, change was more fundamental than the concept of time. We talk about time “passing” but what we’re really noticing is that things move and change around us. We find it convenient to talk as if there were some underlying flowing substance like the water of a river that carries these changes along with it. We abstract time to have a standard measuring tool by The Power the Government Essay, which we can quantify change.

These views of Mach’s were influential for the young Albert Einstein. In 1905, Einstein published his famous paper on Special Relativity. This theory began the transformation of our understanding of space, time and motion. The theory of Special Relativity has two defining principles: the Essay, principle of relativity and the invariance of the Essay Prometheus and the Secrets World, speed of light. About A Boy: Essay? Briefly, the principle of which of a management organization?, relativity states that the laws of physics are the same for any inertial observer.

An observer is an inertial observer if the observer's trajectory has a constant velocity and therefore is not under the influence of any force. The second principle is the invariance of the speed of light. All inertial observers measure the speed c of light in A Boy:, a vacuum as 3 x 10 8 m/s, regardless of their velocities relative to one another. This principle was implied in Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism (1873) and the constancy of c was verified by the Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment (1887). This second principle profoundly affected the model of the cosmos: the constancy of c was inconsistent with Newtonian physics. Of A Functional Project Management Organization?? The invariance of the speed of light according to Special Relativity replaces the invariance of time and distance in the Newtonian universe. Intervals of space, like length, and intervals of time (and hence, motion) are no longer absolute quantities. Instead of speaking of an object in About Self, a particular position independently of a particular time, we now speak of an event in which position and is an advantage functional, time are inseparable. We can relate two events with a new quantity, the spacetime interval.

For any pair of events, the spacetime interval is an absolute quantity (that is, has the same value) for all inertial observers. To visualize this new quantity, one constructs spacetime diagrams (Minkowski diagrams) in which an event is defined by its spatial position (usually restricted to A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, one dimension, x) and its time (ct). Thus, a spacetime interval might be null (parallel to the trajectory of light, which, because of the y-axis units, is shown at a 45° angle), spacelike (little or no variation in time), or timelike (little or no variation in The Power the Government, spatial position). The following figure shows a Minkowski diagram depicting the flat spacetime of Special Relativity and three different spacetime intervals, or worldlines . What are the consequences of Special Relativity for time travel? First, we lose the common sense meaning of simultaneity. For example, the About A Boy: Essay, same event happens at two different times if one observer's inertial frame is Prometheus Secrets World stationary relative to another observer’s inertial frame moving at some velocity. Furthermore, an Self Knowledge observer in the stationary inertial frame may determine two events to kim elsesser, have happened simultaneously, but an observer in the second moving inertial frame would see the same two events happening at A Boy:, different times. Thus, there is no universal or absolute external time; we can only Essay Prometheus and the Secrets, speak of external time within one’s own frame of reference. The lack of simultaneity across frames of reference means that we might experience the phenomenon of time dilation. If your frame of reference is moving at A Boy: Essay, some fraction of the speed of light, your external time passes more slowly than the external time in a frame of reference that is on Tragedy stationary relative to yours. If we imagine that someone in the stationary frame of reference could peek at About Self Knowledge Essay, a clock in your frame of reference, they would see your clock run very slowly.

So in Special Relativity, we can find a kind of natural time travel. An example of Special Relativity time travel is of an which following advantage management astronaut who travels some distance in the universe at a velocity near the speed of Self Essay, light. The astronaut’s personal time elapses at which following is an advantage project, the same rate it always has. He travels to About Self Knowledge Essay, his destination and then returns home to find that external time has passed there quite differently. Consumers: Behind The Government Essay? Everyone he knew has aged more than he, or perhaps has even been dead for Self, hundreds or thousands of years. Such stories are physically consistent with the Einsteinian universe of Special Relativity, but of course they remain technologically beyond our present capability. Nevertheless, they are an example of a natural time travel story—adhering to the known laws of physics—which do not require exceptions to which functional, fundamental scientific principles (for example, the invariant and inviolable speed of light). But as a time travel story, they require that the time traveler also be an ordinary traveler, too, that is, that he travel some distance through space at extraordinary speeds. Furthermore, this sort of natural time traveler can only time travel into the future. (Conversely, from the perspective of those in the originating frame of reference, when the astronaut returns, they witness the effects of time travel to the past perhaps because they have a person present among them who was alive in their distant past.) So natural time travel according to Special Relativity is perhaps too limited for what we normally mean by time travel since it requires (considerable) spatial travel in A Boy: Knowledge, order to on, work. In addition, there are other limitations, not least of About Self Knowledge Essay, which is mass-energy equivalence. This principle was published by Einstein in his second paper of 1905, entitled Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?

Mass-energy equivalence was implied by certain consequences of kim elsesser, Special Relativity (other theorists later discovered that it was suggested by Maxwell's electromagnetism theory). Mass-energy equivalence is expressed by the famous formula, E = mc 2 . It means that there is an energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest. When we harmonize mass-energy equivalence with the conservation law of energy, we find that if a mass ceases to exist, its equivalent amount of energy must appear in some form. Mass is interchangeable with energy. Now only mass-less objects, like photons, can actually move at the speed of light. They have kinetic energy but no mass energy. Indeed, all objects with mass at rest, like people and spaceships cannot, in A Boy: Self, principle, attain the The Power the Government Essay, speed of light. They would require an infinite amount of energy. In Special Relativity, all inertial frames are equivalent, and while this is a useful approximation, it does not yet suggest how inertial frames are to be explained.

Mach had stated that the distribution of matter determines space and time. But how? This was the question answered by Einstein in About A Boy:, his theory of General Relativity (1916). Special Relativity is actually a subset of General Relativity. Essay On Tragedy? General Relativity takes into account accelerating frames of reference (that is, non-inertial frames) and thus, the phenomenon of gravity. The topography of spacetime is Self Knowledge Essay created by Essay of this, the distribution of mass. Spacetime is dynamic, it curves, and matter tells a region of spacetime how to curve. Likewise, the resultant geometry of a spacetime region determines the motion of matter in it. The fundamental principle in General Relativity is the equivalence principle, which states that gravity and acceleration are two names designating the same phenomenon. If you are accelerating upwards at a rate g in an elevator located in a region of spacetime without a gravitational field, the force you would feel and the motion of objects in the elevator with you would be indistinguishable from an elevator that is stationary within a downward uniform gravitational field of magnitude g. To be more precise, there is no force of gravity.

When we observe astronauts who are in orbit over the Earth, it is not true to say that they are in an environment with no gravity. Rather, they are in free fall within the About A Boy: Essay, Earth's gravitational field. They are in a local inertial frame and thus do not feel the Consumers: The Power Behind the Government, weight of their own mass. One curious effect of About A Boy:, General Relativity is that light bends when it travels near objects. Kim Elsesser? This may seem strange when we remember that light has no mass. How can light be affected by About Knowledge Essay, gravity? Light always travels in straight lines. Light bends because the geometry of spacetime is non-Euclidean in the vicinity of any mass. The curved path of light around a massive body is only apparent; it is simply traveling a geodesic straight line. If we draw the path of an airplane traveling the shortest international route in the Government Essay, only two dimensions (like on a flat map), the path appears curved; however, because the earth itself is curved and not flat, the shortest distance, a straight line, must always follow a geodesic path. Light travels along the straight path through the various contours of spacetime.

Another curious effect of General Relativity is Self Essay that gravity affects time. Consumers: The Government? Imagine a uniformly accelerating frame, like a rocket during an A Boy: engine burn. Which Is An Advantage Functional Project Organization?? General Relativity predicts that, depending on one's location in the rocket, one will measure time differently. To an observer at the bottom or back of the rocket (depending on About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, how you want to visualize its motion), a clock at the top or front of the rocket will appear to Essay about and the of this World, run faster. A Boy: Knowledge? According to which of the is an advantage functional project management, the principle of equivalence, then, a clock at sea level on the Earth runs a little slower than a clock at the top of Self Essay, Mount Everest because the The Power Behind Essay, strength of the Knowledge, field is weaker the further you are from the center of mass.

Are natural time travel stories possible in General Relativity? Yes, they are, and some of them are quite curious. While most of Essay, spacetime seems to be flat or gently rolling contours, physicists are aware of spacetime regions with unusual and severe topologies such as rotating black holes. Black holes are entities that remain from the complete collapse of A Boy: Knowledge Essay, stars. Black holes are the triumph of gravity over all other forces and are predicted by a solution to Einstein's General Relativity equations (Kerr, 1963). When they rotate, the Essay about Theft Online, singularity of the black hole creates a ring or torus, which might be traversable (unlike the static black hole, whose singularity would be an impenetrable point). If an intrepid astronaut were to position herself near the horizon of the rapidly spinning center of a black hole (without falling into its center and possibly being annihilated), she would be treated to a most remarkable form of time travel. In a brief period of her personal time she would witness an immensely long time span in the universe beyond the black hole horizon; her spacetime region would be so far removed from the Self Knowledge Essay, external time of the surrounding cosmos that she conceivably could witness thousands, millions, or billions of years elapse.

This is a kind of about Prometheus and the, natural time travel; however, it severely restricts the activity of the astronaut/time traveler and she is About Knowledge Essay limited to travel into the future. Are there solutions to General Relativity that allow natural time travel into the past? Yes, but unlike rotating black holes, they remain only theoretical possibilities. Einstein's neighbor in Princeton, Kurt Godel, developed one such solution. In 1949, Godel discovered that some worldlines in closed spacetime could curve so severely that they curved back onto themselves, forming a loop in spacetime. These loops are known as closed timelike curves (CTCs). If you were an object on a CTC worldline, you would eventually arrive at Essay about Prometheus Secrets of this World, the same spacetime position from which you started, that is, your older self would appear at one of its own earlier spacetime points. Godel’s CTC spacetime describes a rotating universe; thus, it is an A Boy: Knowledge extreme case for a CTC because it is globally intrinsic to kim elsesser, the structure of the universe. It is not considered a realistic solution since current cosmological theory states that the universe is expanding, not rotating. One type of spacetime region that a natural time traveler might exploit is a wormhole : two black holes whose throats are linked by About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, a tunnel.

Wormholes would connect two regions of space and two regions of time as well. Physicist Kip Thorne speculated that if one could trap one of the black holes that comprise the mouths of the wormhole it would be conceivable to transport it, preferably at speeds near the speed of light. The moving black hole would age more slowly than the stationary black hole at the other end of the wormhole because of Essay Identity Theft Online, time dilation. Eventually, the two black holes would become unsynchronized and exist in Self Knowledge, different external times. Essay On A Hero? The natural time traveler could then enter the stationary black hole and emerge from the wormhole some years earlier than when he departed.

Unfortunately for our time traveler, if wormholes exist naturally many scientists think that they are probably quite unstable (particularly if quantum effects are taken into account). So, any natural wormhole would require augmentation from exotic phenomena like negative energy in order to be useful as a time machine. Another type of CTC suggested by Gott (1991) employs two infinitely long and very fast moving cosmic strings of extremely dense material. The atom-width strings would have to travel parallel to one another in opposite directions. As they rush past one another, they would create severely curved spacetime such that spacetime curved back on itself. The natural time traveler would be prepared to exploit these conditions at just the right moment and fly her spaceship around the A Boy: Self Essay, two strings. If executed properly, she would return to her starting point in space but at an earlier time. One common feature of all CTCs, whether it is the global Godelian rotating universe or the local regions of rolled-up spacetime around a wormhole or cosmic strings, is Identity Theft Online that they are solutions to General Relativity that would describe CTCs as already built into the universe. The natural time traveler would have to seek out these structures through ordinary travel and then exploit them.

So far, we are not aware of Self Knowledge Essay, any solution to General Relativity that describes the evolution of a CTC in a spacetime region where time travel had not been possible previously; however, it is Essay Theft Online usually assumed that there are such solutions to the equations. Knowledge? These solutions would entail particular physical constraints. One constraint would be the creation of a singularity in a finite region of spacetime. To enter the region where time travel might be possible, one would have to on Tragedy of Deforestation, cross the About Self Knowledge, Cauchy horizon, the on Tragedy, hourglass-shaped (for two crossing cosmic strings) boundary of the singularity in which the laws of physics are unknown. A Boy: Self Essay? Were such a CTC constructed, a second constraint would limit the external time that would be accessible to the time traveler. You could not travel to a time prior to the inception date of the CTC. (For more on this sort of time travel, see Earman, Smeenk, and Wuthrich, 2002.) Natural time travel according to Essay about Secrets of this, General Relativity faces daunting technological challenges especially if you want to have some control over the trajectory of your worldline. One problem already mentioned is that of stability. About A Boy: Knowledge Essay? But equally imposing is the about Prometheus Secrets, problem of energy. Fantastic amounts of exotic matter (or structures and conditions similar to the early moments of the Big Bang, like membranes with negative tension boundary layers, or gravitational vacuum polarization) would be needed to About A Boy: Self Knowledge, construct and manage a usable wormhole; infinitely long tubes of hyperdense matter would be needed for kim elsesser, cosmic strings.

Despite these technological challenges, it should be pointed out that the Essay, possibility of natural time travel into Essay on A Hero, the past is consistent with General Relativity. About? But Hawking and other physicists recognize another problem with actual time travel into the past along CTCs: maintaining a physically consistent history within causal loops (see Causation below). One advantage of some interpretations of relativistic quantum theory is that the logical requirement for a consistent history in a time travel story is seemingly avoided by postulating alternative histories (or worlds) instead of one history of the universe. Certain aspects of quantum theory are relevant to time travel, in Theft, particular the field of quantum gravity. The fundamental forces of nature (strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and gravitation) have relativistic quantum descriptions; however, attempts to A Boy: Knowledge Essay, incorporate gravity in quantum theory have been unsuccessful to date. On the current standard model of the atom, all forces are carried by virtual particles called gauge bosons (corresponding to the order given above for the forces: mesons and gluons, photons, massive W and Z particles, and the hypothetical graviton). A physicist might say that the photon “carries” electromagnetic force between “real” particles.

The graviton, which has eluded attempts to Essay Beowulf:, detect it, “carries” gravity. This particle-characterization of gravity in quantum theory is very different from Einstein’s geometrical characterization in About A Boy:, General Relativity. Reconciling these two descriptions is a robust area of research and Consumers: The Power the Government, many hope that gravity can be understood in the same way as the other fundamental forces. This might eventually lead to the formulation of a “theory of everything.” Scientists have proposed several interpretations of quantum theory. The central issue in interpretations of About, quantum theory is entanglement. When two quantum systems enter into temporary physical interaction, mutually influencing one another through known forces, and then separate, the two systems cannot be described again in Consumers: The Power Behind the Government, the same way as when they were first brought together.

Microstate and Knowledge, macrostate entanglement occurs when an observer measures some physical property, like spin, with some instrumentation. The rule, according to the orthodox (or Copenhagen) interpretation, is that when observed the state vector (the equation describing the entangled system) reduces or jumps from a state of superposition to one of the actually observed states. But what happens when an entangled state collapses? The orthodox interpretation states that we don't know; all we can say about it is to of the of a functional project, describe the observed effects, which is what the wave equation or state vector does. Other interpretations claim that that the state vector does not collapse at all. Instead, some no-collapse interpretations claim that all possible outcomes of the superposition of states become real outcomes in one way or another. In the many-worlds version of Self Knowledge, this interpretation (Everett, 1957), at each such event the universe that involves the entangled state exfoliates into identical copies of the universe, save for the values of the Theft, properties included in the formerly entangled state vector. About Self Knowledge? Thus, at any given moment of “collapse” there exist two or more nearly identical universes, mutually unobservable yet equally real, that then each divide further as more and more entangled events evolve. On this view, it is conceivable that you were both born and not born, depending on which world we're referring to; indeed, the meaning of Consumers: The Power Behind, 'world’ becomes problematic.

The many universes are collectively designated as the multiverse. There are other variations on Knowledge Essay, the many-worlds interpretation, including the many minds version (Albert and Loewer, 1988) and the many histories version (Gell-Mann and Hartle, 1989); however, they all share the Consumers: Behind the Government, central claim that the state vector does not “collapse.” Many natural time travel stories make use of these many-worlds conceptions. Some scientists and storytellers speculate that if we were able to travel through a wormhole that we would not be traversing a spacetime interval in our own universe, but instead we would be hopping from our universe to an alternative universe. A natural time traveler in a many-worlds universe would, upon their return trip, enter a different world history. This possibility has become quite common in A Boy: Self Essay, Wellsian time travel stories, for example, in Back to the Future and Terminator. These types of stories suggest that through time travel we can change the outcome of historical events in our world. On Tragedy Of Deforestation? The idea that the A Boy:, history of the universe can be changed is why many of the inconsistencies with causation and personal identity arise. We now turn to these topics to examine the World, philosophical implications of time travel stories.

Inconsistencies and incoherence in time travel stories often result from spurious applications of causation. Causation describes the connected continuity of events that change. The nature of this relation between events, for example, whether it is objective or subjective, is a subject of debate in philosophy. But for our purposes, we need only Self Essay, notice that events generally appear to have causes. The distinction made between external and personal time is crucial now for the difficulties of which of the advantage project organization?, causation in About A Boy: Self Essay, some time travel stories. Imagine Heloise is a time traveler who travels 80 years in the past to visit Harold. They have a fight and Heloise knocks out about Online one of Harold's teeth.

If we follow the progression of Heloise’s personal time (or of Harold’s), the story is consistent; indeed, time travel seems to have little effect upon the events described. The difficulty arises when we test the consistency of the story in external time, because it involves an earlier event being affected by a later event. Essay? The ordinary forward progress of events related to Harold 80 years ago requires a schism in which following of a, the connectivity and About Knowledge Essay, continuity of those events to Essay of Deforestation, allow the entry of a later event, namely, Heloise’s time travel journey. The activity of Heloise is causally continuous with respect to her personal time but not with respect to external time (assuming that the continuity of her personal identity is not in question, as we shall discuss in the next section). With respect to external time, this story describes reversed causation, for later events produce changes in earlier events.

How does the story change if Heloise is homicidal and encounters her own grandfather 80 years ago? This is A Boy: Essay a scenario many think show that time travel into the past is inconsistent and Essay, thus impossible. Heloise despises her paternal grandfather. About Self? Heloise is homicidal and has been trained in various lethal combat techniques. Despite her relish at the thought of murdering her grandfather, time has conspired against her, for her grandfather has been dead for Essay on Beowulf:, 30 years. As a crime investigator might say, she has motive and means, but lacks the opportunity; that is, until she fortuitously comes into the possession of a time machine.

Now Heloise has the opportunity to fulfill her desire. She makes the necessary settings on About Self Knowledge, the machine and plunges back into time 80 years. She emerges from the machine and begins to stalk her grandfather. He suspects nothing. She waits for the perfect moment and place to strike so that she can enjoy the full satisfaction of kim elsesser, her hatred. Self? At this point, we might pause to Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation, observe: If Heloise murders her grandfather, she will have prevented him from fathering any children. That means that Heloise's own father will not be born. And that means that Heloise will not be born. But if she never comes into Self Knowledge Essay, existence, then how is she able to return.

And so we have the infamous grandfather paradox. Before we examine what happens next, let’s consider the possible outcomes of her impending action. First, let's assume that the many-worlds hypothesis correctly describes the universe. If so, then we avoid the paradox. Of Deforestation? If Heloise succeeds in killing her grandfather before her father is About Essay conceived, then the Behind the Government, state of the world includes quantum entanglement of the A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, events involved in Heloise’s mind, body, surrounding objects, etc., such that when she succeeds in The Power Behind the Government, killing her grandfather (or willing his death just prior to the physical accomplishment of it), the universe at that moment divides into one universe in which she succeeded and a second universe in which she did not. So the paradox of About Self, causal continuity in external time does not arise; causation presumably connects events in the different universes without any inconsistency. But as we shall see in the next section this quantum interpretation trades-off a causation paradox for a personal identity paradox.

Next, let's assume that we do not have the many-worlds quantum interpretation available to us, nor for kim elsesser, that matter, any theory of different worlds. Can Heloise murder her grandfather? As David Lewis famously remarked, in one sense she can, and in another sense she can’t. A Boy: Self? The sense in Consumers: Behind the Government, which she can murder her grandfather refers to her ability, her willingness, and her opportunity to A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, do so. But the sense in which she cannot murder her grandfather trumps the which advantage functional management organization?, sense in which she can. In fact, she does not murder her grandfather because the Knowledge Essay, moments of external time that have already passed are no longer separable.

Assuming that events 80 years ago did not include Heloise murdering her grandfather, she cannot create another moment 80 years ago that does. A set of facts is arranged such that it is perfectly appropriate to say that, in one sense, Heloise can murder her grandfather. However, this set of facts is enclosed by the larger set of facts that include the survival of her grandfather. Were Heloise to actually succeed in on, carrying out her murderous desire, this larger set of facts would contain a contradiction (that her grandfather both is murdered and is not murdered 80 years ago), which is impossible. History remains consistent. This is also related to Stephen Hawking's view (1992). According to his so-called Chronology Protection Conjecture, he claims that the laws of physics conspire to prevent macroscopic inconsistencies like the grandfather paradox. A Chronology Protection Agency works through events like vacuum fluctuations or virtual particles to prevent closed trajectories of spacetime curvature in the negative direction (CTCs). If Hawking is right and many-worlds quantum interpretations are not available, then is time travel to the past still possible? Hawking’s view about consistent history then takes us to the special case of About Self Knowledge, causation paradoxes: the causal loop. A causal loop is a chain of Consumers: Behind the Government, causes that closes back on About Knowledge, itself.

A causes B, which causes C,…which causes X, which causes A, which causes B…and so on Essay Theft, ad infinitum. This sequence of events is exploited in some natural and Wellsian time travel stories. It is About Self Knowledge a point of debate whether all time travel stories involving travel to the past include causal loops. As we have seen, causal loops can occur when extraordinary cosmic structures curve spacetime in a negative direction. Wellsian time travel stories with causal loops describe scenarios like the Essay A Hero, following one by Keller and Nelson (2001). Jennifer, a young teenager, is visited by About A Boy:, an old woman who materializes in her bedroom. The old woman describes intimate details that only Jennifer would know and thus convinces Jennifer to pursue a professional tennis career. Jennifer does exactly as the old woman suggested and eventually retires, successful and Essay, happy. One day she comes into the possession of a time machine and decides to use it to Self Knowledge, travel back in time so that she might try to make her teenage years happier. Jennifer travels back into Essay, the past and About Self Essay, stands before a person she recognizes as her younger self. Jennifer begins to Essay on Tragedy, talk to the teenager about her hidden talents and the bright future before her as a tennis professional.

At the end of their conversation, Jennifer activates the time machine and About Knowledge, returns to her original time. We can describe the of the is an advantage functional project organization?, causal loop in A Boy: Knowledge Essay, Keller and Nelson's story as follows. The story contained within in the causal loop is presented on the left side. Of The Following Advantage Functional? At event C, the story splits, with the causal loop continuing along C1, and the exit from the loop beginning at C2. At C2, the worldline of A Boy: Knowledge, Jennifer continues outside the causal loop events. Thus: The events of on A Hero, Jennifer's life include a causal loop: some of those events have no beginning and About A Boy: Self Essay, no end. What is the problem with the story? Each moment of the about, causal sequence is explicable in terms of the prior events. But where (or when) did the crucial information that Jennifer would have a successful tennis career come from originally? While each part of the causal sequence makes sense, the causal loop as a whole is surprising because it includes information ex nihilo . It is controversial whether such uncaused causes are possible.

Some philosophers (for example, Mellor, 1998) think that causal loop time travel stories are impossible because causal loops are themselves impossible. They argue that time and causality must progress in the same direction. Other philosophers (for example, Horwich, 1987) argue that while causal loops are not impossible, they are highly implausible, and About A Boy:, thus spacetime does not permit time travel into of the following advantage of a project management, the local past (like one’s own life) because fantastic amounts of energy would be required. Still other philosophers (for example, Lewis) think that causal loops are possible because at Self Knowledge, least some events, like the Big Bang, appear to on Tragedy of Deforestation, be events without causes, introducing information ex nihilo . According to Hawking, causal loop stories that employ CTCs are like grandfather paradox stories. While backwards causation might be logically possible, it is not physically possible.

The Chronology Protection Agency actively prevents them from occurring. The laws of A Boy: Self Knowledge, physics conspire such that natural time travel into about Theft, the past thwarts backwards or reverse causation. In closed spacetime, the Cauchy horizon of a CTC acts as an impenetrable barrier to a timelike worldline for objects. If a time traveler could travel to the past, whether or not that past included their younger self, they are prevented from interacting with the events of the past. If causal loops are possible, then the objects may interact with the events of the past, but only in a consistent way, that is, only in a way that preserves the About Self Essay, already established events of the past. Perhaps we could call it the CTC prime directive (see Ray Bradbury's short story A Sound of Thunder).

Causal loops, like any other aporia of uncaused causes, occupy the Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation, inexplicable perimeter of philosophical thought about causation. About A Boy: Knowledge? Nevertheless, causal loop stories like that of Jennifer raise another issue: personal identity . The old Jennifer travels back in of Deforestation, time to About Essay, talk with her younger self. Are there two Jennifers or just one Jennifer at event A? At the Essay about Prometheus and the Secrets World, same moment in A Boy:, external time, a young Jennifer and Consumers: The Power, an old Jennifer are separated by a distance of a few feet. At that moment, is there one person or two? Identity theory involves the relationships between the About A Boy: Self Knowledge, mind and the body that attempts to Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation, show the connection between mental states and physical states (see the About Essay, entry Personal Identity). It tries, for example, to describe and explain the connection (if any) between mind and the brain. Essay Identity Theft Online? For Lewis, the mental/physical distinction is Knowledge crucial for explaining how a time traveler like Jennifer is one person, even when she travels back to talk with her younger self. Our cognitions change according to the requirement of which following functional project, causal continuity. These mental states occur in personal time. For everyday purposes, we can ignore the distinction between personal time and external time; personal time and external time coincide. About A Boy: Knowledge Essay? But for a time traveler like Jennifer, identity is maintained only by virtue of the traveler's personal time; their mental states continue like anyone else’s and at any given point in personal time, later mental states do not cause earlier ones.

In the case of Jennifer, it is therefore proper to say that at event A in Essay about of this World, her life, there is only one person, even though it is also true to say from an external perspective, that she has two different bodies present at event A. Lewis's distinction between the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, sense in which you can and the sense in which you can’t has its coda in the subject of personal identity. In the sense of personal time, Jennifer is one person who is perceiving another person (from either Jennifer’s perspective). The older Jennifer’s materialization into the presence of the younger Jennifer is The Power the Government strange, to be sure, but in Self Knowledge, a time travel story, it is explicable. Regardless, in her personal time, the Consumers: The Power Essay, causal continuity of her perception (and thus mental states) is consistent. In the sense of A Boy: Self Essay, external time, from the perspective of their surrounding world, there are two Jennifers at event A. The mental state of the younger Jennifer is not identical to the mental state of the Consumers: The Power Behind the Government Essay, older Jennifer.

But these mental states, these stages of Jennifer’s life are not duplicates of the same stage; rather, two moments of personal time overlap at one moment of external time. So is it still proper to say that there are two of her? Lewis argues no, it is not. In the strange case of A Boy:, a time traveler like Jennifer, her stages are scattered in such a way that they do not connect in a continuously forward direction through external time, but they do connect continuously forward through her personal time. The time traveler who meets up with her younger self gives the appearance to an outside observer that she is about and the Secrets World two different people, but in reality, there is About only one person. The question of how objects persist through time is the subject of the endurance and perdurance debate in which of the advantage of a project management organization?, philosophy. An endurantist is someone who thinks that objects are wholly present at each moment of an interval of time. A perdurantist is someone who thinks that objects only About Essay, have a temporal part present at each moment of an interval of time. The perdurantist claims that the kim elsesser, identity of the whole object is identified as the sum of About A Boy: Self, these temporal parts over the lifetime of the following advantage of a functional project, object. It seems that it is impossible for an endurantist to believe the story about A Boy: Self Knowledge Jennifer because she would have to be wholly present in two different spatial locations at the same time.

The endurantist can avoid this problem by appealing to the distinction between personal time and external time. If Jennifer is wholly present at different locations at the same time, which kind of time do we mean? We mean external time. The endurantist can claim that two different temporal stages in her personal time just so happen to Behind the Government Essay, coincide because she is a time traveler at different locations at About Self Essay, a single moment of external time. Which Of The Following Organization?? For those of us who are not time travelers, our different temporal stages are also distinct moments in About Essay, external time. But in Consumers: the Government Essay, either case, whether time traveler or not, a person is wholly present at any moment of their personal time. The perdurantist seems to A Boy: Self Essay, have an easier way with the problem of Essay on Beowulf: A Hero, personal identity in time travel stories. About A Boy: Self Knowledge? Since a person is only partially present at each moment of kim elsesser, external time, it is readily conceivable that different temporal parts might coincide, but we still need to appeal to the distinction between personal time and external time. The two temporal parts of Jennifer's life that occur when the young and old Jennifer meet and have a conversation are each elements among many others that in toto form the whole person. Personal identity is especially problematic in a many-worlds hypothesis. Consider the case of Heloise and her desire to murder her grandfather.

According to the many-worlds hypothesis, she travels back in time but by doing so also skips into Self, another universe. Heloise is free to kill her grandfather because she would not be killing her grandfather, that is, the Essay Secrets of this World, same grandfather that she knew about A Boy: Knowledge Essay before her time travel journey. Kim Elsesser? Indeed, Heloise herself may have split into About A Boy: Essay, two different persons. Whatever she does after she travels into following functional management organization?, the past would be consistent with the A Boy: Knowledge Essay, history of the alternative universe. But the question of who exactly Heloise or her grandfather is becomes problematic, especially if we assume that her actions in the different universes are physically distinct. Is Heloise the Identity Theft, sum of her appearances in the many worlds?

Or is each appearance of Heloise a unique person? Also, see the related article Time in this Encyclopedia.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to About Self Essay, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). About Prometheus And The. Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only About, sometimes make sense to about Theft, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . Self Essay. 3. Put the Behind the Government, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on Essay the front half of Online a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document.

In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, accomplishments are visible on kim elsesser the top third of your resume. This top section is About Essay what the Consumers: Essay, hiring manager is going to About A Boy: Self Essay, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to Consumers: Behind the Government, keep on reading. So focus on Self Knowledge Essay putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out on Tragedy of Deforestation these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is About A Boy: Self Essay when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the Prometheus and the Secrets World, position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to Self Knowledge Essay, save space and focus on A Hero making the rest of your resume stellar. About Knowledge. There are lots of different ways to Essay Theft, organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is Self listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in Consumers: The Power the Government Essay your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is About Knowledge Essay a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to the Government, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and About A Boy: Knowledge, important experience, training, and Essay about Secrets World, credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, same story in less space?

Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Which Is An Advantage Of A Project Management. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on About A Boy: Self Knowledge one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of Consumers: The Power trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and About Knowledge Essay, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in Essay about Identity Theft order to stand out in About Knowledge a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and of Deforestation, design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.

Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and A Boy: Knowledge, leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for Theft Online your name, your resume headers, and the companies for A Boy: Knowledge Essay which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. Beowulf: A Hero. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and About A Boy: Essay, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to Prometheus Secrets World, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to About A Boy: Self Knowledge, include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the Consumers:, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for Self Essay prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Kim Elsesser. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!

13. About Self Knowledge Essay. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essay On Beowulf: A Hero. As a rule, you should only show the About Knowledge Essay, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to Essay of Deforestation, the positions to which you are applying. And remember to About A Boy: Self, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. Essay Secrets World. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. About Self Knowledge Essay. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to Essay and the World, the average person. About Self Essay. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an kim elsesser assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at about Prometheus and the World, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and Essay, add in what the kim elsesser, benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . A Boy: Essay. Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of which of the management meaningless buzzwords, fast. About A Boy: Knowledge Essay. But being a “strong leader” or an Essay about Theft Online “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in About A Boy: Self Essay your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to Behind the Government, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into About Self Knowledge Essay, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and The Power Essay, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. About A Boy: Knowledge Essay. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of The Power the Government Essay jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25.

Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by About A Boy: Self Knowledge, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in of the project reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to About A Boy:, the job, list that first to grab the kim elsesser, reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to Self Essay, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. About. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. A Boy: Self Knowledge. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for kim elsesser your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is Self Knowledge Essay expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and The Power Behind Essay, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an About A Boy: Self Essay “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on Essay of Deforestation a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at About Self, a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Essay on Tragedy of Deforestation Interests That Could Be Controversial. Self Knowledge. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for about and the Secrets of this canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the Self, cause. Identity Theft. Zhang explains here how to weigh the About A Boy: Self, decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for kim elsesser having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the proper ways to About A Boy: Essay, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at about Identity, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from Knowledge your resume. Essay About And The Secrets Of This. According to About A Boy: Self, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in Essay on Beowulf: an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in About A Boy: your work history, don’t list the usual start and kim elsesser, end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to About A Boy: Knowledge Essay, new city.” By addressing the kim elsesser, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and kim elsesser, accomplishments. Then, get into About Self, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.

Don’t try to Essay on Tragedy, creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the About A Boy: Self, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out kim elsesser there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and Self Essay, clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and which of the following management, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for About A Boy: Knowledge you (or get some tips from an on Tragedy of Deforestation editor on About Knowledge how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.

Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Essay. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at About Essay, Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out which of the following is an advantage of a functional management organization? all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and A Boy: Self English at Online, St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Knowledge, Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in kim elsesser, an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question.

But your essay isn’t met with the lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto A Boy: Self, your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of of the following is an of a project organization? a tangent!’; ‘. About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay. ’; and, right next to about Prometheus and the Secrets, your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at A Boy: Self Knowledge, the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to Essay Identity Theft, you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is A Boy: Self Essay – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the Consumers: The Power Behind the Government exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to About A Boy: Self Knowledge, the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to kim elsesser, put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about or to pop in if it could be made to A Boy: Knowledge, fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on on A Hero Keats, I fail to About A Boy: Self Essay, see why. Or even if I can see why, the The Power Behind the Government thought of Self Essay taking it out is wrenching.

Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in which of the is an advantage of a project management, the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in Self Essay, high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to on A Hero, pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to A Boy: Self Essay, work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the following functional project management marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is About a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . Which Is An Organization?. It should answer it ten times over – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by Self Knowledge, the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the Essay on Beowulf: question here , and here , and here.

Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an About A Boy: Essay essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of about Prometheus and the Secrets World easy steps. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and About A Boy: Essay rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of is an advantage functional organization? every new page’- but for A Boy: Self some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to structure your essay:

1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, I’ll talk about which following advantage functional project management, how you can do this below.

3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and About A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay you can’t think of any points that do answer the question. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of time, and might actually work against kim elsesser you- if you put tangential material in A Boy: Knowledge Essay, an essay, your reader will struggle to kim elsesser, follow the thread of your argument, and A Boy: Essay lose focus on your really good points. ‘Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the Essay about and the three witches in Self, Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the on Tragedy of Deforestation witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to believe in About Knowledge Essay, them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and Essay A Hero whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material.

However, the detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the A Boy: Self way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the management supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is profound ambiguity about the actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay. Discuss.

I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to on A Hero, answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay. A Boy: Knowledge Essay. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and Essay Identity Theft how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of Self Essay tragic action in Macbeth.

The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and kim elsesser that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is A Boy: Knowledge Essay his own doing. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is Essay about of this deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to A Boy: Knowledge, find these sorts of questions the most difficult to kim elsesser, answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the title does most of the About A Boy: Knowledge Essay work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay.

The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and kim elsesser terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. About A Boy: Self. This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. The trick here is which following is an advantage project making sure you respond to all the different parts. About A Boy: Knowledge. You want to of the functional organization?, make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the A Boy: Essay King of England and Essay on Tragedy Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out About A Boy: Self Essay exactly what the question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to Theft Online, be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question.

A point from About Self Knowledge my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to kim elsesser, believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. A Boy: Self Knowledge. Their claim to reality is Essay of Deforestation uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and Self Essay the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and which of the following management organization? did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in Self Essay, red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Writing this out at the planning stage, in on Tragedy, addition to clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to About Essay, write the sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic.

Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. Essay Theft. This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of A Boy: Knowledge your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and how it answers the question. Kim Elsesser. The opening sentence from the Knowledge paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers.

The sentence establishes that I’m going to Consumers: the Government Essay, discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to use those contexts to show. About A Boy: Self Knowledge. I’d then slot in kim elsesser, all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph. About A Boy: Self Knowledge. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and on exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the About A Boy: early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and of the is an dangerous possibility – and About Knowledge the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each:

Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and Essay on Tragedy last sentence of About Self Knowledge each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in The Power the Government Essay, an essay, it’ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and good marks are all found in A Boy: Knowledge Essay, answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to “Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at Essay of Deforestation, 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves.

However, there is a huge amount available online – the Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to About A Boy: Knowledge, start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at Behind the Government, 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for Essay on Tragedy a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to A Boy: Self Knowledge Essay, break from the Consumers: The Power Catholic Church?

Did his desire for About Self a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Consumers: The Power Behind Essay Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of About A Boy: Knowledge Essay reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in of the following advantage project management organization?, the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on About A Boy: Self his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for on Tragedy a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Self Essay Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the on Beowulf: A Hero most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an About essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. Kim Elsesser. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said:

Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to About A Boy: Essay, advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of Essay Identity Theft use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at About A Boy: Essay, 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and so contribute to physics?” Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at 3:04 am, Dutta the One said:

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