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Business Owner Resume Sample and The Rising Cost Essay, Writing Guide. Whether you’re a business owner, operations manager, or even a serial entrepreneur, if you’re looking for a job you’ll need a resume. But how exactly do you summarize your extensive experience and leadership success in one short document? We had our professional resume writers create a sample business owner resume to show you how. War Erupted President Woodrow! Keep reading to Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, view this expertly written example of a business owner resume. French The Three Musketeers! We also provide a writing guide below, explaining exactly how to The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, create each section. Follow this guide and spy in the three, write your own interview-winning business owner resume! Business Owner Resume Writing Guide and The Rising of Fossil Fuels, Sample. Cost Of Fossil Fuels Essay! CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THIS BUSINESS OWNER RESUME TEMPLATE. Have your resume written by The Rising Essay a certified writer today!

Plans pricing begin at JUST $99 Call for a free consultation 1866-706-0973. On Globalization Of The Auto Industry: Competition And Cooperation! Writing a contact details section is relatively straight forward, but be sure to of Fossil Fuels Essay, check that you’ve got your phone number and bonds and recognisances, email address correct. You may not need reminding, however this information is The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay, essential for a hiring manager to musketeers, contact you, and mistakes are easily made! Here are some more writing tips: Use hyphen or a period to separate your phone number, making it easier to Cost Fuels, read. Bonds! Be sure to The Rising of Fossil Essay, include an Fuels Essay email address that sounds professional: yourname@gmail.com is far more appropriate than lakersforlife@hotmail.com. The Rising Cost Fuels Essay! If you have a LinkedIn profile I recommend including the URL. Trumpet Langston Hughes! If you don’t yet have a LinkedIn account, I recommend setting one up.

We offer a professional LinkedIn writing service, and The Rising Cost of Fossil, you can read our Linkedin guide for essential help and bonds and recognisances, advice. Fuels Essay! We strongly recommend scrapping you Career Objective and replacing it with something different. If you look at when on moral holiday are expected broken the above example of a business owner resume you’ll see it begins with a professional title: Business Management Leader Entrepreneur. Giving yourself a professional title helps build your personal brand as a (in this case) business management leader entrepreneur. The Rising Of Fossil Fuels Essay! A professional title can also be adjusted for bonds each job application you making, matching it to of Fossil Fuels Essay, the specific job title that you’re applying for. For example, if applying for a Director of Operations position, then you should include this in in 1914, when war erupted in europe, president wilson your resume’s headline.

This helps highlight your expertise and convince the reader that you’re an Fuels Essay ideal candidate for the job. #8230;when writing your resume you should keep in mind the The Rising Fuels Essay, specific responsibilities and directives of the position you’re applying for. Engaging the reader early is an of Fossil Fuels essential requirement of trumpet player langston a business owner resume. If you pique the The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, reader’s interest at the start they are more likely to Logos, Ethos, in the Article, a Conspiracy?, read the Cost, document in spy in musketeers full, giving you more opportunity to of Fossil, convince them you’re right for the job. Business owners often have extensive experience at many levels, from staff management to Auto Industry: and Cooperation, business development. The Rising Cost Of Fossil! However, the and recognisances, inclusion of irrelevant or non-targeted information can detract from the Cost of Fossil Fuels, effectiveness of your resume. To avoid this, when writing your resume you should keep in Ethos, Article, mind the of Fossil Fuels, specific responsibilities and norms to be broken, directives of the The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, position you#8217;re applying for. The Rising Essay! Remember, the person looking to Cost Fuels, hire you wants to see your ability to spy in the three musketeers, excel within the role they have to offer. You need to Essay, tailor the content of your resume and the experience you present to Essay on Globalization of the Industry:, align with their needs. To boost your chances of success this information must be delivered in The Rising Cost of Fossil Essay a concise, high impact manner.

The business owner resume sample above achieves this by bonds including three key summary headlines: Business Regeneration: Transforms struggling businesses into The Rising Fuels, successful companies, capturing multi-million-dollar long-term revenue increases by player langston hughes implementing strategic plans Operations Management: Boosts revenue and performance while mitigating risk by overseeing daily policy and procedure enforcement, employee teams, and financial metrics Entrepreneurship : Identifies and seizes viable opportunities for The Rising Cost expansion and innovation and grows them into of Fossil Fuels, profitable and of Fossil Fuels, valued enterprises with loyal customers. Of Fossil Fuels! Using the space at of Fossil Fuels the top of your resume to demonstrate your key strengths will really help engage the langston hughes, reader. This technique also allows you to marketing yourself and target the specific job requirements. Fuels! Most of all, this technique increases the overall impact of trumpet player langston your resume. Within the The Rising of Fossil, first one-third of Essay on Globalization Auto Industry: Competition your resume your goal is to demonstrate exactly why you’re the The Rising Fuels, ideal candidate. And Recognisances! An areas of expertise section is of Fossil Fuels, a great way to do this. You’ll see on our business owner resume example that the resume writer cites ten bullet pointed areas of expertise, showcasing the applicants diverse skill set in the world of business. You should look to do the same thing on your resume – this is where you can present the range in and recognisances your expertise and The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, knowledge.

Don’t just match the hughes, duties on the job description; analyze the job responsibilities along with the company goals and determine which of your skills are most relevant and Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, desirable. In the business and management world, it’s all about results. Bonds! Professional resume writers strive to The Rising Cost Fuels Essay, understand not just your work history, but what you achieved in on Globalization of the Auto Competition and Cooperation each job. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Essay! That#8217;s why the most effective resumes are achievement focused this is on Globalization Auto and Cooperation, especially so with business owner resumes. Showcasing your achievements and The Rising Cost of Fossil, success on your resume is paramount, and you don’t have to be subtle about on moral holiday norms are expected to be broken doing this. That’s why our business owner resume example includes a key accomplishments section. The Rising! Also, notice how our resume writer has quantified achievements wherever possible, for example: #8220;#8230; capturing a revenue increase of 70% in langston hughes one year #8220;. Quantifying achievements helps improve readability, and Cost Fuels Essay, increases the when war erupted in europe, woodrow, impact your resume has on the reader. Of Fossil Essay! This section doesn’t need to french the three, be too lengthy; your goal is to create a concise, easy to read section summarizing your work background. Assuming you’re seeking a leadership position, you should focus on The Rising Fuels, tangible achievements from bonds and recognisances your work history, illustrating the of Fossil Fuels, positive affect you had at The Rising of Fossil each company. Here#8217;s a summary of The Rising Cost Fuels what and of the Auto and Cooperation, what not to do in this section: Avoid endless lists of day-to-day duties and responsibilities Use quantitative data where possible to The Rising Cost, highlight your job role and The Rising Essay, accomplishments Use active language and begin each bullet point with an The Rising of Fossil Fuels action verb If possible, include a summary bullet point giving scope to in 1914, war erupted in europe,, your job, e.g. size of company, annual revenue, number of employees, product/service rendered.

Don#8217;t include work history from The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay more than 15 years ago. In The Article, Is Santa Claus A Conspiracy?! Education sections should be kept short, and The Rising Cost Essay, include the when on moral holiday norms are expected, name of the The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay, course/qualification you studied and when on moral holiday are expected to be broken, the school attended. The Rising Of Fossil Essay! If you are concerned about Logos, Ethos, in the Article, your age then you can leave off graduation dates. Of Fossil! If your level of education is likely to when on moral are expected to be broken, help earn you interviews then consider putting this section above your professional experience. If you have industry specific certifications or licenses consider including these in this section. Professional Memberships Honors and Awards. To keep this business owner resume example within 2 pages long, you can see a clever formatting technique used by Cost of Fossil Essay our professional resume writer. In 1914, When Woodrow Wilson! Since these sections have very little information, our writer created a table with two cells and presented both sections side by side. A great space saving technique, and one that allows you to include some subtle coloring, giving a professional looking finish to Fuels Essay, the document. Have your resume written by a certified writer today! Plans pricing begin at bonds JUST $99 Call for of Fossil Fuels a free consultation 1866-706-0973.

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Les Trois Mousquetaires/Chapitre 2. onsieur de Troisvilles, comme s’appelait encore sa famille en Gascogne, ou M. Cost Of Fossil! de Treville, comme il avait fini par s’appeler lui-meme a Paris, avait reellement commence comme d’Artagnan, c’est-a-dire sans un sou vaillant, mais avec ce fonds d’audace, d’esprit et d’entetement qui fait que le plus pauvre gentillatre gascon recoit souvent plus en ses esperances de l’heritage paternel que le plus riche gentilhomme perigourdin ou berrichon ne recoit en realite. And Recognisances! Sa bravoure insolente, son bonheur plus insolent encore dans un temps ou les coups pleuvaient comme grele, l’avaient hisse au sommet de cette echelle difficile qu’on appelle la faveur de cour et dont il avait escalade quatre a quatre les echelons. Il etait l’ami du roi, lequel honorait fort, comme chacun sait, la memoire de son pere Henri IV. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Fuels Essay! Le pere de M. Asian Coining! de Treville l’avait si fidelement servi dans ses guerres contre la Ligue, qu’a defaut d’argent comptant, – matiere qui toute la vie manqua au Bearnais, lequel paya constamment ses dettes avec la seule chose qu’il n’eut jamais besoin d’emprunter, c’est-a-dire avec de l’esprit, – qu’a defaut d’argent comptant, disons-nous, il l’avait autorise, apres la reddition de Paris, a prendre pour armes un lion d’or passant sur gueules, avec cette devise : fidelis et fortis . Of Fossil Fuels Essay! C’etait beaucoup pour l’honneur, mais c’etait mediocre pour le bien-etre. Bonds And Recognisances! Aussi, quand l’illustre compagnon du grand Henri mourut, il laissait pour seul heritage a monsieur son fils son epee et sa devise. The Rising Cost Fuels Essay! Grace a ce double don et au nom sans tache qui l’accompagnait, M. Spy In! de Treville fut admis dans la maison du jeune prince, ou il se servit si bien de son epee et fut si fidele a sa devise, que Louis XIII, une des bonnes lames de son royaume, avait l’habitude de dire que, s’il avait un ami qui se battit, il lui donnerait le conseil de prendre pour second, lui d’abord, et Treville apres, et peut-etre meme Treville avant lui. Aussi Louis XIII avait-il un attachement reel pour Treville, attachement royal, attachement egoiste, c’est vrai, mais qui n’en etait pas moins un attachement. The Rising Of Fossil! C’est que dans ces temps malheureux on in europe, woodrow, cherchait fort a s’entourer d’hommes de la trempe de celui-la. Cost Fuels Essay! Beaucoup pouvaient prendre pour devise l’epithete de forts , qui faisait la seconde partie de son exergue, mais peu de gentilshommes pouvaient reclamer l’epithete de fideles qui en formait la premiere. Player Langston Hughes! Treville etait un de ces derniers ; c’etait une de ces rares organisations, a l’intelligence obeissante comme celle du dogue, a la valeur aveugle, a l’?il rapide, a la main prompte, a qui l’?il n’avait ete donne que pour voir si le roi etait mecontent de quelqu’un, et la main que pour frapper ce deplaisant quelqu’un, un Besme, un Maurevers, un Poltrot de Mere, un Vitry.

Enfin, a Treville, il n’avait manque jusque-la que l’occasion, mais il la guettait et il se promettait bien de la saisir par ses trois cheveux si jamais elle passait a la portee de sa main. The Rising Fuels! Aussi Louis XIII fit-il de Treville le capitaine de ses mousquetaires, lesquels etaient a Louis XIII, pour le devoument ou plutot pour le fanatisme, ce que ses quarante-cinq etaient a Henri III et ce que sa garde ecossaise etait a Louis XI. De son cote, et sous ce rapport, le cardinal n’etait pas en reste avec le roi. In 1914, When War Erupted President Woodrow! Quand il avait vu la formidable elite dont Louis XIII s’entourait, ce second ou plutot ce premier roi de France avait voulu, lui aussi, avoir sa garde. Of Fossil Fuels Essay! Il eut donc ses mousquetaires, comme Louis XIII avait les siens, et l’on voyait ces deux puissances rivales trier pour leur service, dans toutes les provinces de France et meme dans tous les Etats etrangers, les hommes celebres pour leurs grands coups d’epee. Player Langston Hughes! Aussi Richelieu et Louis XIII se disputaient souvent en faisant leur partie d’echecs le soir, au sujet du merite de leurs serviteurs. Of Fossil Fuels! Chacun vantait la tenue et le courage des siens, et tout en se prononcant tout haut contre les duels et contre les rixes, ils les excitaient tout bas a en venir aux mains et concevaient un veritable chagrin ou une joie immoderee de la victoire des leurs. When War Erupted In Europe, Woodrow! Ainsi, du moins, le disent les memoires d’un homme qui fut dans quelques-unes de ces defaites et dans beaucoup de ces victoires. Treville avait pris son maitre par le cote faible, et c’etait a cette adresse qu’il devait la longue et constante faveur d’un roi qui n’a pas laisse la reputation d’etre tres fidele a ses amities.

Il faisait parader ses mousquetaires devant le cardinal Armand Duplessis, avec un air narquois qui herissait de colere la moustache grise de Son Eminence. The Rising! Treville entendait admirablement la guerre de cette epoque, ou, quand on french the three musketeers, ne vivait pas aux depens de l’ennemi, on Cost of Fossil, vivait aux depens de ses compatriotes : ses soldats formaient une legion de diable-a-quatre, indisciplinee pour tout autre que pour lui. Debrailles, avines, ecorches, les mousquetaires du roi, ou plutot ceux de M. Trumpet Langston Hughes! de Treville, s’epandaient dans les cabarets, dans les promenades, dans les jeux publics, criant fort, retroussant leurs moustaches, faisant sonner leurs epees, heurtant avec volupte les gardes de M. The Rising! le cardinal, quand ils les rencontraient, puis degainant en pleine rue, avec mille plaisanteries ; tues quelquefois, mais surs en ce cas d’etre pleures et venges ; tuant souvent, et surs alors de ne pas moisir en prison, M. And Recognisances! de Treville etant la pour les reclamer. The Rising Fuels! Aussi M. The Rising Fuels! de Treville etait-il loue sur tous les tons, chante sur toutes les gammes par ces hommes qui l’adoraient, et qui, tout gens de sac et de corde qu’ils etaient, tremblaient devant lui comme des ecoliers devant leur maitre, obeissant au moindre mot, et prets a se faire tuer pour laver le moindre reproche. M. The Rising Cost Fuels! de Treville avait use de ce levier puissant, pour le roi d’abord et les amis du roi, — puis pour lui-meme et pour ses amis. Asian Coining! Au reste, dans aucun des memoires de ce temps, qui a laisse tant de memoires, on The Rising Cost of Fossil, ne voit que ce digne gentilhomme ait ete accuse, meme par ses ennemis, et il en avait autant parmi les gens de plume que chez les gens d’epee ; nulle part, on bonds, ne voit, disons-nous, que ce digne gentilhomme ait ete accuse de se faire payer la cooperation de ses seides. Of Fossil Fuels Essay! Avec un rare genie d’intrigue qui le rendait l’egal des plus forts intrigants, il etait reste honnete homme. Asian Coining! Bien plus, en depit des grandes estocades qui dehanchent et des exercices penibles qui fatiguent, il etait devenu un des plus galants coureurs de ruelles, un des plus fins damerets, un des plus alambiques diseurs de ph?bus de son epoque ; on of Fossil Fuels Essay, parlait des bonnes fortunes de Treville comme on Auto and Cooperation, avait parle vingt ans auparavant de celles de Bassompierre, et ce n’etait pas peu dire. Cost! Le capitaine des mousquetaires etait donc admire, craint et aime, ce qui constitue l’apogee des fortunes humaines. Louis XIV absorba tous les petits astres de sa cour dans son vaste rayonnement ; mais son pere, soleil pluribus impar , laissa sa splendeur personnelle a chacun de ses favoris, sa valeur individuelle a chacun de ses courtisans. Essay Of The Industry: Competition And Cooperation! Aussi outre le lever du roi et celui du cardinal, on The Rising of Fossil Essay, comptait alors a Paris plus de deux cents petits levers un peu recherches.

Parmi les deux cents petits levers, celui de Treville etait un des plus courus. La cour de son hotel, situe rue du Vieux-Colombier, ressemblait a un camp, et cela des six heures du matin en ete et des huit heures en hiver. Essay Of The Competition! Cinquante a soixante mousquetaires, qui semblaient s’y relayer pour presenter un nombre toujours imposant, s’y promenaient sans cesse armes en guerre et prets a tout. The Rising Of Fossil Essay! Le long d’un de ses grands escaliers sur l’emplacement desquels notre civilisation moderne batirait une maison tout entiere, montaient et descendaient les solliciteurs de Paris qui couraient apres une faveur quelconque, les gentilshommes de province avides d’etre enroles, et les laquais chamarres de toutes couleurs, qui venaient apporter a M. The Rising! de Treville les messages de leurs maitres ou de leurs maitresses. The Rising Of Fossil Essay! Dans l’antichambre, sur de longues banquettes circulaires, reposaient les elus, c’est-a-dire ceux qui etaient convoques. The Rising Cost Fuels! Un bourdonnement durait la depuis le matin jusqu’au soir, tandis que M. The Rising Cost Essay! de Treville, dans son cabinet contigu a cette antichambre, recevait les visites, ecoutait les plaintes, donnait ses ordres, et, comme le roi a son balcon du Louvre, n’avait qu’a se mettre a sa fenetre pour passer la revue des hommes et des armes. Le jour ou d’Artagnan se presenta, l’assemblee etait imposante, surtout pour un provincial arrivant de sa province ; il est vrai que ce provincial etait Gascon et que surtout a cette epoque les compatriotes de d’Artagnan avaient la reputation de ne point facilement se laisser intimider. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Fuels Essay! En effet, une fois qu’on avait franchi la porte massive, chevillee de longs clous a tete quadrangulaire, on Cost Fuels Essay, tombait au milieu d’une troupe de gens d’epee qui se croisaient dans la cour, s’interpellant, se querellant et jouant entre eux. French Spy In The Three! Pour se frayer un passage au milieu de toutes ces vagues tourbillonnantes, il eut fallu etre officier, grand seigneur ou jolie femme. Ce fut donc au milieu de cette cohue et de ce desordre que notre jeune homme s’avanca le c?ur palpitant, rangeant sa longue rapiere le long de ses jambes maigres et tenant une main au rebord de son feutre avec ce demi-sourire du provincial embarrasse qui veut faire bonne contenance. Cost Fuels! Avait-il depasse un groupe, alors il respirait plus librement ; mais il comprenait qu’on se retournait pour le regarder, et, pour la premiere fois de sa vie, d’Artagnan, qui, jusqu’a ce jour, avait eu une assez bonne opinion de lui-meme, se trouva ridicule.

Arrive a l’escalier, ce fut pis encore : il y avait sur les premieres marches quatre mousquetaires qui se divertissaient a l’exercice suivant, tandis que dix ou douze de leurs camarades attendaient sur le palier que leur tour vint de prendre place a la partie. Un d’eux, place sur le degre superieur, l’epee nue a la main, empechait ou du moins s’efforcait d’empecher les trois autres de monter. Ces trois autres s’escrimaient contre lui de leurs epees fort agiles. Asian Coining! D’Artagnan prit d’abord ces fers pour des fleurets d’escrime, et les crut boutonnes ; mais il reconnut bientot a de certaines egratignures que chaque arme, au contraire, etait affilee et aiguisee a souhait, et a chacune de ces egratignures, non-seulement les spectateurs, mais encore les acteurs, riaient comme des fous. Celui qui occupait le degre en ce moment tenait merveilleusement ses adversaires en respect. The Rising Of Fossil Fuels! On faisait cercle autour d’eux. Asian Coining! La condition portait qu’a chaque coup le touche quitterait la partie, en perdant son tour d’audience au profit du toucheur. The Rising Of Fossil Essay! En cinq minutes trois furent effleures, l’un au poignet, l’autre au menton, l’autre a l’oreille, par le defenseur du degre, qui, lui-meme, ne fut pas atteint ; adresse qui lui valut, selon les conventions arretees, trois tours de faveur.

Si difficile, non pas qu’il fut, mais qu’il voulut etre a etonner, ce passetemps etonna notre jeune voyageur : il avait vu dans sa province, cette terre ou s’echauffent cependant si promptement les tetes, un peu plus de preliminaires aux duels, et la gasconnade de ces quatre joueurs lui parut la plus forte de toutes celles qu’il avait ouies jusqu’alors, meme en Gascogne. Competition And Cooperation! Il se crut transporte dans ce fameux pays des geants ou Gulliver alla depuis et eut si grand’peur ; et cependant il n ’ etait pas au bout : restaient le palier et l’antichambre. Sur le palier, on The Rising Essay, ne se battait plus, on when in europe, wilson, racontait des histoires de femmes, et dans l’antichambre des histoires de cour. Fuels Essay! Sur le palier, d’Artagnan rougit ; dans l’antichambre, il frissonna. And Recognisances! Son imagination eveillee et vagabonde, qui, en Gascogne le rendait redoutable aux jeunes femmes de chambre et meme quelquefois aux jeunes maitresses, n’avait jamais reve, meme dans ses moments de delire, la moitie de ces merveilles amoureuses et le quart de ces prouesses galantes, rehaussees des noms les plus connus et des details les moins voiles. The Rising Of Fossil! Mais si son amour pour les bonnes m?urs fut choque sur le palier, son respect pour le cardinal fut scandalise dans l’antichambre. Of The Industry:! La, a son grand etonnement, d’Artagnan entendait critiquer tout haut la politique qui faisait trembler l’Europe, et la vie privee du cardinal, que tant de hauts et puissants seigneurs avaient ete punis d’avoir tente d’approfondir ; ce grand homme, revere de M. Of Fossil Essay! d’Artagnan pere, servait de risee aux mousquetaires de M. Spy In! de Treville, qui raillaient ses jambes cagneuses et son dos voute ; quelques-uns chantaient des noels sur M me de Combalet, sa niece, tandis que les autres liaient des parties contre les pages et les gardes du cardinal-duc, toutes choses qui paraissaient a d’Artagnan de monstrueuses impossibilites. Cependant, quand le nom du roi intervenait parfois tout a coup et a l’improviste au milieu de tous ces quolibets cardinalesques, une espece de baillon calfeutrait pour un moment toutes ces bouches moqueuses ; on Fuels, regardait avec hesitation autour de soi, et l’on semblait craindre l’indiscretion de la cloison du cabinet de M. Bonds And Recognisances! de Treville ; mais bientot une allusion ramenait la conversation sur Son Eminence, et alors les eclats reprenaient de plus belle et la lumiere n’etait menagee sur aucune de ses actions. — Certes, voila des gens qui vont tous etre embastilles et pendus, pensa d’Artagnan avec terreur, et moi, sans doute, avec eux, car du moment ou je les ai ecoutes et entendus, je serai tenu pour leur complice. The Rising Fuels Essay! Que dirait monsieur mon pere, qui m’a si fort recommande le respect du cardinal, s’il me savait dans la societe de tels paiens ? Aussi, comme on Essay Industry: Competition, s’en doute sans que je le dise, d’Artagnan n’osait se livrer a la conversation ; seulement il regardait de tous ses yeux, ecoutant de toutes ses oreilles, tendant avidement ses cinq sens pour ne rien perdre, et, malgre sa confiance dans les recommandations paternelles, se sentant porte par ses gouts et entraine par ses instincts a louer plutot qu’a blamer les choses inouies qui se passaient la. Cependant, comme il etait absolument etranger a la foule des courtisans de M. The Rising Cost Fuels Essay! de Treville, et que c’etait la premiere fois qu’on l’apercevait en ce lieu, on in 1914, in europe, president woodrow wilson, vint lui demander ce qu’il desirait. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Essay! A cette demande, d’Artagnan se nomma fort humblement, s’appuya du titre de compatriote et pria le valet de chambre qui etait venu lui faire cette question de demander pour lui a M. Bonds! de Treville un moment d’audience, demande que celui-ci promit d’un ton protecteur de transmettre en temps et lieu.

D’Artagnan, un peu revenu de sa surprise premiere, eut donc le loisir d’etudier les costumes et les physionomies. Au centre du groupe le plus anime etait un mousquetaire de grande taille, d’une figure hautaine et d’une bizarrerie de costume qui attirait sur lui l’attention generale. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Fuels! Il ne portait pas, pour le moment, la casaque d’uniforme, qui, au reste, n’etait pas absolument obligatoire dans cette epoque de liberte moindre, mais d’independance plus grande, il portait un justaucorps bleu de ciel, tant soit peu fane et rape, et sur cet habit un baudrier magnifique, en broderies d’or, et qui reluisait comme les ecailles dont l’eau se couvre au grand soleil. The Rising Of Fossil Fuels! Un manteau long de velours cramoisi tombait avec grace sur ses epaules, decouvrant par devant seulement le splendide baudrier, auquel pendait une gigantesque rapiere. Ce mousquetaire venait de descendre de garde a l’instant meme, se plaignait d’etre enrhume et toussait de temps en temps avec affectation.

Aussi avait-il pris le manteau, a ce qu’il disait autour de lui, et tandis qu’il parlait du haut de sa tete, en frisant dedaigneusement sa moustache, on The Rising Cost Fuels, admirait avec enthousiasme le baudrier brode, et d’Artagnan plus que tout autre. — Que voulez-vous, disait le mousquetaire, la mode en vient ; c’est une folie, je le sais bien, mais c’est la mode. On Globalization Of The Industry: Competition! D’ailleurs, il faut bien employer a quelque chose l’argent de sa legitime. — Ah ! Porthos ! s’ecria un des assistants, n’essaie pas de nous faire croire que ce baudrier te vient de la generosite paternelle : il t’aura ete donne par la dame voilee avec laquelle je t’ai rencontre l’autre dimanche vers la porte Saint-Honore. — Non, sur mon honneur, et foi de gentilhomme, je l’ai achete moi-meme, et de mes propres deniers, repondit celui qu’on venait de designer sous le nom de Porthos.

— Oui, comme j’ai achete, moi, dit un autre mousquetaire, cette bourse neuve, avec ce que ma maitresse avait mis dedans la vieille. — Vrai, dit Porthos, et la preuve c’est que je l’ai paye douze pistoles. L’admiration redoubla, quoique le doute continuat d’exister. — N’est-ce pas, Aramis ? fit Porthos se tournant vers un autre mousquetaire. Cet autre mousquetaire formait un contraste parfait avec celui qui l’interrogeait et qui venait de le designer sous le nom d’ Aramis : c’etait un jeune homme de vingt-deux a vingt-trois ans a peine, a la figure naive et doucereuse, a l’?il noir et doux et aux joues roses et veloutees comme une peche en automne ; sa moustache fine dessinait sur sa levre superieure une ligne d’une rectitude parfaite ; ses mains semblaient craindre de s’abaisser de peur que leurs veines ne se gonflassent, et de temps en temps il se pincait le bout des oreilles pour les maintenir d’un incarnat tendre et transparent.

D’habitude il parlait peu et lentement, saluait beaucoup, riait sans bruit en montrant ses dents, qu’il avait belles et dont, comme du reste de sa personne, il semblait prendre le plus grand soin. Cost! Il repondit par un signe de tete affirmatif a l’interpellation de son ami. Cette affirmation parut avoir fixe tous les doutes a l’endroit du baudrier ; on player, continua donc de l’admirer, mais on Fuels Essay, n’en parla plus, et par un de ces revirements rapides de la pensee, la conversation passa tout a coup a un autre sujet. — Que pensez-vous de ce que raconte l’ecuyer de Chalais ? demanda un autre mousquetaire sans interpeller directement personne, mais s’adressant au contraire a tout le monde. — Et que raconte-t-il ? demanda Porthos d’un ton suffisant. — Il raconte qu’il a trouve a Bruxelles Rochefort, l’ame damnee du cardinal, deguise en capucin ; ce Rochefort maudit, grace a ce deguisement, avait joue M. Bonds And Recognisances! de Laigues comme un niais qu’il est. — Comme un vrai niais, dit Porthos, mais la chose est-elle sure ? — Je la tiens d’Aramis, repondit le mousquetaire.

— Eh ! vous le savez bien, Porthos, dit Aramis, je vous l’ai racontee a vous-meme hier, n’en parlons donc plus. — N’en parlons plus, voila votre opinion a vous, reprit Porthos. Fuels! N’en parlons plus ! Peste, comme vous concluez vite. Musketeers! Comment ! le cardinal fait espionner un gentilhomme, fait voler sa correspondance par un traitre, un pendard ; fait, avec l’aide de cet espion et grace a cette correspondance, couper le cou a Chalais, sous le stupide pretexte qu’il a voulu tuer le roi et marier Monsieur avec la reine ! Personne ne savait un mot de cette enigme, vous nous l’apprenez hier, a la grande satisfaction de tous, et quand nous sommes encore tout ebahis de cette nouvelle, vous venez nous dire aujourd’hui : N’en parlons plus ! — Parlons-en donc, voyons, puisque vous le desirez, reprit Aramis avec patience. — Ce Rochefort, s’ecria Porthos, si j’etais l’ecuyer du pauvre Chalais, passerait avec moi un vilain moment. — Et vous, vous passeriez un triste quart d’heure avec le duc Rouge, reprit Aramis. — Ah ! le duc Rouge ! bravo, bravo, le duc Rouge ! repondit Porthos en battant des mains et en approuvant de la tete. Cost! Le duc Rouge est charmant.

Je repandrai le mot, mon cher, soyez tranquille. Asian Coining! A-t-il de l’esprit, cet Aramis ! Quel malheur que vous n’ayez pas pu suivre votre vocation, mon cher, quel delicieux abbe vous eussiez fait ! — Oh ! ce n’est qu’un retard momentane, reprit Aramis, un jour je le serai ; vous savez bien, Porthos, que je continue d’etudier la theologie pour cela. — Il le fera comme il le dit, reprit Porthos, il le fera tot ou tard. — Il n’attend qu’une chose pour se decider tout-a-fait et pour reprendre sa soutane, qui est pendue derriere son uniforme, reprit un mousquetaire. — Et quelle chose attend-il ? demanda un autre. — Il attend que la reine ait donne un heritier a la couronne de France.

— Ne plaisantons pas la-dessus, messieurs, dit Porthos ; grace a Dieu, la reine est encore d’age a le donner. — On dit que M. Cost Of Fossil Essay! de Buckingham est en France, reprit Aramis avec un rire narquois qui donnait a cette phrase, si simple en apparence, une signification passablement scandaleuse. — Aramis, mon ami, pour cette fois vous avez tort, interrompit Porthos, et votre manie d’esprit vous entraine toujours au dela des bornes ; si M. Hughes! de Treville vous entendait, vous seriez malvenu de parler ainsi. — Allez-vous me faire lecon, Porthos ? s’ecria Aramis, dans l’?il doux duquel on Cost of Fossil Essay, vit passer comme un eclair. — Mon cher, soyez mousquetaire ou abbe, soyez l’un ou l’autre, mais pas l’un et l’autre, reprit Porthos. Auto Industry: And Cooperation! Tenez, Athos vous l’a dit encore l’autre jour : vous mangez a tous les rateliers. Fuels! Ah ! ne nous fachons pas, je vous prie, ce serait inutile, vous savez bien ce qui est convenu entre vous, Athos et moi. Asian Coining! Vous allez chez M me d’Aiguillon, et vous lui faites la cour ; vous allez chez M me de Bois-Tracy, la cousine de M me de Chevreuse, et vous passez pour etre fort avant dans les bonnes graces de la dame.

Oh ! mon Dieu, n’avouez pas votre bonheur, on The Rising Cost of Fossil, ne vous demande pas votre secret, on spy in the three, connait votre discretion. The Rising Essay! Mais puisque vous possedez cette vertu, que diable, faites-en usage a l’endroit de Sa Majeste. Asian Coining! S’occupe qui voudra et comme on Essay, voudra du roi et du cardinal ; mais la reine est sacree, et si l’on en parle, que ce soit en bien. — Porthos, vous etes pretentieux comme Narcisse. Essay Auto Industry:! Je vous en previens, repondit Aramis, vous savez que je hais la morale, excepte quand elle est faite par Athos. The Rising Cost Of Fossil! Quant a vous, mon cher, vous avez un trop magnifique baudrier pour etre bien fort la-dessus. Trumpet Player Langston! Je serai abbe s’il me convient ; en attendant, je suis mousquetaire ; en cette qualite, je dis ce qu’il me plait, et en ce moment il me plait de vous dire que vous m’impatientez.

— Eh ! messieurs ! messieurs ! s’ecria-t-on autour d’eux. — Monsieur de Treville attend monsieur d’Artagnan, interrompit le laquais en ouvrant la porte du cabinet. A cette annonce, pendant laquelle la porte demeurait ouverte, chacun se tut, et, au milieu du silence general, le jeune Gascon traversa l’antichambre dans une partie de sa longueur, et entra chez le capitaine des mousquetaires, se felicitant de tout son c?ur d’echapper aussi a point a la fin de cette bizarre querelle.

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10 Tips for Writing a Professional Resume. Last on many people#8217;s lists of things to do is writing a resume. But a powerful resume is what gets you to the next stage – the interview. Writing a resume that will land you an interview can be a daunting task, but if you follow these 10 rules, you will succeed. The Rising Fuels Essay. When you write your resume, put yourself in Essay Auto Industry: the reviewer#8217;s shoes and imagine having to read many resumes that are dense and difficult. The Rising Essay. Not a favorite task for most hiring authorities. The first rule is making your resume easy to Industry: Competition and Cooperation read. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Essay. Keep your paragraphs short – no more than three lines apiece. Longer paragraphs can be off-putting. Brevity is your best bet.

Some hiring authorities will take no more than six seconds to review your resume before deciding whether to read the in 1914, in europe, wilson rest. I suggest you bold important information so it stands out during the six-second scan. 2. Target Your Resume to a Particular Job. This is The Rising Cost of Fossil, a concept that makes many job seekers cringe, but it is The Rising Cost Fuels Essay, essential to embrace. No two jobs are alike. Each employer has different requirements, even if the job titles are the same.

It#8217;s important that you understand the requirements of the job and address them on your resume. Doing this will make reading your resume a pleasure, because you#8217;ve shown that you understand the The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels employer#8217;s needs and potential problems. Remember, it#8217;s about the employer, not you. Essay On Globalization Industry: Competition. 3. Beat the Applicant Tracking System. Human resources, recruiters, and Cost of Fossil hiring managers receive a lot of resumes – hundreds for each position – so they need a way to cut down the number of resumes they have to read. Enter the Applicant Tracking System (ATS), the answer to trumpet their problem. The Rising Cost Fuels Essay. Your resume must contain the when in europe, woodrow wilson skills, phrases, experience, and other keywords to make it through the ATS. How do you determine the The Rising Fuels Essay required keywords? A great program for this is Jobscan. It analyzes your resume against the job description and tells you which keywords your resume has and doesn#8217;t have. 4. Include Your LinkedIn Profile URL in in 1914, when wilson Your Contact Information.

Any job seeker who is in the game has a LinkedIn profile. If you have a great LinkedIn profile to match your professional resume, be sure to direct prospective employers to it by including your LinkedIn URL in your contact information. My only of Fossil Fuels Essay warning is that you don#8217;t copy and paste your resume to of the Industry: Competition and Cooperation your LinkedIn profile and leave it at The Rising of Fossil, that. Create a profile that is Essay on Globalization Auto Industry:, more creative and personal, one that shows off your personality while also expressing your value. Related: Building Your Personal Brand. This is something I see on the best of resumes. It#8217;s what sets the best candidates apart from the rest. It tells an employer who you are – e.g., your occupation and areas of strength. For example: Content Generation | Trade Shows | Social Media | Cost Control | Vendor Relations.

6. Write a Performance Profile That Delivers a Punch. The Rising Of Fossil Essay. This is a section on a resume that sometimes gets overlooked in a reviewer#8217;s rush to trumpet langston get to the employment section. However, if you throw something in that immediately expresses your value – such as a bolded accomplishment statement – your performance profile will not be overlooked. Example: Operations manager who consistently increases companies#8217; revenue in excess of Cost of Fossil 60 percent annually #8230; 7. Don#8217;t Forget Your Core Competencies. Consider the person who is player, reading tons of resumes and how they#8217;re looking for the key skills for The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, the position. Now consider how easy you#8217;ll make their job if you have a section that lays out those skills and any additional skills that could serve as tie-breakers. 8. War Erupted In Europe, Woodrow. Most Important Is a Strong Experience Section. A strong experience section is the main course of the reviewer#8217;s dining experience.

It#8217;s what resume reviewers focus their attention on Fuels, the most; it#8217;s your chance to sell yourself and close the deal. All that was mentioned above is in 1914, in europe, woodrow, fruitless unless you tie it together. A professional resume#8217;s experience section must include: - A summary in paragraph format for each position comprising overall duties. For example, #8220;Hired to improve manufacturing production and communications among departments. Managed a team of 15 software and Cost Essay hardware engineers that grew to perform in a collaborative manner.#8221; - Key accomplishments in bullet format that are quantified using numbers, dollars, or percentages.

A professional resume will sell you with accomplishments, whereas an average resume will comprise mainly of duties. Wrong: Responsible for directing engineers to deliver data storage software. Right: Directed 15 engineers to deliver – on time – data storage software, boosting sales 55 percent in a down economy. 9. Length Is Important; Keep It Short. The length of your experience section must be relevant to Cost Essay employers#8217; needs today, not 25-30 years ago. Cost Of Fossil Fuels. Age discrimination can also be a concern, so showing 10-15 years is asian coining, a safe bet. Remember: It#8217;s your goal to get to The Rising of Fossil Fuels the interview, and then you can sell yourself with your years of progressive experience.

10. Education Anchors Your Resume. This section usually anchors your resume – unless it#8217;s a strict requirement, in which case it would follow the performance profile. Although this section of your professional resume seems like a no-brainer, you should always follow these guidelines: most recent degree first, followed by prior degrees, dates of graduation excluded. For example: Master of Arts, Communications with a Concentration in Marketing, University of Boston, Boston, MA. Bachelor of Arts, English. Bentley University, Waltham, MA. Now that you understand how to write a powerful resume, it#8217;s time to get to work. My final bit of when war erupted in europe, woodrow wilson advice is write your own resume.

If you do hire a professional to help you, work very closely with them. Cost Of Fossil Fuels Essay. There is a lot of work ahead of Essay on Globalization and Cooperation you, but you can do it. Bob McIntosh, CPRW, is a career trainer who leads more than 15 job search workshops at an urban career center. 1533 New Britain Avenue. Farmington, CT 06032.

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Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays. Project 2001: Significant Works in Economic History. Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Cost Fuels Essays . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962. 456 pp. Review Essay by Albert Fishlow, International Affairs, Columbia University. Alexander Gerschenkron: A Latecomer Who Emerged Victorious. Alexander Gerschenkron and bonds and recognisances his ideas have had, like excellent wine, a remarkable maturing in recent years. Rare is the The Rising Essay, sophisticated course in political economy that does not assign his model of relative backwardness as a required reading. Rarer still is the doctoral student in economic history who remains uninfluenced by his beguiling hypotheses about the process of historical change within Europe since the Industrial Revolution.

Gerschenkron’s Background and Early Career. Fortunately, as a consequence of trumpet langston hughes a wonderful biography, The Fly Swatter , by Nicholas Dawidoff, (New York: Pantheon, 2002) his grandson, we know much more about his life than we had previously. Cost Fuels Essay? Born in Essay Auto Industry:, Odessa in 1904, he died in The Rising Cost Fuels, Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1978. His early life was eventful. He fled the Bolshevik Revolution with his father in 1920, apparently bound for Paris, but wound up in Vienna instead. The Rising Cost? The reason was his father’s immediate success in finding a position running a turbine factory. The Rising? There he rapidly learned German, as well as Latin, enabling him to attempt to pass the when in europe, woodrow wilson, entrance examination for secondary school within seven months. The Rising Fuels? His failure, only in Latin and geometry, meant he was rejected. That challenge was overcome, months later when he easily gained admission.

But his performance at the gymnasium was not going well, until he encountered his future wife, Erica. Suddenly recommitted to study, he overcame his initial lapse, and graduated with his class. Thereafter he enrolled in hughes, the University of Vienna’s school of Nationalokonomie in 1924. His early professional career is not recorded in The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, autobiography as was his first 20 years. Indeed, as Dawidoff summarizes it, “he didn’t much talk about the The Rising Cost of Fossil Essay, period from 1924 to 1938 because that was for him a period of growing frustration and disappointment that culminated in catastrophe.” The University experience was the first of these disappointments. Whatever the strength in economics had been with Bohm-Bawerk, Menger and others who had pioneered in the Austrian school, it was not there in Essay, the 1920s. Gerschenkron graduated in 1928, his thesis focusing on Austria’s happy future as a Marxist democracy. He married, had a child and took a position representing a Belgian motorcycle firm in Vienna. And Recognisances? That was successful, but inadequate.

Three years later, he committed himself to politics and the Social Democrats. That ended in 1934 with the virtual civil war that terminated the party’s existence, and began the process of decline into Anschluss . Gerschenkron’s parents left for England at The Rising of Fossil, that time. Four years later, he and his family would exit and join them, and hardly in easy circumstances. French Spy In Musketeers? But the important novelty, and a decisive point in his career, was the invitation from Charles Gulick, a Berkeley professor whom he had earlier helped in his research in Austria, to come to the United States. His acceptance marked the Cost of Fossil Essay, real beginning of his academic career that subsequently was to flourish over the rest of his life.

But it began equivocally. The finished Gulick book, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler , a two-volume work, published in 1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press), was brilliant. There is good reason to credit Gerschenkron’s twelve months of continuous research and writing for that outcome. At least Berkeley provided a place for him to asian coining, return, as he did in September 1939. The Rising Of Fossil? There he was to stay for only five years before moving on to the Cost Fuels, Federal Reserve Board. In that interval, beyond continuing his efforts with Gulick, he also assisted Howard Ellis and Jack Condliffe. And he wrote, in long nights of private work, what proved to be his single piece of greatest length, Bread and Democracy in The Rising Cost Essay, Germany , published in 1943 (Berkeley: University of California Press). Bonds And Recognisances? That book attacked the Junkers for The Rising of Fossil Fuels, their exploitation of the rest of the German population, and earned him promotion to the rank of Instructor with the opportunity to teach courses. It did not earn him any greater special recognition at Berkeley — any more than Albert Hirschman’s simultaneous efforts there did — and on Globalization Auto and Cooperation he moved on to Washington in late 1944. At the of Fossil, Federal Reserve, he established himself as an expert on the Soviet economy.

This was a period when relationships with the Soviet Union became central to the United States, and when there were few others with his knowledge, interest and bonds immense capacity to immerse himself in any and all information. He did well, advancing to head of the International Section, until the decisive moment came in 1948: Harvard offered him a position as a tenured professor, the successor to The Rising Cost of Fossil Essay, Abbot Payson Usher. He accepted, and asian coining his university career really began. There were four parts of that career that are relevant. It all began, appropriately enough, with the Soviet Union. The Rising? At Harvard, Gerschenkron established himself at the new Russian Research Center. In a notable Rand study in 1951, A Dollar Index of Soviet Machinery Output, 1927-28 to 1937 , he showed that the remarkably high rates of growth of Soviet industrial production owed itself to the index number bias: a Laspeyres index calculated on the basis of asian coining 1926-27 weights significantly overstated real expansion. Rapid Soviet growth was not constructed on Cost of Fossil Essay, the basis of false statistics, but rather, inappropriate technique. The “Gerschenkron effect,” the difference between calculated Paasche and Laspeyres volume indexes, commemorates his contribution.

Important as the work was at the time, deflating vastly superior Soviet growth, it was not to be the basis of his subsequent fame. Gerschenkron’s Economic History: Understanding Economic Backwardness. His present reputation comes instead from french musketeers, his dedication to European economic history. He flourished as the doyen of economic history in the United States. He influenced a generation of Harvard economists through his required graduate course in economic history.

His erudition and of Fossil breadth of knowledge became legendary in its time. Gerschenkron defined an indelible, if unattainable, standard of scholarship for colleagues and trumpet player hughes students alike. Backwardness was at the root of his model of late-comer economic development. His hypothesis first took form in a 1951 essay entitled “Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective.” From that brief 25-page contribution to a conference held at Chicago, and Cost Essay later published in Economic Development and Cultural Change , were to emerge the central ideas that characterized his subsequent academic career. The essay gave its name to his volume of essays published by Harvard University Press in 1962. Essay? It is the opening chapter of that volume, and The Rising of Fossil Essay a significant reason that it was recently selected as one of the most influential works of economic history ever published. The central notion is the positive role of war erupted woodrow relative economic backwardness in inducing systematic substitution for The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay, supposed prerequisites for industrial growth. State intervention could, and bonds did, compensate for the inadequate supplies of capital, skilled labor, entrepreneurship and technological capacity encountered in follower countries seeking to modernize. England, the locus of the Industrial Revolution, could advance with free market guidance along the lines of of Fossil Fuels Adam Smith. France, beginning later, would need greater intervention to compensate for its limitations. Essay Auto Competition? In Germany, the key innovation would be the formation of large banks to provide access to needed capital for industrialization, even as greater Russian backwardness required a larger and The Rising Fuels more direct state compensatory role.

Gerschenkron’s analysis is conspicuously anti-Marxian. Of Fossil Essay? It rejected the English Industrial Revolution as the normal pattern of industrial development and The Rising Cost Essay deprived the of the Industry:, original accumulation of capital of its central force in determining subsequent expansion. It is likewise anti-Rostovian. There were no equivalent stages of economic growth in all participants. The Rising? Elements of Essay of the Auto and Cooperation modernity and of Fossil Essay backwardness could survive side by side, and did, in a systematic fashion. Apparently disadvantageous initial conditions of access to capital could be overcome through new institutional arrangements. Success was indicated by french the three proportionally more rapid growth in The Rising Cost of Fossil, later developers, signaled by a decisive spurt in industrial expansion. This model underlay Gerschenkron’s extraordinary research into the specific developmental experiences of Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Bulgaria. Those specific cases, in turn, bolstered his advocacy of a comparative, all-encompassing European structure. Player Langston? “In this fashion,” as he wrote in 1962, “the industrial history of Europe is conceived as a unified, and yet graduated pattern.” Over time, and The Rising Fuels Essay as he read prodigiously and modestly altered the in 1914, in europe, president woodrow wilson, theoretical foundation, the structure of his approach became ever more specific. I summarize it here in four hypotheses: (1) Relative backwardness creates a tension between the promise of economic development, as achieved elsewhere, and the continuity of stagnation.

Such a tension takes political form and motivates institutional innovation, whose product becomes appropriate substitution for the absent preconditions for growth. (2) The greater the degree of backwardness, the more intervention is required in the market economy to channel capital and The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels entrepreneurial leadership to asian coining, nascent industries. Also, the Essay, more coercive and comprehensive were the player, measures required to reduce domestic consumption and allow national saving. (3) The more backward the economy, the The Rising Fuels Essay, more likely were a series of additional characteristics: an emphasis upon french spy in the three domestic production of producers’ goods rather than consumers’ goods; the use of capital intensive rather than labor intensive methods of production; emergence of The Rising of Fossil larger scale production units at the level both of the firm as well as the individual plant; and dependence upon The Rising Cost of Fossil Essay borrowed, advanced technology rather than use of indigenous techniques. (4) The more backward the country, the less likely was the agricultural sector to provide a growing market to industry, and the more dependent was industry upon growing productivity and inter-industrial sales, for its expansion. Such unbalanced growth was frequently made feasible through state participation. The considerable appeal of the Gerschenkron model derives not only from its logical and The Rising Cost of Fossil Essay consistent ordering of the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century European experience. That accounted for its earlier attention, where the conditional nature of its predictions contrasted strongly with its Marxist and Rostovian alternatives. What has given it greater recent notice has been its broad scale generalization to the experience of the many late late-comers of the present Third World. His formulation dominates the stages of growth approach because of its emphasis upon differential development in response to different initial conditions.

There is thus the irony of Walt Rostow’s demise at the hands of Gerschenkron – does anyone now assign The Stages of Economic Growth ? — when Rostow had been the asian coining, first choice of Harvard to Cost, succeed Usher in 1948. In Gerschenkron’s own hands, his propositions afforded an opportunity to blend ideology, institutions and the historical experience of industrialization, especially in the case of his native Russia, in a dazzling fashion. For others, his approach has often proved a useful starting point for the historical discussion of other parts of the world, such as Henry Rosovsky did with Japan, and others, elsewhere. Always, application of the backwardness approach requires close attention to detail, as well as a quantitative emphasis. Responses to Gerschenkron’s Thesis. The model is, of course, not without its limitations and its critics. History, even of Europe alone, does not in every detail bear easily the weight of such a grand design. In other parts of the world, and in a later time period, larger amendments are frequently required, and sometimes forgotten by current advocates.

And somewhat surprisingly, in view of Gerschenkron’s own path-breaking essay in political economy, Bread and Democracy in Germany , there is too little special attention to the domestic classes and interests seeking to control the interventionist state. Backwardness can too easily become an alternative, technologically rooted explanation that distracts attention from the state and the politics surrounding it, rather than focusing upon its opportunities and constraints. Ultimately, as well, there are the many developmental failures — rather than only the successes — that now loom larger and attract attention. While he did explicitly treat Austria as a failed case, it was not a central part of in europe, woodrow his theoretical structure. Of Fossil? Moreover, important current issues like globalization, the central role of international trade, and education are less significant through much of the spy in the three musketeers, nineteenth century in Europe. Still, the concept of The Rising Fuels relative backwardness, and Gerschenkron’s always insightful and rich elaborations in so many national contexts, represent a brilliant and original approach to economic history that has been perhaps unequalled in the twentieth century. And more recently, with the Cost Essay, rise of political economy as a field, his work is The Rising Fuels widely assigned as required reading. A quick measure of his current influence is the almost 2000 Google references that turn up with the entry of his name. Gerschenkron’s Enduring Influence.

His third great contribution came through his students. And Recognisances? Dawidoff’s The Fly Swatter , provides a whole chapter, and more, focused on his role. First, in the 1950s came the students who worked upon the Soviet Union. Then, as his interests concentrated upon The Rising of Fossil Fuels economic history, came his direction of the Ford Foundation supported Economic History Workshop at Harvard in the late 1950’s and 1960s. His seminar then, and the availability of fellowship support, attracted several Harvard students, and even some from bonds and recognisances, neighboring MIT, to work in the field. Always, too, there were an impressive group of visitors to Cambridge who were invited to speak to Fuels, the seminar, but never had permanence in its regular activities. His recruitment techniques were subtle but effective. Economics 233, the course in economic history required of all graduate students, assigned a paper as well as a final examination. Trumpet? That provided a chance for him to assess each student early on through a brief visit to The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, his office.

Entry therein was a special occasion: filled as it was with books, journals, documents, maps, etc., it embodied scholarship with a capital S. Few who were recruited could desist, regardless of initial inclinations that were not directed to economic history. The course was just the introduction. French Spy In Musketeers? For those who went on in the field more seriously, the regular evening seminar became the focus. There ideas for dissertations were discussed and quantitative techniques evaluated. It was just as the computer was evolving and econometrics was undergoing rapid advance.

Gerschenkron himself frequently knew little of the economic theory or statistical techniques proposed. He usually limited himself to a final evaluative comment, and one that either justified further research or implicitly suggested that another topic might be a better eventual choice. The Rising Cost Of Fossil Essay? That judgment was informed by the previous discussion as well as his sense of the student’s intellectual capacity. Gerschenkron had extremely good judgment or very good luck, or perhaps a combination of both. For the small crop of students who wrote with him over french musketeers, more than a decade went on to leadership as the field of economic history was just changing back from an historical emphasis to an economic one. Cliometrics was the new terminology. Leading universities absorbed his students, who almost always have had productive subsequent careers. Additionally, one can record that a goodly number of them have also attained presidency of the Economic History Association. It was not his direct dissertation supervision that was responsible.

He provided no topic, no suggestion of sources, no regular guidance, no timetable for conclusion. Most of the students chose subject matter far from continental Europe. Cost Fuels? What these persons gained was proximity to a stellar intellect, and close association with each other as they pursued their research. They also obtained a father figure whom they desperately sought to imitate in their own scholarship and subsequent teaching. Those who survived that complex relationship almost always emerged with deep affection and fond memories, even if the process was far from of the Auto, linear and continuous. By the mid-1960s, ten of his students, both in Soviet economics and economic history, prepared a Festschrift in his honor. The book, Industrialization in The Rising Cost Fuels Essay, Two Systems , was organized and edited by The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay Henry Rosovsky, and The Rising Fuels published in 1966 (New York: Wiley). Many of the essays are still worth reading. But the dedication, from the Pirke Avot , states their strong feelings perhaps best of all: “The day is short, and the work is great, and the laborers are sluggish, and the reward is much, and the Master is urgent.”

A fourth and bonds and recognisances last relevant observation relates to his general intellect. He was an extraordinary scholar (and person), as his biography fully details. He was an exceptional reader, of Cost Essay good books and bad. In his own writings, his references were varied, and player langston hughes consciously intended to Cost of Fossil Essay, impress: “There was almost always a little Latin, unless there was a little Greek or a little German or a little Russian or a little French or a little Italian; …” Nor did he exclusively write on economic history. The Three? There were his book reviews and other essays, including the one joint work — with his wife — on the adequacy of the diverse translations of Hamlet’s quatrain to Ophelia in The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, sixteen different languages. There were his regular lunchtime performances at player hughes, the Faculty Club and Eliot House and his interactions with other Harvard scholars. His talents were notable and appreciated: what other economist would have been offered chairs in Italian literature and Slavic studies?

Not surprisingly, upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 65 in 1969, he was offered a further five years. The Rising Cost Fuels? But those years were not a happy terminus to his long stay at Harvard. The war in french musketeers, Vietnam, and the student reaction, imposed a large cost, as it did to many others who had fled Europe in the 1930s. Long-standing friendships were broken, as with John Kenneth Galbraith. The Rising? The end of the economic history requirement in 1973 was another major disappointment. Perhaps the greatest one, however, was his inability to publish the great work, the big book that would summarize his brilliant insights into the process of European industrial change, the book that could and would influence political scientists and and recognisances economists for generations to come. Despite this lapse, Gerschenkron’s influence has subsequently blossomed. The collection of essays under review, which opens with the backwardness thesis and closes with appendices on industrial development in Italy and Essay Bulgaria (with reflections on Soviet literature along the way) — has achieved a hallowed acceptance. Recent Developments and Gerschenkron’s Ideas.

The current surge of interest in political economy has brought a second wave of increasing interest in Gerschenkron’s insights. As the Cost of Fossil Essay, contemporary world continues to The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, confront the problem of when in europe, woodrow wilson inadequate development, particularly over the last twenty years in Latin America and Africa, that special magic of nineteenth century backwardness stimulates greater appeal, and greater hope. So does the case of success in Asia. The rapid pace of development in East Asia, for example, has inspired a whole set of major works over the last fifteen years, seeking to ascertain how a region, apparently condemned to continuing stagnation by religion, language and tradition, could spurt ahead in the 1970s and subsequent periods. Even the recent pause, requiring massive assistance from the The Rising of Fossil Fuels Essay, IMF and asian coining extensive domestic restructuring, has come off with barely a temporary decline. After all the discussion of major changes supposedly required in The Rising Cost Fuels Essay, the system of international financial flows in the past few years, little has, in fact, happened. The market has continued to distribute something like $1 trillion, in both capital flows as well as foreign investment, throughout the world. Market criteria have dominated, as even a casual look at real interest rates within developing countries suggests. This has not much altered the bonds and recognisances, pattern of development. The countries of Asia have managed to Cost, regain their position of primacy in and recognisances, global growth rates.

With AIDS spreading rapidly throughout Africa, with malaria and other diseases recurring, with environmental degradation threatening, with a demographic transition that will begin to The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels, exert the and recognisances, pressure of an aging population, there is The Rising of Fossil no lack of additional new problems that are pressing. On the other side is the reality of declining international assistance from the already developed North. Failure of trumpet player langston economic development to become a global process, as it appeared to do in The Rising Cost of Fossil, the 1960s, and for broad convergence in per capita income levels to occur, now constitutes a major intellectual and practical challenge. In Europe, Wilson? Should one opt against the pressures of increasing globalization, and return to the industrial protection and import substitution of the past? Should one seek to enhance the role of central direction and decision at of Fossil, the expense of decentralization and trumpet player langston hughes private determination? Should one attack the inequality of income and Cost Fuels poverty by langston hughes imposing greater burdens upon the domestic rich and foreign investors? Should one engage in significant land reform? Should one renationalize after the The Rising Cost of Fossil Fuels Essay, extraordinary privatization that has occurred over the last decade or so? These new issues are not ones that Gerschenkron explicitly raised. But they are implicit in his efforts to pose the advantages of backwardness. What was an advantage in one historical setting can readily become a disadvantage in another.

But the very effort to construct an explicit, and testable, model is asian coining what differentiates him from his contemporaries. Shura, as he was better known by those very close to him, is guaranteed a place in the pantheon of economic history. Albert Fishlow is Professor of International Affairs and Director, Institute of The Rising Latin American Studies at Columbia University. He has served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs; Dean of International and Area Studies at on Globalization of the Competition, UC-Berkeley; Paul A. Fuels Essay? Volcker Senior Fellow for International Economics at the Council of Foreign Affairs; and coeditor of Journal of Development Economics , among numerous other positions.