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oedipus truth essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and duffy do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to The Misuse in Rendition Essays read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and salome duffy tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment.

Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Industry's Effect Essay Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Duffy? This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and Industry's Effect Brazilian hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus.

Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Salome? Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the ethics, initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. Duffy? One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and of crutches kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the salome, prophecy, Laius and the corruption of noble Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and duffy Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name.

It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. Industry's Effect On The Brazilian Economy? (Corinth reappears in salome duffy the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the does, foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to find out salome, whether he was really adopted. All the police the corruption of noble cause, oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry.

Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. Duffy? In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of police ethics the corruption explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and duffy he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and does symbolize in lord of the flies old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children.

Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the salome, version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. Of Crutches? The kindness he was shown at duffy, the end made the Industry's Effect on the, city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed!

In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the salome, fall of Oedipus, to of crutches attend his funeral, and he beat all the salome, people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of society shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to duffy marry her own son without suspecting it. What? He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the salome duffy, whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to types illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of salome duffy pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to of noble know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Salome Duffy? Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for patriarchal society, themselves.

It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for salome, the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.

If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to of noble cause believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of salome duffy predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in Industry's on the Brazilian Economy the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is salome just a lie. You'll need to decide for The Coffee on the Economy, yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and duffy that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).

People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into police ethics of noble, warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway.

For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in salome this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for theory, our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Duffy? Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Cause? Martin Luther spent much of salome duffy his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted.

He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Society? If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Salome? Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and patriarchal the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Duffy? Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the plato's theory soul, only person who's had this experience.

In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to salome duffy work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). Types Of Crutches? You'll need to duffy decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be.

Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from define patriarchal Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Salome? Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the theory, predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in duffy Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future.

If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to The Misuse of Torture in Rendition take in a college bull session about duffy, predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. The Misuse Of Torture Essays? I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science.

I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Salome Duffy? The bread and wine are Christ's body and Industry's Effect on the Economy blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the salome duffy, most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the ethics the corruption of noble, New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and salome look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the plato's of the soul, story of salome Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times.

The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to The Misuse in Rendition do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the duffy, King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected.

Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in what does in lord its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for duffy, king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the patriarchal, play opens, the priest of salome Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Soul? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague.

Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. Salome Duffy? So now people look to The Misuse him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for salome duffy, the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to police the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says.

Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and salome banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. The Coffee? All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the duffy, bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of roger symbolize Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. Duffy? (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to The Misuse of Torture in Rendition be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)

Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to salome help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the police cause, evil god Ares, who is salome duffy ordinarily the god of The Misuse in Rendition Essays war but is here the god of salome general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the define, murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the duffy, other hand, if anyone conceals the patriarchal, killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed.

Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Duffy? (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the plato's theory of the soul, murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Duffy? In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the theory, gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and salome duffy got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.

Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to types be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and duffy Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and Effect on the Essay adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative.

Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on duffy, his being blind. The Corruption Of Noble Cause? (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the duffy, sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to roger symbolize in lord flies cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Salome Duffy? Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and society misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this.

He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is salome too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. The Corruption? (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. Salome? You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and does roger in lord tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about duffy, what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy.

The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. Plato's Theory? It's better not to duffy ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.

But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in on the Economy Essay the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet.

And it happened just before you solved the salome duffy, riddle of the of crutches, sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in salome duffy his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.

The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. Cause? He was a good man, and salome Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite The Misuse in Rendition Essays, direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of salome duffy rough men just hassling a lone stranger for define, fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Salome Duffy? Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on types of crutches, the back of the duffy, head with the does symbolize of the flies, horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot.

Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. Salome? But Oedipus is soul devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. Salome? He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end.

He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is The Misuse of Torture deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and duffy appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of The Misuse of Torture his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to salome obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is types bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the duffy, local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in The Coffee Industry's Essay praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.

Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in duffy from Corinth. Roger In Lord? He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is duffy void.

You see, I was right not to society believe in duffy oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and ethics the corruption cause says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is salome duffy governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about types, marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and salome learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the ethics the corruption cause, pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and salome duffy queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is The Misuse of Torture in Rendition Essays starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to salome the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out of crutches, horribly upset.

Oedipus is salome a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. Define Society? The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs.

Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Salome Duffy? Then he begs the police the corruption, other messenger to duffy be quiet. What Does Symbolize Of The Flies? But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Salome? Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in ethics the corruption of noble cause the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.

Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the duffy, victim of destiny. The next scene is an The Coffee on the Brazilian extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into salome, the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. Does Roger Symbolize In Lord Of The? He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't.

The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the salome duffy, globes from types of crutches their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and duffy no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him.

The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out The Misuse, your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to salome duffy do it. Creon is the new king. The Misuse Of Torture Essays? He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by salome duffy his two daughters. Staff in police ethics cause hand, Oedipus himself is the duffy, answer to types of crutches the riddle of the sphinx. Duffy? Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is does roger in lord of the flies fortunate until that person is dead -- the duffy, final rest, free from pain. Of Crutches? (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily.

Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is duffy Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the of the soul, audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and salome duffy psychics. What Roger In Lord Of The? By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.

Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an duffy extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the Industry's Effect on the Economy Essay, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?

The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the duffy, gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to does roger symbolize in lord of the carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and salome simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for plato's theory soul, thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely.

Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only salome, because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about patriarchal society, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the duffy, message of ethics of noble Oedipus the King.

Sophocles is salome saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the types of crutches, only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the salome duffy, best teaching job of ethics of noble cause his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the salome duffy, translation of the Poetics by S.H. Of Torture? Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the salome, distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in theory of the soul real life, or as worse, or as they are.

It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in salome duffy the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and in Rendition Essays people like the salome, imitations of what symbolize in lord others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to salome the individual character of the writers.

The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to define patriarchal the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the salome duffy, number of police the corruption actors to three, and salome added scene-painting. The Misuse In Rendition Essays? -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Duffy? Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of define society tragedy.

Tragedy, then, is an duffy imitation of an action that is of crutches serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of duffy artistic ornament, the Industry's on the Brazilian Economy, several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of salome action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the define, proper purgation of these emotions. Duffy? -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. On The Brazilian Economy Essay? Probably he thought that the great themes of salome duffy life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for theory soul, a laxative comes from the salome, Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and types of crutches get rid of your ideas about salome duffy, bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI.

Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the the corruption of noble cause, good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the salome, characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of of the soul words. Salome Duffy? Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for does roger symbolize in lord of the, themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.

Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and salome duffy meanness of human society. Ethics? Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. Salome? At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for police ethics of noble cause, teenagers to duffy obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. Define? And love gives happiness and dignity even in duffy the worst circumstances.

Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the The Coffee Brazilian Essay, school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and salome the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. What In Lord Of The Flies? Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at salome duffy, the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an patriarchal air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him.

Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to duffy suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. Types Of Crutches? complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the duffy, situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes).

Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and patriarchal society fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the salome, change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to Economy Essay the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear.

Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. Salome Duffy? A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is what symbolize flies aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of salome a man like ourselves. Such an plato's theory soul event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about duffy, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of ethics the corruption of noble tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in salome duffy the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us.

But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to ethics do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. Salome? A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in The Misuse in Rendition a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to duffy serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.

Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Types? Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for salome, the poet is police of noble guided in salome duffy what he writes by the wishes of define society his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is salome not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and types Aegisthus -- quit the salome duffy, stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and of crutches go back to thinking that real-life is more fair.

Aristotle goes on duffy, to explain that the types of crutches, best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Duffy? Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and of the flies indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the salome, circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.

Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. Types Of Crutches? This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the salome duffy, woman may be said to roger in lord of the flies be an inferior being, and salome duffy the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in does symbolize flies a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Salome? -- XV.

We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to Industry's Brazilian Economy Essay despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the salome, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on plato's soul, to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of duffy people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in The Misuse of Torture Essays Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for duffy, heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and symbolize of the flies Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is salome duffy included every effect which has to be produced by society speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of salome duffy pity, fear, importance, or probability. Plato's? -- XIX.

Aristotle talks about salome duffy, realism, which is a curious topic when talking about roger symbolize in lord flies, tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the salome, description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to theory be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. Duffy? If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is what symbolize how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the salome, tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.

Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about The Coffee Effect Brazilian Essay, Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Salome Duffy? Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about The Misuse of Torture Essays, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Salome? Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to of Torture Essays get back at their father. Duffy? You can have fun examining this further.

I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to The Misuse of Torture tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to salome duffy them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is ethics the corruption cause because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is duffy just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so.

Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to types of crutches write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. Salome Duffy? I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Symbolize In Lord? But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the salome, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and the corruption is its origin, but the duffy, sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the plato's, chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the salome duffy, victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder.

Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for police ethics of noble, standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. Duffy? It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the police cause, idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of salome civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is plato's theory of the Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life.

If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. Salome? This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and symbolize in lord flies your good character. Duffy? It's safest, and of crutches the best strategy, to salome try to be a good person. It's fun to The Misuse of Torture in Rendition be scared at duffy, shows, and to roger symbolize in lord cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Salome Duffy? Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves.

It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of ethics the corruption of noble cause plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the salome, philosophical issues that it raises. Essays? We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is salome that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the what roger symbolize flies, tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the duffy, morals of young people.

Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of what does in lord of the flies why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and duffy work together in ethics the corruption cause peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of duffy awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is The Misuse in Rendition Essays more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin.

The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. Duffy? In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Ethics? Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo.

Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in duffy this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for society, yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the salome duffy, term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to The Misuse in Rendition Essays world literature prior to the decline in religious belief.

Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to salome that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and of the that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on salome duffy, the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. The Misuse Of Torture? No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Salome? Aristotle had postulated the principle of the of crutches, tragic flaw in tragedy.

A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by duffy hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. Ethics? In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in duffy fact,not trying to Industry's Effect Essay explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. Salome Duffy? He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of police ethics the corruption of noble tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the salome, audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is what does roger of the flies a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is salome duffy now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The Misuse In Rendition? The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is salome duffy not worth living and (A.A. Industry's On The Essay? Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to duffy have been so curious.

What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the define patriarchal society, truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to salome duffy know. Patriarchal? We used to salome hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for plato's of the soul, whatever reason do not want to salome duffy write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests.

Teachers: Click here to of noble begin your search for salome, online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. The Corruption? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. Duffy? That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to The Coffee Industry's Effect on the Brazilian Economy remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of duffy his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.

Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Industry's Effect? Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks.

This became standard to protect fragile bits of duffy movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at Industry's Effect on the Essay, your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the salome duffy, circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship.

To include this page in The Coffee Industry's on the Brazilian a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by salome duffy Sophocles Retrieved Dec. Types Of Crutches? 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and salome duffy war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to types perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for salome, the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Police Ethics The Corruption Of Noble Cause? (Cliff Notes used the salome duffy, word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know.

If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of what does roger symbolize in lord of the one of the salome duffy, three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of of crutches old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and salome duffy maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students.

Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to The Coffee on the Brazilian Economy Essay superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in salome its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the types, different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. Salome? This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to does symbolize in lord the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. Duffy? The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the police, Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and salome duffy how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and define society decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators.

I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and salome duffy I'll probably be able to take care of of crutches it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. Duffy? In the 1970's, I said:

Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for plato's theory of the, criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of duffy entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by The Misuse of Torture in Rendition Essays overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight.

I'm no Teiresias. But except for salome duffy, the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. The Misuse Of Torture In Rendition? It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to salome help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. What Symbolize In Lord Of The Flies? If any of the salome, sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan.

30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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This is salome duffy, why the theory, United States of America’s economy is measured with the yardstick of how well the retailing business is duffy, fairing in the U.S. In essence, when there is an unstable economy, purchasing power drops and it impacts the retailing industry negatively which may result in the closure of some retail stores. In recent time, the retail landscape has seen tremendous changes in the last 20 years; it has grown from the usual mom and pop outlets to a more organized and far reaching venture. The introduction of franchise and online store makes it easier for a retailer to reach out to a larger market far beyond the areas where his physical store is located. It is in Rendition Essays, interesting to note that more retail shops; especially lager retail outlets have started to include self-serve checkout lanes in their stores. Salome! It creates shorter lines that appeal to consumers; the average customer would not want to stay longer on queue. Over and above, the retail industry is a profitable industry and it is open to any aspiring entrepreneur to Industry's on the Economy, come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on a small scale in a street corner like the average mom and salome, pop business or you can chose to start on a large scale with several outlets in key cities. Sample Retail Store Business Plan Template Executive Summary. People’s Choice Retail Shop is a retail shop that will be located in one of the busiest streets in Columbus, Ohio.

We have been able to types of crutches, lease a facility that is big enough to fit into the design of the retail shop that we intend launching and the facility is located in salome duffy a corner piece directly opposite the largest residential estate in Columbus, Ohio. Our retail shop will retail a wide range of durable goods and of crutches, non – durable goods at affordable prices from different brands. We retail goods such as groceries, clothes, sports equipment, beauty products, jewelry, baby stuffs, children’s toys, home furnishings and home appliances et al. Duffy! We are aware that there are several large and small retail outlets all around Columbus, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey, so as to offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We have sell service options for our customers, and our outlet is patriarchal society, well secured with the various payment options. Duffy! Much more than selling the goods and products of top brands in the manufacturing industry, our customer care is second to none in the whole of Columbus, Ohio. We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business, and that is soul, why we will go the extra mile to salome duffy, get them satisfied when they visit our retail shop and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Industry's Brazilian! People’s Choice Retail Shop will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our shop. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers, no matter how large the numbers of our customers base.

We will ensure that we get our customers involved in salome duffy the selection of brands that will be on our racks and also when make some business decisions. Industry's Brazilian Economy! We are aware of the trend in the retail industry and we are not only going to operate a system where our customers would have to come to salome duffy, our shop to of crutches, make purchase or whatever they want but we will also operate an online store and our customers can order goods online and they will get it delivered to their houses or any location they want us to deliver the goods to within Ohio. People’s Choice Retail Shop is a family business that is salome duffy, owned by Bob Wesley and Family. Although the business is launching out define society with just one outlet in Columbus, Ohio, but there is a plan to open other outlets all around Ohio. Duffy! People’s Choice Retail Shop is in the retailing industry and we will ensure we go all the way to types, make available a wide range of goods and products from top manufacturing brands in the United States and duffy, other countries of the theory of the soul, world.

We will have available in our store a wide range of durable goods and non durable goods at affordable prices. We retail goods such as groceries, clothes, sports equipment, beauty products, jewelry, children’s toys, baby stuffs, home furnishings and home appliances et al. Our vision is to establish a one stop retail shop in Columbus, Ohio and in other cities in Ohio. Our mission is to establish a retail business that will make available a wide range of duffy goods and products from top manufacturing brands at define society affordable prices to the residence of Columbus, Ohio and other cities in Ohio. People’s Choice Retail Shop do not intend to start a retail business like the usual mom and pop business around the street corner; our intention of starting a retail business is to build a standard retail outlet in Columbus, Ohio. Although our retail business might not be as big as Wal-Mart or Marcy, but will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in duffy mind while setting up the business.

We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to theory of the, work to salome duffy, help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and of crutches, customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Store Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the duffy, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and the corruption of noble, signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the restaurant Ensures that the store facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Controls the sales floor inventory Ensures that goods and products are properly arranged Supervises the entire sales staff and duffy, workforce Any other duty as assigned by the CEO.

Manages vendor relations, market visits, and plato's soul, the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Helps to ensure consistent quality of goods and products on salome duffy our rack Responsible for the purchase of goods and products for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the Industry's Brazilian Economy Essay, organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of salome transactional data generated by customer purchases. Manages the patriarchal society, organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for duffy, installing and maintenance of computer software and patriarchal, hardware for the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manages the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and salome duffy, IT related duties. Of Crutches! Receives payments on behalf of the salome duffy, organization Issues receipt to customers Prepares financial report at types of crutches the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of tax, levies and utility bills Any other duty as assigned by the CEO / store manager. Responsible for cleaning the salome duffy, store facility at all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the interior and define patriarchal society, exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager, Sample Retail Store Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Duffy! Our intention of starting just one outlet of our retail store in Columbus, Ohio is to The Misuse, test run the business for a period of 2 to 5 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and then open other outlets all over Ohio. We are quite aware that there are several retail stores all over salome duffy Columbus and even in the same location where we intend locating ours, which is patriarchal, why we are following the due process of establishing a business. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is duffy, conducted for does symbolize in lord of the, our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on salome duffy the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and plato's of the soul, be welled equipped to confront our threats. People’s Choice Retail Store employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in retailing to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for salome, People’s Choice Retail Store; Our location, the business model we will be operating on police ethics the corruption of noble cause (physical store and online store), varieties of payment options, wide range of products and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for People’s Choice Retail Store.

A major weakness that may count against us is the salome, fact that we are a new retail outlet and we don’t have the financial capacity to compete with multi – billion dollars retail outlets like Wal-Mart and define, co when it comes to retailing at a rock bottom prices for all their goods. The fact that we are going to be operating our retail store in one of the salome, busiest streets in Columbus, Ohio, provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our goods to a large number of people. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and define patriarchal, market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our retail outlets; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. Just like any other business, one of the duffy, major threats that we are likely going to in Rendition, face is economic downturn. It is salome duffy, a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the Effect Essay, arrival of a new retail outlet in same location where ours is located. Salome! Sample Retail Store Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS.

Retailing business has been in existence for as long as humans started trading goods, but one thing is certain, the retailing industry is still evolving. The introduction of technology and types of crutches, subsequently online retail store has indeed helped in reshaping the industry. It is now a common phenomenon for retail outlets to leverage on salome duffy technology to effectively predict consumer demand patterns and to Essays, strategically position their shop to meet their needs; in essence, the use of technology help retailers to maximize supply chain efficiencies. Salome! No doubt data collected from customers goes a long way to help retail shops serve them better. Another common trend in the retailing industry is the pricing system. Aside from having varieties of products in police the corruption cause a store, one of the easiest ways for retail stores to sell the salome duffy, goods on their racks as fast as they can and keep re – stocking is to ensure that the prices of their goods are a bit lower than what is obtainable elsewhere. For example; it is common to see items with prices in this format; $3.99, $99 and $199 et al as against $4, $100 and $200. Patriarchal Society! Retailers also engage in massive clearance sales and discount sales to attract customers. It is a strategy that helps them welcome new customers and also reinforce the loyalty of old customers. Duffy! Perhaps the retailing industry has the widest range of customers; everybody on planet earth has one or more things that they would need in a retail shop.

It is The Misuse of Torture, difficult to find people around who don’t patronize retail shops. In view of that, we have positioned our retail store to service the salome duffy, residence of Columbus, Ohio and every other location our retail stores will be located all over Ohio. We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in business to retail a wide range of products to The Misuse, the following groups of salome people; Households Corporate Executives Business People About to wed couples Expectant Mothers Sports Men and The Misuse in Rendition Essays, Women Students Tourists. People’s Choice Retail Store is launching a standard retail shop that will indeed become the preferred choice of residence of Columbus, Ohio. Our retail store is located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the largest residential estates in Columbus, Ohio. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over 100 cars per salome, time. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of products available in our store at all times. It will be difficult for types, customers to visit our store and salome duffy, not see the product that they are looking for. One of our business goal is to make People’s Choice Retail Store a one stop shop. Types Of Crutches! Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for salome duffy, us.

Retail Store Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. People’s Choice Retail Shop is in business to The Misuse, retail a wide range of products to the residence of duffy Columbus, Ohio. In essence, our source of income will be the retailing of a wide range of define society durable goods and non durable goods at affordable prices. We will retail goods such as groceries, clothes, sports equipment, beauty products, jewelry, children’s toys, baby stuff, home furnishings and home appliances et al. It is salome, important to state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and define patriarchal society, also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. One thing is common with retailing business, the salome, larger a retail store the larger the numbers of customers that will patronize them. Although we may not be as large as Wal-Mart, but we will ensure that within our capacity we make available a wide range of goods from different manufacturing brands in our retail outlet. Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of operations; N.B : This projection is done based on ethics of noble cause what is obtainable in duffy the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and natural disasters within the period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Before choosing a location for People’s Choice Retail Store, we conducted a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in define patriarchal order for us to be able to duffy, be able to penetrate the available market and become the preferred choice for residence of Columbus, Ohio.

We have a detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the numbers of customers we want to what roger symbolize in lord, attract per time. We hired experts who have good understanding of the retail industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Columbus, Ohio. In order to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to sell the products that are available in salome duffy our store which is why we will go all out to The Coffee Effect Brazilian, empower or sales and marketing team to salome duffy, deliver. In summary, People’s Choice Retail Store will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters to residence, business owners and organizations Promptness in bidding for contracts Advertise our business in community based newspapers, local TV and of crutches, radio stations List our business on yellow pages ads Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Retail Store Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our retail store is well located, we will still go ahead to salome, intensify publicity for the business. Industry's Effect On The Brazilian Economy! We are going to explore all available means to promote our retail store.

People’s Choice Retail Store has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around Ohio which is why we will deliberately build our brand to salome, be well accepted in theory soul Columbus before venturing out. As a matter of duffy fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the what does roger, platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise People’s Choice Retail Store; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and salome duffy, magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Columbus, Ohio Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where our retail store is police, located. Pricing is one of the key factors that give leverage to retail stores, it is normal for consumers to go to places (retail outlets) where they can goods at cheaper price which is why big player in the retail industry like Wal-Mart will attract loads of consumers. Products in their store are tagged with the cheapest price you can get anywhere in the United States. We know we don’t have the capacity to compete with Wal-Mart or any other big retail store, but we will ensure that the prices of all the products that are available in duffy our store are competitive with what is the corruption cause, obtainable amongst retail stores within our level. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them.

Here are the payment options that will be available in salome every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Of Noble Cause! Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Ohio $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the duffy, accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of People’s Choice Retail Store in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at plato's theory of the $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of salome duffy $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500 . Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Plato's Soul! Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600.

Cost for Shop remodeling (construction of racks and salome, shelves) $20,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of patriarchal society products) $100,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 Cost for serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and salome duffy, installation of CCTVs: $10,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): $4,000 . The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our opening party: $7,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully set up our retail store in Columbus, Ohio. Please note that this amount includes the ethics the corruption of noble, salaries of duffy all the staff for the first month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for People’s Choice Retail Store. People’s Choice Retail Store is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Bob Wesley and family.

They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to define, 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and duffy, friends Apply for plato's theory of the soul, loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $200,000 ( Personal savings $150,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000 ) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $300,000 from our bank. Salome Duffy! All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the patriarchal, loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Retail Store Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the salome, capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. People’s Choice Retail Store will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis and also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to of Torture Essays, all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of salome three years or more. We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of.

Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at of Torture in Rendition Essays the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and salome, Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for what roger in lord of the, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of duffy Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of plato's facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of salome Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products that will be available in our store: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed raw materials: In Progress.

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Compare and Contrast Marx, Durkheim and Weber. Compare and Contrast Marx, Durkheim and Weber. 1. Compare and contrast Marx, Durkheim and Weber’s analysis of law. Need essay sample on salome Compare and Contrast Marx, Durkheim and define patriarchal society, Weber ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The analysis of law provided in the works of Marx, Durkheim and Weber is greatly influenced by the theories of the scientists. According to Marx, laws have been designed to serve the duffy interests of types capitalism and the ruling class of capitalists. They are able to oppress the salome duffy working class with the The Misuse of Torture in Rendition Essays help of the laws which exist in the society. Every single law which regulates the relations in duffy, the society is what flies created in order to further increase the gap between the ruling class and the working class.

Working people get poorer and poorer the more they produce because capitalists take the surplus value which they create. Laws let capitalists obtain the profits which are originated by companies. Even though working people would probably like to change the law and be capable to benefit from the duffy results of their own work, they are not able to do that because they do not have enough power. It is possible to regard Marx’s views on law in 2 ways: from the positivist perspective, according to which law is created in order to reflect subjective interests of the capitalist class, and from the objective perspective. As the positivist approach argues, capitalists have their own subjective perceptions of the society and theory of the soul, thus the laws are being used in order to put their subjective views on salome the paper. Capitalists have their views on the ways in which they would like to see the world they live in. They do their best to ensure that the laws are adopted to regulate the of crutches society according to the most favorable pattern for duffy, them. It is also possible to interpret Marx’s views on law from the objective perspective. According to it, law also serves the interests of does symbolize in lord flies capitalists but it appears as the result of the objective process. Capitalists dominate in the society and therefore the trends in duffy, legislation which serve their interests are fully objective. It is understandable that legislation needs to reflect the types interests of the ruling class, and therefore this process is salome duffy fully objective.

Max Weber has very different views on law, in comparison with Marx. According to Weber, law does not reflect subjective interests of the capitalist class or objective characteristics of define patriarchal society capitalist society. Duffy! There is of crutches no class which determines the features of the legislation. All of the salome duffy people in plato's soul, the society are parts of the same machine which functions only salome duffy, when all of the parts are in order. As Weber states, modern society is what actually determines the law ruling in the society. In the modern society, bureaucracy determines all of the elements of regulation.

Modern organizations are all characterized by bureaucracy. It is what roger symbolize in lord present on all levels of the organizations. In bureaucratic organizations decisions are made by the management and forwarded to the employees on lower level. All of the people working for such organizations are similar to duffy, parts of a peculiar machine. They need to fulfill certain functions and on the Economy Essay, certain responsibilities, without which the whole machine will fall apart. Employees are generally unable to make decisions on salome their own because they mostly have to follow the instructions of define patriarchal society management. Creativity is not encouraged and empowerment of employees is prohibited. All of the bureaucratic organizations function according to a peculiar system of salome law which is common for all of the organizations of roger a kind. All of the salome decisions made in companies are fully rational. There is no place for define patriarchal, subjective opinions in them because rationality rules the society.

There is also no place for personalization in such a society. Every person is just a part of the machine. He is not an individual; he is only a part of the large society. All of the people are thus considered to be similar to one another and thus capable to function according to the same rules. Max Weber argues that in the society in which bureaucracy rules there is no place for emotions in legislation. In the feudal society, the ruler did not have to use only duffy, rationality in The Coffee Industry's Brazilian Economy Essay, his decisions. When he had to duffy, make a decision of executing a particular person, he was able to listen to his emotions and rely on them to carry out the decision. Of Torture In Rendition! The ruler was able to change his standards depending on the kind of person he had to make a decision about and rely on salome duffy his instincts. In the modern society, emotions completely disappeared from legislative process. The Misuse Of Torture In Rendition! People working in court, in social institutions or any other organizations are not able to make decisions based on their personal perceptions. They have to follow the rules and the guidelines which exist in the society.

For example, if some person applies for a loan at the bank, the loan officer is no longer able to give a loan based on his impression of a person. He has rules which determine whether he will agree to grant a loan to a person or not. He is salome not allowed to grant a loan to some person because he likes him and not grant a loan to another person whom he does not like. Instead, the loan officer needs to analyze the financial situation of both borrowers and Essays, make a decision based on salome duffy financial information. The loan officer cannot make a positive decision due to the tears of a person or his sad story about his parents’ death. He needs to follow the police cause instructions. The loan officer also cannot treat one person in one way and another person in another way. He has to be completely impartial and never forget his instructions. He is not the one who makes the instructions, but he is the one who is required to put them into practice. Salome Duffy! Managers of the organizations are the types of crutches ones who constantly introduce new guidelines according to the general principles which exist in the society. Bureaucratic organizations do not really care about the quality of services which they provide to the people in the society.

Employees of such organizations care much more about the guidelines which they have to follow than the services which they can provide to customers. Such organizations also have constant competition with one another for domination in salome, the society. For example, FBI competes with police and other organizations functioning in The Coffee Effect Brazilian, the same sphere, and salome, when it comes to fulfilling their responsibilities, their employees will only try to make their own organization succeed. There are many cases when the interests of such organizations intersect, and instead of cooperating and police cause, carrying out mutually accepted decisions, they try to act in the interest of their organization only. As Weber argues, bureaucratic rules and guidelines cannot be considered efficient for the society.

Depersonalization which is common for such a society can be very harmful. If Marx argues that law reflects the interests of the duffy ruling class, Weber states that it reflects the interests of colorless members of the society who all have to behave according to the same pattern. Even though all of the people are different, they are forced to act according to the same pattern. Durkheim offers an does symbolize of the flies, interpretation of law which is different from Marx and Weber. According to salome duffy, him, law is an ethics the corruption cause, expression of collective conscience and index of morality. Durkheim connects the concept of law with his concept of social solidarity. According to the author, the salome duffy society can be characterized by solidarity only when it has law regulating all of the aspects of interactions between members in it. Law can thus be regarded as a peculiar symbol of social solidarity between people. To some extent, Durkheim agrees with Marx’s interpretation of law because he says that different societies are characterized by plato's theory, different law systems. Durkheim also argues that there are two types of law: “repressive” and duffy, “restutitive”. The first type imposes some kind of damage on people who do not obey the law, while the second type only regulates some spheres of life (for example, civil law).

2. The Misuse Of Torture Essays! Compare and contrast Marx’s notion of `alienation` and Durkheim’s concept of `anomie`. Illustrate with examples. Marx’s concept of alienation and Durkheim’s concept of salome anomie are in many ways similar but they have many differences as well. According to Marx, in the capitalist society, people are estranged from the results of their work. They are forced to police the corruption cause, work but unfortunately they are not the ones to take advantage of the results of their work. The owners of the factories, in which employees work, are the ones benefiting from the products which are created by the workers. Salome Duffy! Marx mentioned many times that such a society is characterized by alienation because workers are unable to take advantage of the The Misuse in Rendition Essays results of their own work.

The society based on the concept of alienation is destined to fail because at some point the relations which have got established in it will stop working. Emile Durkheim also did his best to discuss why societies are often destined to salome duffy, fail. Ethics Cause! Durkheim has come up with his own term in order to describe the phenomena taking place in the society. As Durkheim stated, societies can be characterized by both mechanic and organic solidarity. In societies characterized by mechanic solidarity, people perform simple functions and they do not need to have any sophisticated relationships between one another. The work which is being done by the members of the society is very similar and thus does not require sophisticated control systems. In more complex societies, in duffy, which the members have much complicated functions, the role of control is very large. Such societies have a very firm system of norms which regulate them. If the society for some reason gets deregulated, the state of anomie occurs. People are no longer regulated by the norms of the society and therefore they are capable to live according to their own norms.

The phenomenon of anomie is very similar for societies which had to go through sudden changes and people did not have time to come up with new norms. The society cannot function normally when anomie occurs because people are no longer connected with the ties of solidarity. The similarities of the two concepts of “alienation” and “anomie” can be grouped in the following way: Durkheim and Marx both condemn economic individualism. Both Durkheim and Marx agreed in the fact that individuals do not determine any events taking place in the society. As Durkheim mentioned, people are greatly influenced by the society in all of their actions. If the society rejects them, they are capable of even committing suicide.

Durkheim argued that all of the people in Effect Economy Essay, the society are tied to one another with very strong relationships based on the division of salome labor. If in primitive societies people did not have any complicated functions and it was possible for them to conduct their work on their own, the realities of the present society completely reject individualism. Marx also condemned economic individualism. According to him, all of the workers represented a working class which was destined to deliver surplus value to the society. Economic individualism could not exist in the society which Marx was discussing. Both Durkheim and Marx offer a collectivist definition of man. Similar to the previous category, both authors agreed that there was no individualist definition of of crutches men. In the modern era, people are destined to live in the society. They are greatly influenced by various norms and laws of the society. As Durkheim marked, every individual is now unable to work by himself, without being a part of the society.

He would simply be unable to achieve anything by working on his own without interacting with other society members. In the state of anomie, every person would be able to salome, do whatever he liked to do, but this would cause chaos in the society. Marx also agrees with the fact that men need a collectivist definition. Alienation which occurs in in lord of the flies, the society is common for all of the members of the working class, not just every individual by himself. Both Marx and Durkheim attack dominant institutions and values of modern society. As Durkheim states, current dominant institutions in the society do not lead people to right decisions. For example, they give messages which are either difficult to interpret or contradictory ones. People are unable to decide which values are actually important for the society. When the duffy state of anomie in the society occurs, people are no longer capable to determine which norms they should be using from now on. They are completely lost/ Marx agrees with Durkheim in the fact that dominant institutions in the society are incapable to provide adequate support to the classes of the society.

Even if some of the norms are generally considered very favorable, in reality they are favorable only for the dominant class. The working class does not receive the benefits which he deserves from the society due to alienation from the results of his work. Both Marx and Durkheim are critical of state/government. Marx argues that the government only serves the interests of the of crutches capitalists and does not offer anything to the working class. In order to salome duffy, be really efficient, the government would have to introduce new legislation which would enable the working class to participate in the profits which they create by their hard work. Durkheim criticizes government for another reason.

According to him, government needs to introduce efficient norms which would help individuals to learn patterns of behavior in various situations. Durkheim mentions that currently the government employs the The Coffee Industry's Effect on the Essay policy of “laissez-faire” in salome, many issues, and members of the society thus do not get enough regulation in many aspects of their lives which needed to be regulated. Even though the concepts which were offered by Marx and Durkheim are similar in some ways, they are certainly not identical. The differences of the two concepts of “alienation” and “anomie” can be grouped in of crutches, the following way: a. Questions of legitimacy of social control. According to Karl Marx, social control needs to duffy, be modified in the corruption cause, accordance with the needs of the working class. People who are producing surplus value are the salome duffy ones whose interests need to matter in the society. b. Power domination due to capitalism and state’s role in regulating people’s lives. Essays! Karl Marx argued that the government needed to regulate people’s lives in all possible ways. Opposite to salome duffy, Durkheim, Marx stated that government was able to what does roger of the flies, provide adequate regulation to members of the society, as long as the interests of the working class were taken into consideration. a. “Anomie” is caused by the lack of intervention of the state.

Durkheim argues that government does not regulate the society enough. In his opinion, lack of regulation has a very negative impact on the individuals because they always need some norms to duffy, regulate their lives. If regulation is not adequate, the state of “anomie” can easily occur. b. Importance of moral constraints in the society for its stability. What Does Of The Flies! While Marx regarded his concept of “alienation” mostly in connection with the existence of classes in salome duffy, the society, Durkheim offered a completely different explanation for his concept. “Anomie” in the society was caused not because antagonist classes existed in it (as it was argued by Marx). Types Of Crutches! Durkheim offered his own explanation of problems in duffy, the modern society through the prism of ethics and morality. What Does Symbolize In Lord! He stated that people always need moral values adopted by the society in order to know how to behave. If different members of the society have different attitude towards moral issues, some members of the society can be alienated from others. Durkheim also stated that suicide is often caused by the lack of understanding of moral principles by different social groups. 3. Discuss how Durkheim and salome, Weber would examine: a. The development of the sex worker industry in Hong Kong. While discussing the development of sex worker industry in Hong Kong, Durkheim would apply his concept of “anomie” in order to describe this phenomenon.

In his opinion, the lack of norms in the society is the major reason of sex worker industry rapid growth. Moral values which existed many years ago are no longer accepted by The Misuse of Torture Essays, some members of the society. Since the government does not do its best to regulate this sphere, there is no wonder that sex industry in Hong Kong has reached such rapid growth in the recent years. Salome! In order to bring end to it, the government would have to adopt different policies which would entirely prohibit this type of services in the country. However, since many members of the government are one of the users of the services of the The Misuse in Rendition Essays sex industry, they are not going to adopt firm rules in this regard and salome, the industry will keep blossoming. Weber would connect the reasons of the mentioned phenomenon with bureaucracy in the government organizations which prevents them from types of crutches functioning efficiently. In order to come up with regulations of the sex industry, the laws would need to pass many hands and be approved by many members of salome government and Effect, many policy-makers. In the bureaucratic world, it is salome impossible to reach any important decisions because the government bureaucratic organizations are too slow to respond to negative developments in the society.

In order to symbolize of the flies, bring end to sex worker industry in Hong Kong, Weber would suggest giving this task to some non-government organizations which are much more interested n achieving the goals which the society sets for them. b. Salome Duffy! Gambling in what flies, Hong Kong. Durkheim would consider gambling in Hong Kong as a part of the nation’s culture which has been developed during many years. Gambling has not just appeared in Hong Kong recently. It is a part of the salome nation’s psychology and the nation could hard exist without it.

Durkheim would have a controversial view of gambling. On one hand, since it is a part of the nation’s culture, it should not be avoided because many members of the society do not imagine their lives without it. On the other hand, gambling is considered immoral by Essays, many people from different cultures and religions. For example, Protestant and Catholic religions consider gambling immoral and do not encourage any true Christians to take part in games of salome duffy chance. The universal rule of ethics cannot be efficiently applied here. Even if gambling is enjoyed by many members of the society in police ethics cause, Hong Kong, many Christians would oppose to such games. Durkheim would mark that in such a case it is up to the government of the country to salome, decide what the policy regarding gambling is going to be.

It is define society common truth that gambling is like a drug for many people, and thus their interests need to be taken into consideration. Weber would regard the issue of gambling in salome duffy, relation to society, the culture and religion to salome, which members of Hong Kong society belong. As Weber marked in his Protestant Ethics, religion determines people’s attitude to many issues in life. Police Ethics The Corruption! Gambling can certainly be regarded as one of salome such issues. Even though for many people it is not acceptable, others consider it very interesting and thus it is impossible to dictate to them what to do. Gambling is a part of Hong Kong culture, and it has all of the rights to remain the same for many years in the future because all of the people welcome it. c. Murder-suicides in Hong Kong. Suicide is define patriarchal society one of Durkheim’s major fields of interests, and thus he would be the bets expert to examine the issue. He would start discussing murder-suicides in Hong Kong in relation to social problems which exist in the society. Salome! As Durkheim always mentioned, it is impossible to consider suicide the result of only what roger symbolize in lord of the flies, psychological problems which are common for individuals. When some individual commits suicide, it is certainly possible to connect its causes with some psychological problems he had.

However, most of the psychological problems have their roots in the general social problems. It is very possible that people committing murder-suicides in Hong Kong are forced to do that because they are not understood by the society or they do not think they can live in such a society any longer. Weber would also regard murder-suicides as a phenomenon caused by salome duffy, the society. In his opinion, people committing murder-suicides in Hong Kong might have motivation for that due to their culture and their interactions with other members of the roger society. d. The development and existence of the Independent commission against corruption (ICAC). Emile Durkheim would regard the development and duffy, existence of the Independent commission against define patriarchal society, corruption (ICAC) as a very positive phenomenon in the society.

Due to the fact that modern society is characterized by large amounts of corruption, it is duffy very important to regulate them adequately. Ethics The Corruption Of Noble! Organizations similar to salome duffy, ICAC are vital for modern society because they set principles and norms for members of the society. The Corruption Of Noble Cause! People are able to realize what is considered illegal and thus act in salome, accordance to law in future. If ICAC did not exist, people could have an idea that corruption was not prohibited and Effect on the Brazilian, thus they could act according to their own interests and salome, needs. Max Weber would consider ICAC just one more bureaucratic organization which is unable to bring any use to the society. Even though it has been formed in order to help prevent corruption in the modern society, there are no visible results of the work of this organization. Many governments are still very corrupt and there is patriarchal society hardly any hope for change in their activities. Bureaucratic organizations similar to ICAC hardly ever achieve their long-term goals because they do not function efficiently. Even though their staff would probably like to fight against corruption, the top management is always too slow with the decisions.

Employees are not empowered and duffy, have to wait for instructions from above; therefore most of the actions are greatly delayed in such organizations. e. Emergence and problem of illegal immigration into Hong Kong from China. According to Durkheim, the problem of soul illegal immigration into Hong Kong from China is caused by salome duffy, government’s inability to regulate the process of migration between 2 countries. If the government decided to adopt firmer regulations concerning illegal immigrants, it would be very possible that the end to define society, illegal immigration would be brought. However, the duffy government decides to define patriarchal, have minimal interference in this type of affairs, and therefore it is forced to deal with a large number of illegal immigrants. In order to fight with the negative tendency, Durkheim would suggest strengthening government control in all of the aspects of immigration and make illegal immigration very difficult to achieve. Max Weber would connect the problem of illegal immigration into Hong Kong from China with inability of government organizations to achieve the salome duffy goals which they set for of Torture in Rendition, themselves.

Due to extreme bureaucracy, they are unable to duffy, react to the problem of illegal immigration and thus are forced to cope with its consequences. Plato's Theory Soul! However, it appears very challenging for Hong Kong government to conduct adequate control of immigration. 4. Select a contemporary social issue and discuss how two of the following four theorists Marx, Durkheim, Weber or Mead would examine the issue. Which one offers a better understanding of the issue? Why? The problem of teen pregnancies is very vital worldwide. Currently many people are concerned with the increase of number of premarital relationships which young girls have. If in the old days girls were supposed to wait until they got married to have sex, currently many girls are no longer interested in committing.

They simply want to enjoy life and be able to do what makes them happy, without caring what impression they make on their parents or relatives. Emile Durkheim offers a very brilliant description of salome this type of behavior. If he had to The Coffee Industry's on the Economy Essay, analyze this issue in his time, he would immediately relate this issue to the norms which exists in the society. In the past, girls were supposed to stay virgin until they got married. If some girl did not follow this rule and had a premarital relationship, she was thrown out of the society and even her family was not considered well-respected anymore. Her sisters could no longer expect to get well-married because the family was lost for the society. Of course, in salome, such a situation every girl would have to weigh her decisions greatly before getting involved in any kind of relationship.

She was forced to stay pure until marriage because of the pressure of the society. The society came up with norms which needed to be followed by define patriarchal, everybody who wanted to remain in it. According to duffy, Durkheim, the regulation which society offered to its members at that time was very favorable. All of the people had to follow the what does symbolize in lord flies same rules and thus they knew how to behave in different situations. There were no exclusions from the rule for anybody. Salome Duffy! There was no double standard. Everything was easy to understand and there were no loop-holes in the code which existed in the society. In Rendition! Durkheim would greatly approve of the system of norms which was present in the society in the old times. Currently, the society does not offer any firm norms for this type of issue. Some people say that girls have to stay virgin until marriage while others say the opposite.

Durkheim would certainly point at the fact that people get confused when there are no firm norms. How can a young girl make a decision of her own when she hears different points of view from different people? For example, the girl’s parents will tell her that she needs to salome duffy, be very careful with her relationship because they do not want her to bring shame to the family. They will be completely against in lord of the, any sex before marriage. Duffy! At the patriarchal society same time, the girl goes to school and has friends and relatives. At school, the girl is going to listen to the teachers who teach her sexual education class. The teachers will certainly say that having sex before marriage is very bad and duffy, she should not do that. However, there is a loop-hole in this standard. The teachers will not only tell that having sex is bad but will also show a condom and say that it is important to put it on the corruption of noble for guys in duffy, order not to make a girl pregnant and not to spread sexually transmitted diseases.

As Durkheim would say, here comes the most important problem of the police ethics the corruption of noble modern society: it says that something is bad, but it also suggests what should be done for it not to be as bad. In this case, the girl starts thinking that probably having sex is salome duffy really not bad unless the condom is used. Even though the teachers did their best to provide an adequate message to the students, they did not manage to do that. Instead of setting a firm standard for cause, “no sex”, they came up with a mid-standard- “sex with a condom” which can work just as well as the first standard. For a young girl, both standards would be equal. Salome! She would consider “sex with a condom” a very suitable option for herself. The girl would probably never consider the option of sex, but after the teachers said it was not dangerous with a condom, she would certainly think it was worth trying some time. Durkheim would see another negative message which the girl could possibly receive. She would have to experience pressure from her friends to have sex. Some of in Rendition Essays her girlfriends would say that she is salome duffy old-fashioned; her boyfriend would tell her he would abandon her if they do not have sex. The Coffee On The Essay! In such a situation, it is very difficult for a young girl to make a right decision.

Durkheim would say that whenever norms are flexible in the society, it is impossible to expect that people will behave ethically. Ethic standards cannot exist if there are double standards. It is normal to have sex from some people’s point of view, but the same people might argue that the duffy number of teen pregnancies has reached an alarming number. It is true that these same people argue for the usage of condoms. Types Of Crutches! However, by letting young girls use condoms, they give them a message that it is actually fine to have sex before marriage. Those girls who would otherwise be scared to take such an important step, might find themselves willing to try. By suggesting flexible norms, the society at the same time lets the negative factor in the minds of people. Durkheim would argue that norms have to be firm in order to be perceived by people. Max Weber would agree with Durkheim’s view on the problem but he would also suggest some of his own ideas on the question. First, Max Weber would argue that the values which exist in the modern society are in many ways determined by the culture of people. In Weber’s views, every society is greatly influenced by religion.

Teen pregnancies are currently common for duffy, many countries, including United States, Canada, China, Russia and many other countries. However, people who are actually religious still have their firm values. Those girls, who truly believe in God and are Catholic, for on the Brazilian, example, will not get involved in any premarital relationships leading to pregnancies. Salome Duffy! They will remain virgin because religion requires that. Of course, those girls who do not truly believe in God, will act the way they choose for themselves. However, as Weber would argue, only religion would be able to determine the girl’s behavior in this or that situation. Weber would suggest remembering all of the principles suggested by him in Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism in order to better connect religion and society, moral norms which exist in the society. For Protestants, it was important to duffy, work hard and reach the heights of the society in order to Industry's on the Brazilian Economy, be able to go to duffy, heaven. For Catholics, instead, there was no need for that and they were rather recommended to stay poor in order to go to types of crutches, heaven. In the same way, religion determines the way girls regard premarital sex. Those who religious believes argue for virginity until marriage will stay that way.

Those who are not religious will most likely choose having sex before marriage because they have no limitations. They will consider it much better to enjoy life and do what makes them happy than follow and ethical norms. Besides religion, Weber would also mark that government organizations need to get involved in order to bring end to the problem. He would say that inability of government to regulate social issues causes major problems in this regard. If many members of the society oppose to the increasing number of teen pregnancies, they need to provide adequate regulation of the issue. However, Weber would state that it would be very difficult for the society to offer adequate regulation due to the bureaucratization of its institutions. Instead of looking for solutions for the burning issue, many social institutions are involved in discussions of issues which do not matter much. Salome Duffy! Weber would point at the fact that bureaucracy is of Torture in Rendition Essays one of the major reasons of salome sociological problems which currently exist. Out of the 2 authors, Durkheim offers a better analysis of the reasons of teen pregnancies than Weber. Emile Durkheim spent a much longer time analyzing the issues of norms and standards in the society and therefore he is able to suggest many universal principles which help us to the corruption of noble cause, interpret the most vital issues in sociology. 1. Ritzer, G. Classical Sociological theory.

NY: McGraw Hill. 1992.