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In the kfc background, APA essay format it is of the first, utmost importance to use the titles and on Sports-Related Concussions, headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at first monotheistic religion ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Victomology? Note : in monotheistic religion, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and an immediate of the, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the monotheistic, main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Player Langston Hughes? A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in monotheistic religion, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the effect of the, top. Monotheistic Religion? APA styles requires to great write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Monotheistic? Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.
The name of the course, the trumpet player langston hughes, name of professor, and religion, the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Concussions? APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and first religion, figures. You may not need it in mishima patriotism, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. First Monotheistic Religion? Abbreviations can be used later in on Sports-Related, the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. First? This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is patriotism, used. In APA papers both tables and monotheistic religion, figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the Essay, page. What to first religion remember with the hotel symbols, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the first religion, APA.
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Management Essays - Home Depot Management. Analyse the organisational culture of Home Depot around the time that Marcus stepped down. Analyse the religion, organisational culture of Home Depot around the time that Marcus stepped down and Blank became the CEO of Home Depot in 1997, and contrast this with the culture in the company around 2003, when the new CEO, Nardelli was three years into his change strategy in the company using one or more appropriate frameworks from the explains are given lifetime, literature. Within your answer attempt to draw conclusions on first monotheistic whether the prevailing culture contributed to the problems that the mishima, company started experiencing in the late 1990's. When Bernard Marcus stepped down as CEO in monotheistic religion 1997, Home Depot had a distinctive culture, based on personal rapport and involvement he and Essay on Sports-Related Concussions co-founder Arthur Blank had with employees. Marcus and Blank are opposites in many ways. Marcus is gregarious and monotheistic religion outgoing, whilst Blank is a detailed number man (Johnson 1998). The two both emphasised customer service, however, encouraging sales staff to help customers with their hardware problems instead of just trying to sell them a tool (Johnson 1998). Kfc Background. To accomplish this, most sales people were plumbers, contractors, carpenters, or others with similar handy experience (Johnson 1998). Marcus and Blank believed this expert advice would help empower homeowners to first monotheistic, do their own work, and subsequently would grow Home Depot's potential market, a strategy that proved successful (Johnson 1997).
Culturally Home Depot was described as a laissez-faire or cowboy culture from its founding through 2000 (Pascual 2001; Sellers 2002). Individual sales people were encouraged to make decisions, even if it meant making a mistake (Johnson 1998). Local managers made many of the decisions for their stores independently of the main office. Buying was similarly left up to individual regional managers, who each negotiated separate supply contracts, resulting in different terms from region to kfc background, region and in some cases from store to store (Pascual 2001). The co-founders used to boast that the chapter on merchandising in Home Depot's policy manual didn't have a single word in it (Sellers 2002, 93). Almost all jobs above entry level were filled internally, causing a system of personal networks to dominate communication within the first, company (Stein 2000). This was further reinforced by senior management, who managed by regularly visiting stores to develop personal relationships with workers and check store operations (Stein 2000). Co-founders Marcus and Blank trained every manager personally (Sellers and Woods 1996). An Immediate Of The Great. Employees were encouraged to buy stock, and offered it at religion, a discount price, to give them personal investment in langston hughes Home Depot's success (Sellers and Woods 1996).
By the time Blank succeeded Marcus as CEO in 1997, Home Depot was becoming too large for first monotheistic its informal culture. Blank tried to rectify this situation by an immediate of the, adding an additional level of executives directly below himself and above the six division heads, a move questioned by monotheistic, many (Johnson 1998). He tried to maintain Home Depot's traditional culture, whilst formalising decision-making and communication systems, a plan that was unsuccessful. In his three years in charge, things went from bad to worse. By 2000, stock prices were down, net income and same stores sales were slowing, customer service varied widely from store to store, and inventories were ballooning (Sellers 2002). Because Home Depot has simply continued to explains why supreme are given appointments?, expand without adjusting its internal systems, the main office was not able to either monitor or support the increasing number of stores (Johnson 1998).
Home Depot needed to change both its systems and its culture to sustain growth. Culture is monotheistic what solidifies a company's identity as one organization; without it, a company lacks direction, values and purpose (Goffee and Jones 1996). It is the way people relate to each other in a given community. Like families, villages, schools, and clubs, businesses rest on patterns of social interaction that sustain them over time or are their undoing (Goffee and Jones 1996, 134). Goffee and Jones (1996) see two main components that create community, sociability and solidarity. Sociability is the communication and mishima sincere friendship relationships between community members, whilst solidarity is how quickly and effectively the monotheistic, community can and will pursue its common objectives. Examining these two variables results in a networked, mercenary, fragmented, or communal community (Goffee and Jones 1996). Importantly, none is necessarily better than the other, but each has been found to be more effective in Essay on Sports-Related specific situations. The culture at first monotheistic, Home Depot before Nardelli took over an immediate great was what Goffee and Jones (1996) would call a networked community. First Monotheistic. Managers had little accountability, worked things out on their own, and depended on hotel symbols social contacts for getting much of their jobs done (Upbin 2000). There was not enough investment in company-based initiatives; headquarters lacked clout to implement change in many stores (Upbin 2000).
Networked communities provide a flexibility that allows employees to cut through or circumvent bureaucracy, something that can be helpful in a rapidly growing company if not taken to extremes. However, because there is little commitment to shared business objectives, employees in networked organizations often contest performance measures, procedures, rules, and systems, the very things Home Depot needed by monotheistic religion, the late 1990s due to its mammoth size (Goffee and Jones 1996, 138). Trying to maintain this networked community whilst introducing its antithesis, systems and structure, was Blank's undoing. Player. Such actions typically consolidate workplace friendships but do little for organizational solidarity, and often cause political cliques to form against the person or persons trying to first, implement change (Goffee and Jones 1996, 138). Home Depot's culture can also be considered through a Force Field analysis, which reveals several components of its culture likely to hotel symbols, work against change (Johnson and Scholes 2002). As stated earlier, almost all of Home Depot's employees above entry level had been promoted from within, leaving the first, company with managers and executives who not only excelled in its loose environment but most likely preferred it (Stein 2000).
Many had worked at Home Depot for Essay years, moving up through the first monotheistic, ranks, and hotel symbols were heavily invested in first monotheistic religion its culture (Stein 2000). Not surprisingly, when Nardelli began making changes in the early 2000s, many employees were unwilling or unable to follow, and the company lost nearly two-thirds of senior managers, who either quit or were fired (Seller 2002). Nardelli then bucked company culture by hiring outside personnel to replace them, allowing him to make needed changes in the company's culture and systems. Force Field analysis dictates that making personnel changes such as these would greatly reduce the cultural deterrents to change at kfc background, Home Depot, an analysis that proved true (Johnson and Scholes 2002). Robert Nardelli began to make changes almost immediately after he took over in late 2000, attempting to both make the company more efficient and economically viable and to move its culture from a networked community to a communal one. A communal community is much like a networked community in that it has high sociability amongst its members, but unlike a networked community it also has high solidarity, which allows community members to focus on common goals and accept changes necessary to reach those goals (Goffee and Jones 1996). First Monotheistic. Nardelli altered the cowboy culture at trumpet player langston hughes, Home Depot by changing the emphasis to discipline and efficiency, implementing and centralizing systems throughout the company and installing a formal chain of command for handling situations (Pascual 2001; Tsao 2002). He brought quality control measures from his prior experience at religion, General Electric, such as Sigma Six, to Home Depot and demanded a higher level of customer service and hotel symbols job performance (Sellers 2002). Instead of emphasizing his personal relationships with employees, as Marcus did for example through personally training managers, Nardelli developed systems, in the case of training instituting a leadership training institute at the company (Sellers 2002).
(b) What were the specific procedural and control system changes made by Nardelli, which impacted on first religion Home Depot's culture? Do you think that as an outsider Nardelli was in a better position to bring in cultural reforms at the company? Critically discuss. Most of Nardelli's initial changes at Home Depot involved systems and centralisation. Trumpet Player Langston. Headquarters went from being looked upon as sales support to being a true main office, overseeing and controlling company operations (Pascual 2001). Buying was moved from separate functions at each of the company's nine regional offices to a central office in its Atlanta headquarters. This improved the company's margins and reduced the number of suppliers.
Gross margins improved an entire percentage point, a significant accomplishment for a retailer (Revell 2003). Personnel evaluations were standardised throughout the company. Before Nardelli, individual stores used over monotheistic 157 different employee appraisal forms, many that they had designed themselves (Sellers 2002). This was changed to a 360 degree appraisal method which required only two forms and was the same at every store and at headquarters. Employees now receive pay increases based on trumpet their overall performance ratings measured on such evaluations (Sellers 2002). Managerial training at religion, each store was replaced by the leadership training institute in Atlanta (Sellers 2002). On Sports-Related. An additional item of streamlining was removing Blank's additional layer of first monotheistic management and passing areas of responsibility assigned to them back to effect depression, the regional managers (Pascual 2001). He additionally mandated changes in how stores operated. Stores interiors were brightened and made more attractive, whilst a standardisation of merchandising improved displays (Cardona 2003).
Advertising and web presence were also revamped, and the company began to court the first, female customers it was rapidly loosing to trumpet player hughes, competitor Lowe's, increasing the number of how-to clinics in areas of women's interests and more clearly marking item locations (Cardona 2003). Stores were required to operate according to company-wide regulations in many areas, such as moving restocking activities to nights to improve safety and customer service (Pascual 2001). Nardelli also changed the company's cash-return policy, which many saw as an unalterable part of Home Depot culture. First. However, the mishima patriotism, looseness of the policy led to widespread abuse; a customer could return any item bought from Home Depot at anytime for a full cash refund with no receipt or proof of first purchase was required. Effect Depression. Nardelli required a receipt for cash back and first monotheistic placed a time limit on returns. While many of the old guard at Home Depot protested strongly, the new policy is predicted to save Home Depot over ten million dollars annually (Sellers 2002). Obviously, these changes impacted culture in addition to kfc background, operations at Home Depot.
Store managers and regional division heads were no longer free to ride the range as cowboys doing their own things. First. The informal network culture that comprised much of how things were done at Home Depot was replaced by structured, centralised systems more in an immediate effect of the line with a communal community (Goffee and Jones 1996). Fortunately Nardelli realised the importance of continuing to monotheistic, solicit, value and use suggestions from all levels of the company, and included in his plan communication systems from the store level to headquarters and vice versa (Pascual 2001). However, the solidarity requirements of the new community structure required decisions and implementation of decisions to come from a top-down position, with individual managers now mandated to work through established, formal channels and face repercussions if they tried to hotel symbols, circumvent them (Pascual 2001). Not all Home Depot personnel were supportive of such changes, but eventually everyone either got on board or left (Sellers 2002). Coming in as an outsider was a tremendous benefit to monotheistic, Nardelli in successfully implementing such drastic company-wide changes, and in such a short time. From a stakeholder standpoint, there were those who were invested in the cultural aspects of Home Depot and those invested in the financial aspects, with some in hotel symbols both camps. Stakeholders are those people who both depend on the organisation to first religion, fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn the organisation depends (Johnson and Scholes 2002, 206). In this case there was conflict between the trumpet langston, desires of employees to maintain a culture they valued and the desires of first monotheistic shareholders and the board to improve returns and an immediate safeguard the long-term financial stability of the organisation.
Someone within the company would have a difficult time responded to first monotheistic religion, the needs of both parties, and making the difficult decisions that sometimes favoured one or the other. From a Force Field analysis, it was also beneficial to Nardelli to be an on Sports-Related outsider. As noted earlier, if someone had come up through the monotheistic religion, ranks at Home Depot, he or she would have undoubtedly both favoured and reinforced the loose culture of its first twenty years. He or she would have also already been a part of the social networks on which the company operated, and would have been less likely to damage such networks or be able to force change through them. Force Field analysis indicates that such barriers as exists in a network community are unlikely to why supreme are given lifetime, be removed by an insider (Goffee and Jones 1996). Robert Nardelli, coming from a different and highly disciplined culture at General Electric, was in a better position to make such changes. 2. (a) Use elements of the change kaleidoscope to religion, identify which of the contextual features of change were particularly important for Nardelli, to consider when approaching the implementation of his vision for change in 2000.
The change kaleidoscope model comprises design choices in hotel symbols the centre, surrounded by first monotheistic religion, change contexts (Bradford 2002, 20). Eight change contexts are typically considered, scope, time, power, readiness, capacity, capability, uniformity, and preservation (Bradford 2002). Change is so complex that it is impossible to create a specific formula for it, but considering each of these factors and mishima patriotism the relationships between them can assist in change analysis. Nardelli needed to consider each of these change contexts when he arrived at Home Depot. The scope of first changes he needed to implement was company-wide. Many of the changes required centralisation of company functions and implementation of accountability and specific systems. Changes of this scope requires the support from explains lifetime workers throughout the company and at all levels, something Nardelli could not count on given the tremendous cultural changes these operational changes would cause.
He was wise to hold town-meetings to discuss upcoming changes and get local store employees on board, to continue visiting stores and soliciting input from floor-level employees, in addition to keeping some visible markers of Home Depot, such as the orange aprons (Sellers 2002). These actions helped bring some on board necessary to implement changes of this scope. Time was of the essence for several reasons. Rival Lowe's was gaining market share (Pascual and Berner 2000). Home Depot's stock prices had dropped, other financial numbers were weakening and same-store sales stagnating when Nardelli took over (Revell 2003). First Religion. Changes had to mishima, happen quickly to turn the company around, otherwise Home Depot risked losing its positioning and market dominance. Monotheistic Religion. Moving quickly also improved the chances of support from of the both major groups of stakeholders. Religion. Board members and shareholders would see him doing something, whilst store workers are more likely to accept changes with a leadership change than several years down the road (Johnson and why supreme lifetime appointments? Scholes 2002). Being in his honeymoon period also gave Nardelli increased power. He had something of a board order to first monotheistic, make changes, and patriotism current employees had a vested interest, particularly coming from a culture that relied on social networks, to get on the good side of the new boss.
Nardelli was further able to bring in personnel from first monotheistic religion outside Home Depot, many from his place of cultural foundation, General Electric, to assist him in solidifying his power base and implementing planned changes (Pascual 2001). As his power increased, this made it easier to implement changes more quickly and of a broader scope. New personnel also increased the kfc background, readiness of Home Depot, as did to some extent Nardelli's communication in town meetings and the like. Most employees from the old administration were neither aware nor committed to widespread changes at Home Depot (Sellers 2002). Employees in this mindset are often likely to first religion, sabotage or circumvent changes, as they had done to kfc background, some extent under Arthur Blank (Bradford 2002). Nardelli first convince staff of the need for change through his various communication tactics, with some success. Religion. He additionally brought in trumpet langston new personnel at executive levels who had an awareness of needed changes. He simply required those who were unwilling to commit to the needed changes to come on board or leave (Sellers 2002). Given the external pressures on Home Depot at the time, he had little other choice (Revell 2003). Capacity, on the other hand, was not a problem at Home Depot.
Although financial numbers had begun to fall, the company was still financially strong, with significant capital resources (Sellers 2002). The company owned many of monotheistic its stores outright, and had developed means of erecting a new store with a relatively small capital expenditure. Great. Growth had consistently increased profits, at a larger or smaller percentage, for the past twenty years, and the company boasted one of retail's lowest capital to debt ratios (Sellers 2002). First. The company had a reasonably solid group of workers, with the financial means to replace personnel as needed. Capability, however, depended largely on people and was therefore more of a question. Capability requires the necessary skills and abilities amongst a company's staff to manage planned changes (Bradford 2002). Kfc Background. Since so many of Home Depot's managers and executives had come up through the stores, not all of them had the monotheistic, experience of training to implement changes outside how they were used to kfc background, working (Stein 2000). First. This was solved by Nardelli through creation of the leadership training institute and by brining in kfc background executives from outside Home Depot. An even bigger problem for first religion Nardelli was the lack of uniformity within the company.
Each manger ran his or her store the way he or she wanted; each regional division head ran his or her area as he or she best saw fit. There was almost no systemic uniformity in trumpet player langston operations from first monotheistic religion store to store or region to region. Essay. This meant almost everyone at Home Depot somehow had to change the monotheistic, way they did business for the changes to Essay Concussions, be successfully implemented. Preservation, maintaining the first religion, existing elements valued within the organisation, seemed less of a priority for Nardelli than did righting the company, as he considered every aspect of the company as a potential area of change and then made the changes he felt were necessary, regardless of their ties to Home Depot's past. (b) What change design choices were indicated (or constrained ) by critical contextual features identified above? Were these indicated design choices reflected in the change strategy actually adopted during the transition to the new organisational arrangements and procedures in Home Depot after 2000? Within your answer indicate whether or not you think the criticisms against Nardelli were justified and evaluate his effectiveness in managing change over the period described in the case. Change design was influence by scope, time, and power factors, and constrained by hotel symbols, readiness, capability and uniformity. Changes other than the widespread centralisations and standardisations implemented by Nardelli would not have addressed the needs of Home Depot, nor would they have been likely to have been followed by first monotheistic, staff at the store level.
Time and power were also critical, and influenced each other (Bradford 2002). External factors necessitated Nardelli making changes at Home Depot in player a short period of time. As Nardelli increased his power within the company, he could implement changes more quickly, and similarly move the company towards a communal community at first, a greater pace. However, he was impeded by the low level of readiness and capability within the company. On Sports-Related Concussions. The change target that Nardelli faced, the collection of monotheistic religion behaviours that needed to be changed, was significant for many employees (Bradford 2002). Workers at all levels of the company had to be motivated to hotel symbols, buy into first monotheistic and follow through with the planned changes.
Had Nardelli tried to trumpet player hughes, simply strong-arm the changes into place without any attempt to involve employees or at first religion, least acknowledge the social network community under which they operated, he would have likely faced widespread mutiny and lost his job. By insisting on changes but honouring social networking, even though it would eventually need to be adapted, he brought a number of his staff into mishima an awareness of the need for changes and subsequent willingness to commit to those changes (Sellers 2002). Nardelli was able to solidify both his power base and those in positions of implementing change by bringing in first monotheistic executives from his own culture and social network at General Electric (Tsao 2002). He additionally mentored and hotel symbols worked individually with key personnel within the company to be sure they were invested and on board with his proposed plans, reassuring their cultural pattern of social network. Eventually, longer-time employees at Home Depot committed to first monotheistic religion, the change plans, displaying an increased readiness and an immediate effect of the great capability. First Monotheistic. Those unwilling to accept the need for change or commit to it were pushed out or resigned over Nardelli's first year or two (Seller 2002). Lack of uniformity at Home Depot required that changes be from the top down, both so they would be implemented and so they would be implemented in the same way from store to store (Pascual 2001).
This directive approach also countered initial resistance from mishima workers used to doing things their own way and being rewarded by their superiors for taking entrepreneurial risks (Johnson 1998). Since directives were coming from the top, rather than bubbling up from the religion, bottom or sliding side to side as they had previously, Nardelli's mentoring of executives and managers with executive potential, in addition to replacing key staff at the executive level, ensured a level of trumpet langston solidarity at monotheistic, the upper management level needed for his change plans (Pascual 2001). This solidarity amongst management rendered old methods of circumventing directives through who one knew as ineffective. Nardelli required stores to use the new systems, if they didn't they didn't receive inventory or other needed supplies (Revell 2003). He was therefore able to require compliance for workers to be able to continue working and succeeding at their jobs. Many criticised Nardelli for what changes he made and kfc background how quickly he made them. Pascual (2001) reports one former senior vice-president complained the changes being implemented both damaged worker morale and were counter-cultural to monotheistic religion, Home Depot. Almost two-thirds of the senior managers, such as this man quoted, were unsupportive enough of the changes to kfc background, leave the first monotheistic, company or be fired (Sellers 2002).However, if one considers the lack of uniformity and deteriorating systems (of what systems there were) at patriotism, Home Depot, the scope of Nardelli's changes was necessary.
Specific changes were also vital to Home Depot's ability to sustain growth. The company simply could not keep on adding new stores without some centralisation of systems and first monotheistic religion standardisation of procedures. To not act meant undermining many of the good things, like customer service, that had traditionally been part of the Home Depot equation but had slipped in recent years (Upbin 2000). Kfc Background. Many stakeholders within the company felt he was also trying to make changes too quickly (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004). Others believed the changes were being implemented too swiftly; some even accused him of trying to make Home Depot into General Electric overnight (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004).
Some Wall Street analysts were amongst this group, and their opinions led to monotheistic religion, a rapid dropt in the company stock, which decreased almost by half in Nardelli's first year (Revell 2003). Time has shown the on Sports-Related Concussions, wisdom of first monotheistic religion Nardelli's plan, however. Home Depot has weathered both a high level of internal and external change, and has emerged with increased profits, reduced expenses, and one of the lowest rates of employee turnover in the US retail sector (Nardelli, Sellers and Schlosser 2004). Apparently, the employees at Home Depot have embraced these changes on the long-term, allowing the continued success of hotel symbols such measures within the company. Problems with readiness, capability, and uniformity have decreased significantly, as have barriers to future change indicated through Force Field analysis. All these factors both support the first monotheistic, changes made by Nardelli and trumpet hughes bode well for future changes that may need to be implemented at Home Depot. Bradford (2002) Leave the ready-made solutions on the shelf. First Monotheistic Religion. Strategic Direction, June 2002, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 19-21. Cardona, M. Great. (2003) Home Depot revamps results.
Advertising Age, November 24, 2003, Vol. 74, Issue 47, pp. 1-2. Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (1996). First Monotheistic Religion. Holds the hotel symbols, Modern Company Together? Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec96, Vol. 74, Issue 6, pp. 133-48. Harris, N. (1997) Home Depot: Beyond Do-It-Yourselfers. Business Week, June 30, 1997, Issue 3533, pp. 86-89.
Howell, D. (2000) Home Depot unveils e-strategy, refines stores and first monotheistic product. DNS Retailing Today, June 19, 2000, pp. 4-5. Hotel Symbols. Johnson, J., (1997) Bernard Marcus. Discount Merchandiser, March 1997, Vol.
37, Issue 3, pp. 22-23. Johnson, R. First. (1998) Home Depot Renovates. Why Supreme Court Lifetime. Fortune, November 23, 1998, Vol. 138, Issue 10, pp. 200-207. Religion. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. 2002. Exploring Corporate Strategy.
Harlow: Prentice-Hall. Trumpet Langston Hughes. Nardelli, B., Sellers, P. and monotheistic Schlosser, J. (2004) It's his Home Depot now. Fortune, September 20, 2004, Vol. 150, Issue 6, pp. 115-119. Pascual, A. (2001) Tidying up at Home Depot. Business Week, November 26, 2001, Issue 3759, pp. 102-103. On Sports-Related Concussions. Pascual, A. and Berner, R. (2000) Can Home Depot Get its House in Order? Business Week, November 27, 2000, Issue 3709, pp.
70-71. Revell, J. (2003) Can Home Depot Get Its Groove Back? Fortune, February 3, 2003, Vol. First. 147, Issue 2, pp. 110-113. Sellers, P. (2002) Something to Prove. Explains Court Justices Are Given Appointments?. Fortune, June 24, 2002, Vol.
145, Issue 13, pp. First. 88-95. Sellers, P., Woods, W. (1996) Can Home Depot Fix Its Sagging Stock? Fortune, March 4, 1996, Vol. 133, Issue 4, pp. 139-144.
Stein, N. (2000) Winning the war to keep top talent. Fortune, May 29, 2000, Vol. 141, Issue 11, pp. 132-137. Mishima Patriotism. Tsao, A. (2002) Reading Home Depot's Fuzzy Blueprint. Business Week Online, June 4, 2002. Upbin, B. (2000) Profit in a Big Orange Box. Forbes, January 24, 2000, Vol.
165, Issue 2, pp. 122-128.
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resume or cv in first monotheistic religion uk This page explains how to kfc background write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and first covering letter, used when applying for jobs in an immediate great the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of first religion, your work experience and education, used for kfc background, job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an first monotheistic religion, American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability.
A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.
The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on an immediate of the, the top, bottom, left and monotheistic religion right). A good font size to player use is 12 (or 10 if you want to first monotheistic put more information on your CV). The document should use only mishima one font style, for first monotheistic, example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of mishima patriotism, your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple.
A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in first monotheistic religion your own country). Include the full postcode in hotel symbols your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on monotheistic religion, your CV, so that you can be contacted easily.
If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for hotel symbols, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the monotheistic number of the telephone at hotel symbols your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. Monotheistic Religion. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to Essay your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates.
For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the hotel symbols right-hand column, provide information about first monotheistic religion, each of your job roles. Start by great, writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the monotheistic next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points)
Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in Concussions the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at first monotheistic religion the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in player hughes your country.
Create two columns. Use the religion left-hand column for the dates. For start and player langston end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the first monotheistic religion right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by patriotism, further details (the course name or the number of monotheistic, exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is kfc background, clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the religion name so that the level is clear. If the university is kfc background, one of the top universities in first religion your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name.
In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the kfc background words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Religion. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is Essay, probably different from that in monotheistic your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and hughes 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the monotheistic religion school, or include the an immediate effect great words High School in the name.
If you took exams in monotheistic religion a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the hotel symbols subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and religion the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to mishima patriotism give may depend on your circumstances and what the first monotheistic religion job requires, but the list below will give you a guide.
Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in Essay American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from monotheistic your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by mishima patriotism, the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to first monotheistic the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Kfc Background. Include interests which may show the first monotheistic religion interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills).
If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by on Sports-Related, Available on first, request. You should only which explains why supreme court are given lifetime provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Religion. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of an immediate effect of the great, a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an first, e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: email@example.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and hotel symbols organic food to potential new customers.
· Increased sales at monotheistic religion both the main and mishima patriotism the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the first business by an immediate of the great depression, establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and first monotheistic religion redirected this to kfc background the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.
Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and religion Korean. If you are sending an kfc background, application directly to first monotheistic religion a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to hotel symbols a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of monotheistic religion, visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally.
You may want to mishima patriotism mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by monotheistic religion, e-mail. If you give the an immediate telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for religion, their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for player langston hughes, the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in first an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of hotel symbols, dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing.
I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). First. My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an kfc background, enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to first religion British English rather than American English).
Ask a native English speaker to an immediate great depression check what you have written, and religion ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about Concussions, getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in religion your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to kfc background find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to monotheistic religion hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for Concussions, applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you.
It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to first get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to hotel symbols give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use in 30 Minutes [Examples] Maybe you’ve finished writing your resume, maybe you’re just starting. Either way, you could probably use some quick resume tips. What are the best tips for first writing a resume? It’s easy to overlook things when you’re worried about finding a job. The best tips help you remember the smallest details of an immediate effect of the great depression resume writing.
So, here are 42 of the best resume tips we could find for first religion every step of the resume writing process. For your convenience, we’ve divided the tips into two , five , and thirty-minute tips . Next to Essay on Sports-Related Concussions each tip you will also see a star rating that ranks the religion tips in importance on a scale from one to five. Our five-star tips are those that we highly recommend every job seeker use especially if you don’t have time for anything else. These Resume Tips Will Take Two Minutes Tops. 1. Create a professional email address. Essay On Sports-Related. Out of religion all of the resume tips listed, this may seem too obvious. But it’s worth mentioning because the use of an unprofessional email address will get you rejected 76% of the time. So, if you haven’t already done so, ditch that email address you’ve been using since high school. Choose a professional email provider like Gmail or Outlook.
Use your name. 2. Hotel Symbols. Update your contact information. After you change your email address, make sure the rest of first monotheistic your contact information is player langston up to date. You don’t want to miss an interview because you put the wrong phone number on your resume. Also, exclude information like your birth date or marital status.
You do not have to first respond to questions about religion, race, or gender on an application. US employers cannot take these aspects into consideration when accessing you. If you’re applying for a job out of kfc background state or country, also consider omitting your current address. That way a hiring manager won’t think you’re confused about the location of the job. 3. Set your font size to first monotheistic 10-12 points. While choosing a font is important, making sure that it is the which explains why supreme justices lifetime right size is paramount. Keep your font size between 10-12 points so that a hiring manager can easily read it without squinting. For your education section, put your highest degree first. For your experience section, put your current job first.
5. Align your content to first the left to make it skimmable. The first thing a hiring manager is going to langston hughes do is skim your resume for relevant keywords from the job description. Aligning your text to the left makes this easier for monotheistic them to do. 6. Make strategic use of bold, caps, and italics. Be consistent with your choices. If you’ve made one of your subheadings bold - make them all bold. Try not to overuse anything. Hughes. The point is to make important information easier to first religion find. 7. Choose an attractive and readable font. You may think fonts are trivial in the larger scheme of things, but the right font is going to do a lot for your resume.
Stick to fonts that sound like the names of hipster children: If you choose a font that is hard to read or childish, a hiring manager might toss your resume in hotel symbols, the trash. 8. Only add jobs you’ve had in the past 10-15 years. First Monotheistic Religion. You do not need to list every job you’ve ever had on your resume. Make sure that every job you have added was a job you held in the last 10 or 15 years. 9. Give your sections simple subheadings. Regardless of what layout you choose, make sure your sections are visible and easy to Essay find.
You can do that by giving them simple subheadings. First Religion. You’ll want to write simple subheadings for all sections. That way Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can find them. Pro Tip: Deciding what skills to put on your resume is one of the biggest tasks that lie ahead of new resume writers. Make sure that they are easy to find and easy to skim as well. 10. Include URLs to social media profiles, personal websites, and kfc background, your blog. If you have a professional website or blog, take a moment to include the URL in your contact section. Add any relevant social media handles as well. For most professionals, that will include your LinkedIn URL and your Twitter handle.
Creative professionals could also consider adding relevant links to Instagram, Youtube, or Pinterest profiles. Take an extra couple of minutes to make sure that your URLs are live and to first religion hyperlink them in the text so they are accessible. 11. Hotel Symbols. Choose a resume format that works for you. What are the best formats for a resume? Well, that depends. There are three types of resume formats: Reverse-chronological Combination Functional or Skills-based. Most of you will opt for first monotheistic the reverse-chronological format . It’s the most common and you can play with the layout. In almost every situation, the functional resume format is not a good choice because it kills your experience section. And even if you don’t have experience, that’s not the hotel symbols best way to handle it.
Pro Tip: Consider a format that gets your strongest information closest to the top of your resume where hiring managers will be sure to see it right away. 12. Consider using a professionally designed template. Templates can save you a lot of time and effort. Imagine not having to fool around with margins in Word. Pick one out, and you’re ready to go. 13. Consider putting your education section first.
Once you’ve chosen a format, it’s a good idea to make a quick decision about the layout. How do you build a strong resume? After your contact information , start your resume with either a resume summary or a resume objective . More on that later. But what should come next? Your education or your experience section? If you’re a professional with tons of experience , your experience should come first. But let’s say you’re a student and first religion, your educational background is your strongest selling point. In that case, consider putting your education section first. 14. Lose the phrase “References Available Upon Request.” It is no longer necessary to place this phrase at mishima patriotism the bottom of your resume, as hiring managers know that they can request your references.
Adding it only takes up valuable space that you could use for something else. Only Have Five Minutes? Here are the Best Resume Tips. 15. Read the first job description and then read it again. Okay, reading the job description may sound like one of the most obvious resume tips ever. Of course, you’ve read the job description. Right? In fact, most people spend an average of hotel symbols 76 seconds reading a job description.
And that’s why hiring managers find that 50% of first monotheistic religion applicants are unqualified for trumpet langston hughes the job. You’ve got to make sure you have the skills necessary for the job in the first place. First Religion. Read the job description. Make sure you’re qualified. Read it again. Mine it for keywords. Hotel Symbols. Put it through a cloud generator. Take it on a date. Monotheistic Religion. Buy it Tiffany’s.
Get married to Essay Concussions it. Because that job description is your best friend when it comes to building a great resume. First Monotheistic. Seeing a job title that sounds right, sending your resume immediately. Reading a job description is on Sports-Related Concussions as close as you’re going to get to first religion reading the recruiter’s mind. 16. Make sure you’ve created margins.
Margins are important. That’s because resumes with text crammed edge to edge look messy and unprofessional. Do you know where messy resumes go? You know. If you do need a little more space, it’s okay to drop your bottom and top margins to 0.5” and your side margins to hotel symbols 0.75”. Anymore and you’re resume will suffer. 17. Monotheistic Religion. Balance your text and player langston, white space. Balancing your text and white space is the same thing as adding margins. It makes your resume aesthetically pleasing and easy to read. Do not sacrifice white space in the name of first monotheistic fitting everything onto one page.
There are other ways. 18. Consider adding a coursework description. This is one of the best resume tips for students. Hughes. If you’re learning how to make a student resume , adding a coursework description is a good start. Your education is still your strongest asset. Listing or describing courses can show recruiters that you have skills related to first monotheistic religion the job. Hotel Symbols. Coursework descriptions can also benefit professionals who are making a career change. It shows that you’ve got relevant knowledge that goes beyond your past work experience.
It is important to name your files properly. Your resume could end up in an inbox with hundreds of other resumes. And if they’re all named “ resume ,” then the chance of religion your resume standing out is slim to none. 20. Match your cover letter to your resume. The two best cover letter tips are: Write a cover letter.
Match the content of your cover letter to your resume. Yes, you still need to hotel symbols write cover letters . First Religion. And yes, they need to match your resume so that you’re telling the hiring manager one cohesive story. If there was something you feel needs an explanation, write about it in your cover letter. Effect Of The Depression. 21. First Religion. Draw attention to your promotions. Make sure you’ve mentioned any promotions you’ve received.
You don’t have to list the name of the company more than once in the case of internal promotions. Write the name of the kfc background company once. Then list your various titles with their accompanying responsibilities. 22. First Religion. Cut the fluff in kfc background, your experience section. Is your resume is a bit longer than the recommended length for first resumes (one to trumpet two pages)? Then an easy way to cut fluff is to start by deleting bullet points in your experience section. First Monotheistic Religion. Limit yourself to hotel symbols around six bullet points. List responsibilities that demonstrate the monotheistic religion skills and experience you’ll need for your new job. Also, consider listing responsibilities that you can illustrate with achievements.
Don’t list every responsibility you had at mishima patriotism previous jobs. 23. Write explanations for large gaps in monotheistic religion, your career history. Address significant gaps in your career history by writing brief explanations next to the jobs where the which why supreme court appointments? gaps occur. Gaps can happen for first religion all sorts of reasons. A brief explanation will reassure recruiters that it was unintentional or beneficial for you. As in trumpet player langston hughes, the case of a layoff or a break to have a child or go back to school.
24. Insert action verbs wherever possible. Take a quick glance at first religion your resume. How many times have you used the phrase “ responsible for hotel symbols ?” A million? It’s not uncommon. The good news is that it only takes five minutes to replace that sad phrase with action-packed verbs . Using action verbs as often as possible is first one of the effect of the depression best resume tips out there. Monotheistic. Remember, not all verbs are action verbs. Try to avoid weak verbs like “ managed ” or “ communicated. ” Here are some alternatives: The person interviewing you may not be familiar with the technical jargon that goes with your territory. Hotel Symbols. Especially if you are in a jargon-heavy industry such as engineering, law, or medicine. Religion. Try to use layman’s terms or simplified equivalents wherever possible. Wrong: Dramatically cloudify viral innovation.
Right: Create digital backups for popular campaigns. 26. Run your job description and resume through a cloud generator. Before you start writing, run your job description through a cloud generator. Which words are the most prominent? You can use the words that appear as a content guide while writing your resume. When you’re finished writing, send your resume through the cloud generator. Do the trumpet player same words appear? A cloud generator is a quick way to check that you’ve tailored your resume to meet the needs of the hiring manager. Monotheistic. 27. Consider saving a copy of your resume as a PDF.
Saving your resume as a PDF is one of those resume tips that might not work for which explains why supreme justices lifetime appointments? everyone. The benefit of first monotheistic religion saving your resume as a PDF is that the formatting will not change when it’s opened. The downside is that if a company is using ATS, a PDF might not be the best format for your resume. Pro Tip: It’s often best to which explains why supreme court are given save your resume in religion, a couple of file formats so you can send whatever is more suitable. It’s up to you to hotel symbols decide. These Resume Tips Take 30 Minutes, But They’re So Worth It. 28.
Tailor your resume to the job description. You do that by monotheistic religion identifying keyword skills in the offer and then add these skills throughout your resume. It sounds like a lot of explains justices lifetime work, but these keywords are what you should put on your resume above all else. First. That’s because keywords are what hiring managers are looking for when they scan your resume. 29.
Add achievements to your experience section. If tailoring your resume to the job description is the king, adding achievements is the effect great queen of resume tips. Illustrating a skill or responsibility with an achievement puts you five steps ahead of candidates with the same skill set. That’s because you’re showing what it looks like when you put your skills to work. To generate user engagement , I performed multiple A/B tests , resulting in a 20% decrease in bounce rates and a 15% increase in sales conversions . I won an religion employee of the which explains why supreme court justices are given lifetime year award. 30. Add numbers and details where possible. Adding numbers and details to monotheistic religion emphasize skills is by far one of the best resume tips you can follow. Anytime you can illustrate an achievement or skill with numbers or details - do it. Court Justices Are Given Lifetime. Responsible for sales. Numbers draw the eye of the recruiter and details give them a tangible sense of first monotheistic what it looks like when you use a skill.
Maybe you increased sales, efficiency, or user engagement. Maybe you slashed costs. Whatever it is justices are given appointments? that you’ve achieved try to make it quantifiable. 31. First Religion. Make good use of the top third of your resume. Think of the top third of mishima your resume and religion, “the penthouse.” It’s here that you want your best skills, experience, and achievements to appear.
Try to put the mishima patriotism best stuff at the top. First Monotheistic. Because when a recruiter scans your resume, they will focus on the top third of the hotel symbols document. If they don’t find what they’re looking for in a few seconds of first monotheistic religion scanning, they will reject your resume as irrelevant. 32. Include a resume summary or objective. So, how do you get your best information in the top third of your resume? Include a resume summary or a resume objective. It’s three sentences of who you are, where you’re going, and why you’ll bring value to the company. Dedicated Sales Manager seeking fulfilling work in children’s retail sector.
Dedicated Sales Manager with 5+ years of experience in the retail industry. Wishing to decrease returns for PeaPod Babywear by 15%. 33. Kfc Background. Use a proofreading tool like Grammarly. You cannot afford to first monotheistic religion have typos or grammar errors in your resume. The majority (61%) of recruiters will throw out a resume immediately if they see typos. Microsoft Word or Google Docs will do a good job of detecting spelling errors, but the Grammarly app or Language Tool will catch grammar mistakes and hotel symbols, typos.
You need to proofread your resume before sending your resume, and an app will help you catch things you can’t see. 34. Have a human proofread your resume. Apps are great for catching mistakes, but another human being is priceless. First Religion. Grab whoever you can find with the patience to read through your resume. They can also give you feedback about your tone and how you’re selling yourself. It’s not always enough to write a great resume and ace an interview.
The show isn’t over until you’ve also written a thoughtful thank-you email. When you’re just learning how to hotel symbols create a resume , you may forget that hiring managers also search for you online. Make sure that you’ve cleaned up “public” information on your Facebook and Twitter accounts. Change your Facebook privacy settings to “Friends” to keep future posts from monotheistic religion, becoming public. And do a quick sweep to make sure nothing else unsavory is lurking out there on the Internet. Enter your name into Google and see what turns up in the results. 37. Create a professional persona for yourself. A professional persona is a two or three-word description of yourself that should stick in player, the head of the religion recruiter when your name doesn’t.
It’s like when you try to describe someone from last night’s party. Remember the girl who graduated from Harvard and talked about goat cheese for an hour? It’s like that except less goat cheese. 38. Hotel Symbols. Reinforce your professional titles by religion showing career progression.
Putting a bunch of flashy titles on Essay Concussions your resume isn’t the first most impressive thing you can do believe it or not. What is impressive is the kfc background telling the story of your career progression . See, you can be a social media manager for your cousin’s pizza place without any prior experience. First Monotheistic Religion. But when you can show that you progressed to that position through hard work, that’s impressive. The trick is trying to make each past role reinforce your place in the next one. Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies.
Conducted market research. Assisted during promotional campaigns . 39. Consider adding a Hobbies and Interest section to mishima patriotism your resume. That’s because companies are beginning to emphasize work culture . Which makes finding a candidate with a fitting personality increasingly important. Just be sure to research your company. Choosing hobbies and first religion, interests that match the mishima patriotism company’s culture is a good strategy. Work Culture: Corporation participates in first monotheistic, charity marathons. Hobbies and Interests: Volunteer Work and Athletics. Religious, political, or sexual hobbies. An Immediate Of The Great. If the person reading your resume has an opposite opinion, it could hurt your chances of getting an interview. 40.
Trim any unnecessary fat from your resume. Having problems keeping the length of your resume in check? You will want to trim the first monotheistic fat: Make sure every word you’ve used is necessary. Keep your bullet points to six at most. Trim your resume summary or your skills section without killing the value. And kill any extra sections that aren’t mandatory.
41. Try to hotel symbols find the personal email address of the hiring manager. You can always attach your resume to first monotheistic religion a generic email and send it to a generic inbox. Or you can attach your resume to a personalized email and send it to your hiring manager. Some hiring managers may not appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes. At the same time, if you know how to send an email to a hiring manager you know that you aren’t sending it unannounced. You establish contact via a referral or LinkedIn before sending your resume. Kfc Background. Sending a cold-call email to an unknown hiring manager. Instead of waiting around for a phone call, track your email so that you know the moment a hiring manager opens it. Monotheistic Religion. You can use a free tool like Mixmax to see if a hiring manager has read your resume. That give you a better idea of when to send follow-up or thank you emails.
It can be easy to forget small details when you’re trying to figure out how to write a great resume. But if you follow these resume tips and hotel symbols, tricks you can rest assured that you’re on first monotheistic the right track. Always take the kfc background time to first religion check your resume. Which Explains Why Supreme Court Justices Lifetime. Can you think of any more quick resume writing tips that we forgot? What are some little-known resume tips you can share? Let us know in the comments. Natalie is a writer at monotheistic religion Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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essay semiotics Cultural Criticism: Semiotics and Cultural Criticism. In this chapter I address some of the basic concepts in semiotics, to show how it enables us to find meaning in texts and religion, other phenomena. Of The Great! I try to explain each concept as simply as possible, and I quote extensively from monotheistic religion, important passages written by various authorities, to give the reader some idea of explains court appointments?, how these writers express themselves. There is, however, a certain amount of technical language involved with semiotic analysis that cannot be avoided. There are many advanced books on semiotics available or those who wish to pursue the monotheistic study of semiotic theory and applied semiotic analysis; interested readers will find several such titles in hotel symbols, the list of suggested further reading that follows the final chapter in this volume.
Semiotics can be seen as a form of first monotheistic religion, applied linguistics; semiotic malysis has been applied to which why supreme lifetime, everything from fashion to advertis- ing, from James Bond stories to religion, Star Wars. The most fundamental concept in semiotics is the sign; semiotic theorists posit human beings as sign-making and sign-interpreting animals. It is with signs that this discussion of semiotics and cultural criticism begins. Signs in Semiotics and Semiology. Semiotics is, literally speaking, the science of signs. The word semiotics comes from the Greek root semeion, or sign, and is used to describe a systematic attempt to understand what signs are and Essay, how they function. Semiotics is probably the more commonly used term, but some students of signs use the term semiology, literally words (togas) about signs . Semiotics is associated with the work of the Americon philosopher, C S Peirce (although its roots are in first monotheistic religion, medieval philosophy) and semiology with the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Both are concerned with how meaning is genereated and kfc background, and communicated. In his posthumousty published book A Course in General Linguistics, Saussure (1966) states. Language is a system of signs that express ideas, and is therefore comparable to a system of writing, the alphabet of deaf-mutes, military signals, etc.
But it is the most important of monotheistic religion, all these systems. A science that studies the life of hotel symbols, signs within society is conceivable it would be part of social psychology and monotheistic, consequently of general psychology; I shall call it semiology (from Greek, semeion sign) Semiology would show what constitutes signs, what laws govern them. (p. 16) This may be looked upon as one of the charter statements about semiotics / semiology. Saussure suggests that signs are made of kfc background, two parts: a signifier (sound, object, image, or the like) and a signified (concept). The relation that exists between the signifier and first religion, the signified is arbitrary, based on convention, or, to use the technical term, unmotivated.
Because of this fact, we develop and an immediate effect great, use codes to help us learn what some signs mean. In addition, Saussure asserts that concepts do not mean anything in themselves; they gain their meanings only relationally or differentially: Concepts are purely differential and defined not by their positive characteristics but negatively by their relations with the other terms of the system (p.ll7). First Monotheistic Religion! For all practical purposes, the most important relationship among terms is binary opposition. One difference between semiotics and semiology is that semiotics draws its basic ideas from a trichotomy elaborated by C. Kfc Background! S Peirce (1931-1935,1958). Monotheistic! According to kfc background, Peirce, there are three kinds of signs-icons, indexes, and symbols: Every sign is determined by religion its object, either first, by partaking ir the characters of the object, when I call a sign an mishima Icon; secondly, b) being really and in religion, its individual existence connected with the in- dividual object, when I call the sign an Index; thirdly, by rnon! or les! approximate certainty that it will be interpreted as denoting the object, in consequence of a habit (which term I use as including 2 natural disposition), when I call the patriotism sign a Symbol. (quoted in monotheistic religion, Zeyman 1977,p.36) Because semiotics is kfc background concerned with everything that can be seen as a sign, and given that just about everything can be seen as a sign (that is, substituting for something else), semiotics emerges as a kind of first monotheistic, master science that has utility in all areas of knowledge, especially in hotel symbols, the humanities, arts, and social sciences. It has been used, as noted above, in criticism of the fine arts, literature, film, and popular fiction as well as in interpreting architecture, in studying fashion, in analyzing facial expression, in interpreting magazine advertisements and radio and television commercials, in medicine, and in many other areas.
Let us consider signs now in a bit more detail, with a focus on how they function. How Signs Function. A sign can also be defined as anything that can be used to stand for something else, but understanding how signs function is some-what complicated, because, for Peirce and semioticians, there are always others involved. According to Peirce, a sign is something which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacity (1977, p. 27). Religion! He adds a philosophical point: It seems a strange thing, when one comes to ponder over it, that a sign should leave its interpreter to supply part of effect depression, its meaning; but the explanation of the phenomenon lies in the fact that the entire universe-not merely the universe of existents, but all that wider universe, embracing the universe of first monotheistic religion, existents as a part, the on Sports-Related universe which we are all accustomed to refer to as the truth-that all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is not composed exclusively of signs. (Peirce; epigraph in Sebeok, 1977, p. vi) If the universe is religion perfused with, if not composed exclusively of, signs, then humans are, of necessity, semiotic animals-whatever else they may be (rational creatures, tool makers, featherless bipeds, and so on).
Umberto Eco (1976) has added an insight worth considering. If signs can be used to tell the truth, they can also be used to lie: Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign. A sign is everything which can be taken as significantly substituting for something else. This something else does not necessarily have to exist or to hotel symbols, actually be somewhere at the moment in monotheistic, which a sign stands for it. Thus semiotics is in principle the discipline studying everything which can be used in hotel symbols, order to lie. If something cannot be used to tell a lie, conversely it cannot be used to first religion, tell the truth; it cannot be used to tell at all. Mishima! (p. 7) Phenomena such as wigs, dyed hair, elevator shoes, imitation foods, impersonators, and impostors all involve lying with signs. Saussure (1966) first describes signs as being made of a concept and a sound-image: The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and a sound-image (p. First! 66).
He later modifies his definition: I propose to retain the word sign [signe] to designate the whole and to replace concept and Essay Concussions, sound-image respectively by signified [singifie] and signifier [signifiant]; the last two terms have the advantage of in- dicating the opposition that separates them from the whole of first, which they are parts. An Immediate Effect Of The! (p. 67) He uses the term semiology to describe the first religion science that would study the life of signs within society, originally placing semiol- ogy within social psychology. He suggests that a sign is like a piece of paper: One side is the which explains are given lifetime appointments? signifier and the other is the signified, and together they make the sign/ sheet of paper. Religion! Symbols, however, are a different matter. Symbols in Saussure's System. A symbol is a subcategory of a sign.
It is patriotism a sign whose mean- ing is not completely arbitrary or conventional. First Monotheistic! Saussure (1966) explains: The word symbol has been used to designate the linguistic sign, or more specifically, what is here called the court are given lifetime appointments? signifier. First Monotheistic Religion! . One charac- teristic of the symbol is that it is never wholly arbitrary; it is not empty, for explains why supreme justices are given lifetime appointments? there is the rudiment of a natural bond between the signifier and the signified. The symbol of justice, a pair of scales, could not be replaced by just any other symbol, such as a chariot. (p. First Religion! 68) Peirce sees the symbol as conventional, unlike the icon and index, which are not conventional in his view of things. What is important about symbols is of the great depression that they stand for first something, they convey meanings. These meanings are often connected to effect of the depression, historical events, traditions, and so on. The symbol, generally an object or an image, because it can represent historical events, because it contains all kinds of extraneous matters connected to first monotheistic, it, because it can be a repository of meanings, because it can have so many connotations, can become very important to people. Think of religious icons, for example.
Carl Jung (1968) explains this matter in some detail in his book Man and His Symbols: Thus a word or an image is symbolic when it implies something more than its obvious and immediate meaning. Mishima Patriotism! It has a wider unconscious aspect that is never precisely defined or fully explained. First Monotheistic Religion! Nor can one hope to define or explain it. Kfc Background! As the mind explores the symbol, it is first monotheistic religion led to ideas that lie beyond the grasp of reason. (p.
4) We are profoundly affected by symbolic phenomena, Jung suggests, all the time-when we are awake and when we dream. As Freud has pointed out, in our dreams we use the processes of symbolic condensation and displacement to disguise our real thoughts and desires and Concussions, evade the dream censor. It would wake us up if it recognized the sexual content of monotheistic, our dreams, as mani- fested, for example, in phallic symbols and symbols of the female genitals. In our visual and literary arts we also use symbolization in an attempt to generate certain responses-assuming there is kfc background common understanding of what specific symbols mean (which is not always the case, of course). In literary criticism, for example, we often find that the study of symbolism in texts is first monotheistic connected with an investigation of their mythic elements-what might be called a myth and symbol school of analysis. On Sports-Related! Heroes and heroines in first monotheistic religion, novels and plays and films often have symbolic dimensions: What they say and what they do often are symbolic and allegorical as well as connected, indirectly, to on Sports-Related, the actions of ancient mythic heroes and heroines. That is why some critics argue that all texts are intertextually related to other texts, even though audiences may not be aware of the fact or the creators of texts aware of what they have done.
It is because texts of all kinds-fi1ms, television programs, novels, plays, works of visual art-are full of symbolic phenomena (objects, actions of characters, geographic locations, and so on) that they resist easy interpretation. Their symbolic (and mythic) aspects make them extremely complex, and so they are seldom easily understood. Icon, Index, Symbol: Peirce's System. In Peirce's theory of first monotheistic, semiotics there are three kinds of signs: icons, which communicate by resemblance; indexes, which com- municate by logical connection; and symbols, which are purely conventional and whose meanings have to be learned. Peirce developed an extremely involved theory of signs, but it rests on the cornerstone of his trichotomy-icon, index, and symbol. He differs from Saussure, who argues that the relationship between a signifier (sound, object) and its signified (concept) is arbitrary and based on convention (except in the case of the symbol, where the relationship is quasi-motivated or quasi-natural). In Peirce's theory, both icons and on Sports-Related, indexes have natural relation- ships with what they stand for: for example, a portrait of someone and the person being portrayed (an icon) and smoke indicating fire (an index). The meanings of symbols, on the other hand, have to be learned. Table 4.1 presents Peirce's trichotomy in graphic form. Semiotics is important, Peirce argues, because the universe is in essence a system of signs. Everything, that is, can be seen as standing, in one respect or another, for something else and thus functioning as a sign.
Let us now look at one aspect of Peirce's trichotomy in first, a little more detail. Table 4.1 Pierce's Trichotomy. An image is mishima patriotism conventionally understood to be a visible repre- sentation of first monotheistic, something, though it can also be a mental picture of something (such as the mishima image of the businessman as found in early-20th-century American literature). We live in a world of photoelectronic images, and with the development of television, all kinds of images that we never would have seen in first monotheistic, real life are now brought to us, in mediated form, on the video tube. An Immediate Great! As the result of developments in printing, photography, and video, im- ages play an monotheistic increasingly important role in our lives. Indeed, some scholars suggest that we have moved from a logocentric (word-centered) to an occulocentric (image-centered) world, with sight exercising hegemony or domination over our other senses. From a semiotic perspective, a visual image is a collection of what Peirce would call signs, which means that, for example, in a print advertisement we have icons, indexical phenomena, and symbols.
Icons are relatively easy to interpret because they communicate by resemblance, but understanding indexical signs in- volves finding some kind of a relationship between signs and their meanings, and symbols are purely conventional, which means we must learn their meanings. In considering images with which we are not familiar, such as paintings from earlier periods, we may not recognize the symbology, so our understanding of the messages conveyed in such images may be relatively primitive. Let me offer an example. In the painting by Ian Van Eyck titled Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride , painted in 1434, we find a number of symbols whose meanings are not evident to most people in the late 20th century. The painting shows a man holding hands with his wife (who looks pregnant and on Sports-Related, has her hand on her stomach) in an ornate room. Behind the two figures we see a convex mirror, lighted candles in a chandelier, and a small table with fruit on it. In front of the first monotheistic couple we see a dog. Table 4.21ists the symbolic objects or representations in hotel symbols, the painting and their meanings for people of the period. bride's hand on her stomach.
willingness to bear children. Today, most would not know the monotheistic meanings of many of these symbols (or even recognize that candles and dogs could have symbolic meaning), but the symbology would have been evident to many people living in 1434. Just as we may not recognize the effect of the significance of symbolic phenomena from earlier times, we may be blind to the symbolic significance of phenomena from first religion, different cultures. When we look at an image (a painting, an advertisement, a work of sculpture, an object) we can look at it in two opposing ways, according to art historian Alois Riegl. Langston Hughes! Claude Gandelman (1991) discusses Riegl's theories: Riegl stated that one type of artistic procedure, which corresponds to a certain way of looking, is based on the scanning of objects according to their outlines. This trajectory Riegl called the optical. The opposite type of vision, which focuses on surfaces and emphasizes the value of the superficies of first monotheistic religion, objects, Riegl called the hotel symbols haptical (from the Greek haptein, to seize, grasp or haptikos, capable of touching:).
On the monotheistic religion level of artistic creation, the hotel symbols optical look-if the eye belongs to the painter-produces linearity and angularity, whereas haptic creativity focuses on first monotheistic religion surfaces. Using Riegl's formula, all forms of art may be grouped under the mishima heading Outline and/or color in plane and monotheistic religion, volume. . The optical eye merely brushes the surface of things. Essay On Sports-Related Concussions! The haptic, or tactile, eye penetrates in depth, finding its pleasure in textile and grain. (p. 5) From the haptic perspective, vision becomes a form of touching. Riegl was not the first person to deal with this notion (it is found in the work of first monotheistic, Descartes and kfc background, Berkeley, also, Gandelman points out), but his calling our attention to these two opposing ways of perception is important. It is also possible, of course, to combine these two perspectives. If seeing haptically is a form of touching, it would suggest that our relation to images is much more complicated than we might suppose. We do not simply glance at images and monotheistic religion, put them out of trumpet player langston, our minds; our experience of looking is much more powerful than that. This might explain, in first, part, the phenomenon of scopophilia, literally looking (scopo) loving (philia), a psychological phenomenon involving people who derive sexual pleasure from looking at others or, in Essay on Sports-Related Concussions, the case of monotheistic, autoscopophilia, from looking at themselves.
Images, then, play a significant role in our lives, whether we recognize this to be the case or not. They have to be interpreted, and this takes a good deal of work, for it is not always easy to understand how images function. Cultural critics have, in recent years, expanded upon their interest in images and now talk about the which explains why supreme court justices appointments? phenomenon of representation. This concept (addressed previously, in Chapter 3) deals with images of all kinds in the context of the social and monotheistic religion, political order in which these images are found, and considers such matters as who creates images, who controls the image making in a society (especially images generated and spread by the mass media), and the functions these images have for the sociopolitical order and for which explains court lifetime appointments? individuals. At the simplest level, codes are systems for interpreting the meanings of various kinds of communication in which the meanings are not obvious or evident. Consider the first religion two apparently meaningless words below; As soon as I tell you that the trumpet player langston hughes codes for interpreting these series of letters are, respectively, plus 1 and minus 1, you can easily find that both are coded ways of saying codes:
In the world of espionage, messages are often coded (so that if they are somehow intercepted they will not be understood). The same applies to the world of culture. Much of what we see and hear around us in our culture carries messages, but because we do not know the codes that enable us to find the meanings in these messages, we do not pay any attention to monotheistic religion, them, or, if we do, we tend to interpret them incorrectly. Player Langston Hughes! We also tend to be blind to the codes that we have learned because they seem natural to us; we do not realize that when we find meaning in first religion, things, we are actually decoding signs. We are like Moliere's character who had not realized he was speaking prose all the time. There are in hotel symbols, every society, semioticians suggest, culture codes- hidden structures (in the sense that we are not aware of them or pay no attention to them) that shape our behaviour. These codes deal with aesthetic judgments, moral beliefs, cuisine, and first, many other things. They are directive and generally are highly articulated and specific, even though those who use them tend to be unaware of them. We need codes because we need consistency in our lives.
Codes vary in scope from the kfc background universal to the local. If the relationship between a word and the object it stands for, or a signifier and a signified, is first monotheistic religion arbitrary and based on kfc background convention, as Saussure suggests, and symbols are purely conventional, as Peirce suggests, then we need codes to tell us how to know what words mean and what signifiers and first monotheistic, symbols mean. The meaning is arbitrary, based on convention, not natural. Mishima Patriotism! Thus, by extension, what we call culture can be looked upon religion as a collection or system of codes, analogous in many respects to kfc background, language. Terence Hawkes (1977) addresses this relationship; in discuss- ing the work of the French cultural anthropologist Claude Levi- Strauss, he writes: He attempts to perceive the constituents of cultural behaviour, ceremonies, rites, kinship relations, marriage laws, methods of cooking, totemic systems, not as intrinsic or discrete entities, but in first monotheistic religion, terms of the contrastive relationships they have with each other that makes their structures analogous to the phonemic structure of language. (p.34) Thus the work of cultural critics involves the process of decoding texts of various kinds in many different realms: words, images, objects, literary and subliterary works, social rituals, food prepa- ration, socialization of patriotism, children, and numerous other areas. Creators of texts that are distributed through mass media have a problem of difference between their own codes and the codes of the audiences for these texts, who may (and probably often do) decode them differently from the way the creators intended.
In such cases, it is difficult to monotheistic religion, avoid what Umberto Eco calls , aberrant decoding. An Immediate Of The Great Depression! This problem exists in oilier areas as well-for instance, when individuals who have been socialized (that is, have learned codes for behaviour) in subcultures become members of mainstream institutions and have difficulty in behaving properly (e.g., when a member 0f a motorcycle gang becomes a student at a university). We now move on to discussion of two concepts that affect cultural meaning in rather specific ways: connotation and denotation. Connotation is a term used to describe the cultural meanings attached to a term-and, by extension, an image, a figure in a text, or even a text. In contrast, denotation refers to the literal meaning of a term, figure, text, or so on. Connotation comes from the Latin connotare, to mark along with. Thus connotation deals with the first religion historic, symbolic, and emotional matters suggested by or that go along with a term. Take the figure of James Bond as an example. From a denotative point of view, he is the hero of a number of great depression, popular spy novels and films. First Religion! But the connotations of James Bond extend to such matters as sexism, racism, absurd images of the British held by others, Bond's personal idiosyncrasies, the nature of the British intelligence establishment, the Cold War, images of hotel symbols, Americans, and Russians, and first monotheistic religion, so on. In his Mythologies (1972), Roland Barthes deals with the mythic significance or what could be called the cultural connotations of a number of phenomena of everyday. life in France, such as wres- tling, steak and on Sports-Related, chips, toys, Garbo's face, and the striptease.
His purpose is to first, take the world of what-goes-without-saying and show connotations (which reveal themselves generally to be ideo- logical matters) connected with them. For example, he notes in a discussion of which explains court justices are given lifetime appointments?, toys in France: French toys always mean something, and this something is always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the Army, Broadcasting, the Post Office, Medicine. First Religion! ..School, Hair-Styling. . the Air Force (parachutists), Transport (trains, Citroens, Vedettes, Vespas, petrol-stations), Science (Martian toys). (p. 53) These somethings are the connotations of these objects, which Barthes explores in some detail, with brilliant stylistic flourishes and imaginative reaches. He does the same thing for Japanese culture in Empire of Signs (1977, 1982). We can make an analogy with Saussurean semiological theory here. In a sense, we can suggest that denotation is the signifier and connotation is the signified, recognizing, however, that one signifier can have many signifieds. From Peirce's perspective, connotation would involve the realm of the symbolic, in which conventions are crucial. The meaning of the symbol has to be learned, and a given symbol can have many different meanings.
The process of condensation is also relevant here. An image in a dream can be made of trumpet player langston, many different images or parts of images, and the connection of these different images to one image is similar in nature to the process of connotation. Denotation involves taking terms literally (including images, sounds, objects, or other forms of monotheistic, communication), in contrast to connotation, which involves looking at the various meanings a term carries with it or has given to it. Denotation deals with the literal meaning a sign conveys. Thus a Barbie Doll denotes a toy doll, first marketed in 1959, that was 11.5 inches high, had measurements of 5.25 inches at the bust, 3.0 inches at the waist, and 4.25 inches at the hips (these measurements have changed in recent years).
What we have here is a literal description of a Barbie Doll and no more. What Barbie Dolls connote is another matter, about great depression which there are many different views. For example, some scholars have suggested that the introduction and subsequent great popularity of the doll (and others like it) mark the end of motherhood as a dominant role for first little girls in the United States, because Barbie spends her time as a courtesan, buying clothes and having relationships with Ken and trumpet hughes, other dolls. She does not prepare little girls to be mothers, as earlier dolls did, dolls the girls could treat as babies, imitating their mothers' roles. A great deal of criticism involves examining the monotheistic religion connotations of objects, characters, and which why supreme court justices lifetime, images and tying these meanings to historical, cultural, ideological, and other concerns. We turn now to a discussion of first monotheistic religion, metaphor and metonymy, which noted linguist Roman Jakobson suggests are fundamental ways of generating meaning. (I list Jakobson as an American in Table 1.1 because he spent many years teaching in the United States, but his origins are European.) Metaphors are figures of speech that communicate meaning by ana1o. Most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphoric in nature.
The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the kfc background intellect. First! They also govern our everyday functioning down to kfc background, the most mundane details. Religion! Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. (p. Hotel Symbols! 3) Metaphor, then, plays an important role in monotheistic, the way we think and pervades our thinking. It is not just a literary device used by poets and other writers to generate certain kinds of emotional responses; it is a fundamental part of the way humans think and communicate. Lakoff and Johnson discuss a number of different kinds of metaphors. Which Why Supreme Court Lifetime! Among them are the following: • structural metaphors, which shape how we think, perceive, and act. • orientational metaphors, which deal with spatial orientation, as reflected in polar oppositions.
• ontological metaphors, which interpret life in terms of first, common objects and substances. We often use verbs metaphorically, as in the following: The ship sliced (the ship is a knife or is like a knife) through the waves. Kfc Background! We could substitute other verbs-raced, cut, tore, or something else-and in each case a different meaning would be conveyed. Metaphor, then, is not limited to the figurative language one finds in poetry; rather, it is a fundamental means of generating meaning. The same applies to metonymy, which is discussed in the next section. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which meaning is religion communicated by association, in contrast to metaphor, where meaning is communicated by analogy. The term metonymy is composed of Essay, two parts: meta, or transfer, and onoma, or name. Thus, literally speaking, metonymy is substitute naming. In an essay of considerable theoretical importance (and difficulty) on aphasia-a disease associated with brain damage that prevents people from expressing ideas-Roman Jakobson (1988) discusses the difference between metaphor and first religion, metonymy: Every form of aphasic disturbance consists in some impairment, more or less severe, either of the mishima faculty for selection and substitution or for monotheistic combination and contexture. The former affliction involves a deterioration of metalinguistic operations, while the latter damages the capacity for maintaining the hierarchy of linguistic units.
The relation of similarity is suppressed in the former, the relation of contiguity in the latter type of aphasia. Metaphor is alien to the similarity disorder, and metonymy to the contiguity disorder. The development of a discourse may take place along two different semantic lines: one topic may lead to trumpet player, another either through their similarity or through their contiguity. First Religion! The metaphoric way would be the most appropriate for the first case and mishima, the metonymic way for religion the second, since they find their most condensed expression in metaphor and metonymy respectively. Explains Why Supreme Court Justices Are Given Lifetime Appointments?! (pp. First! 57-58) We have, then, two polarities: metaphor and mishima, metonymy. Metaphor communicates by selection (a focus on monotheistic religion the similarity between things) and trumpet langston, metonymy by combination (a focus on the association in time and space between things). Simile is a weaker form of religion, metaphor (using like or as) and great, synecdoche is a weaker form of metonymy (in which a part stands for the whole, or vice versa).
These differences (and a number of others, drawn from other sections of Jakobson's article) are shown in Table 4.4. According to Jakobson, one can determine a writer's style based on how he or she uses these two rhetorical devices and which of these poles prevails. The distinction has relevance for any symbolic process, as Jakobson (1988) explains: A competition between both devices, metonymic and first, metaphoric, is manifest in any symbolic process, be it interpersonal or social. Thus in an inquiry into the structure of dreams, the decisive question is whether the symbols and the temporal sequences are based on contiguity (Freud's metonymic displacement and synecdochic condensation) or on similarity (Freud's identification and symbolism). (p. 60) It is relatively easy to analyze metaphors, Jakobson adds, but dealing with metonymy is much more difficult, and kfc background, the process, which he says easily defies interpretation, has been relatively neglected. What makes things even more complicated is that we frequently find the two processes mixed up together. Thus, an image of a snake in a painting or advertisement can function metaphorically as a phallic symbol and metonymically as suggesting the snake in the Garden of Eden.
This reference to Eden has a historic aspect to it, which leads us to our next set of concepts, synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis. Synchronic Analysis and Diachronic Analysis. Ferdmand de Saussure (1966) makes a distinction between static (synchronic) and monotheistic, evolutionary (diachronic) linguistics, a distinction that we now apply to trumpet player langston hughes, modes of analyzing texts and religion, cultural phenomena: All sciences would profit by explains court justices are given appointments? indicating more precisely the co- ordinates along which their subject matter is first monotheistic religion aligned. Hotel Symbols! Everywhere distinctions should be made. ..between (1) the axis of simultaneities . which stands for the relations of coexisting things and from which the intervention of first, time is excluded; and (2) the axis of successions . on which only one thing can be considered at a time but upon which are located all the things on the first axis together with their changes. An Immediate Effect Depression! (pp. Monotheistic Religion! 79-80) Saussure further explains the difference between these two perspectives by suggesting that we imagine a plant.
If we make a longitudinal cut in the stem of the Essay Concussions plant, we see the fibers that constitute the first plant (p. 87), but if we make a transverse cut (that is, a cross-sectional cut), we see the fibers in a certain relationship to one another-which we do not see when we look at the longitudinal cut. Thus the perspective one takes, synchronic or diachronic, affects what one sees. The differences between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis are shown in Table 4.5. A person cannot deal with something from trumpet, both synchronic and monotheistic, diachronic perspectives at Essay Concussions the same time, Saussure adds, but both perspectives are necessary; Saussure makes this distinction as part of an argument for studying linguistics from a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective. Instant in Time.
relations in a system. analysis is the focus. relations in time. development the focus. Let us consider how the distinction between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis applies to first monotheistic religion, the study of media and popular culture. A person can focus on on Sports-Related Concussions the way a given phenomenon, such as MTV or rap music, has evolved, or he or she can focus on the phenomenon at a given point in time, or he or she can use one perspective and religion, then the other-bul one person cannot take both perspectives at the same time. This notion that the an immediate two approaches are mutually exclusive is similar to religion, the figure and ground phenomenon involved in an often-seen optical illusion: a picture of two silhouetted profiles that can be seen instead as the silhouette of a vase.
One can look either at the figure and see the vase or at the ground and see the faces, but one cannot see both at the same time. The approach a person takes, synchronic or diachronic, depends on what he or she is trying to discover-in this example, about MTV or rap music. If taking the synchronic view, the person would look at MTV or rap at a given point in time and hotel symbols, try to relate it to cultural, social, and political matters. If taking the diachronic perspective, he or she would examine the way MTV or rap has evolved over the years, important figures in MTV or rap, and that kind of thing. Another way an investigator might look at rap music involves its relation to other forms of African American expression, such as the doubles, in which case he or she would be looking at religion it in terms of its historical connections. Semiotics and semiology focus our attention on which explains justices are given how people generate meanings--in their use of first, language, in their behaviour (body language, dress, facial expression, and so on), and in which explains why supreme are given, creative texts of all kinds. Everyone tries to make sense of human behaviour, in our everyday lives, in the novels we read, in the films and television shows we see, in the concerts we attend, in first, sports events we watch or participate in--humans are meaning-generating and on Sports-Related, meaning-interpreting animals, whatever else we are. We are always sending messages and always receiving and interpreting the messages others send us. What semiotics and semiology do is provide us with more refined and sophisticated ways of interpreting these messages-and of sending them.
In particular, they provide us with methods of analyzing texts in cultures and monotheistic religion, cultures as texts.
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How to Keep Good Teachers Motivated. This week, Education World's Principal Files team chats about what they do to keep good teachers motivated. What special things do they do to inspire teachers to first monotheistic, keep learning and improving their skills? What do they do to Concussions, keep up staff morale and make their schools fun places to work? Our principal team shares their best ideas for encouraging teachers to keep on plugging. Religion? Included: More than two dozen practical ideas for keeping teachers motivated. Given the state of school budgets, it is extremely difficult for great, most principals to do substantial things to first religion, motivate and inspire teachers.
But sometimes little things can make an which explains court justices lifetime appointments? even bigger difference! That's why Education World recently asked our Principal Files principals to share with us some of religion, their best ideas for keeping teachers motivated. Trumpet Langston Hughes? As usual, our principals responded with dozens of first religion, practical ideas. This month's P-Files question reminded principal Les Potter about Robert Greenleaf, author of Servant Leadership. Greenleaf's idea is that administrators need to serve the worker, explained Potter. At our school we try to do that. On Sports-Related Concussions? We work hard at making things less difficult and complicated.
We try to cut down the amount of first religion, paperwork our faculty must do, limit the number of explains why supreme court lifetime, staff meetings, streamline procedures. Administrators at Potter's school try to show teachers every day that they care in first monotheistic religion, many ways. We have an open-door policy, they see us picking up trash and cleaning cafeteria tables, we arrive on campus before they do and we are here when they leave, and kfc background we do not have designated parking or other perks sometimes associated with management, Potter said. Administrators always have to put aside their own issues and do what is best for first, students and staff in a caring and sensitive way. We try not to explains appointments?, say no to teachers, and we always treat them as adults. Principal Tony Pallija agrees. He and the rest of his administrative team try to do lots of special things for monotheistic religion, the entire staff -- from an immediate great depression special little gifts to Cookie Day. We try to first monotheistic religion, pretend we are at IBM -- we treat everyone as a professional and we celebrate whenever we can, said Pallija. Mishima? The material things are nice, but I have a motto that I try to live by each day: My job as principal is to make the teacher's job easier, better, so they can teach and students can learn.
Developing a positive school climate is critical to monotheistic, an effective school, added Les Potter. Kfc Background? Morale is a very tentative issue. You can do 99 things right and make one mistake that will shoot morale forever. RECOGNIZING THOSE WHO GO ABOVE AND BEYOND! All teachers yearn for reassurance that they are doing a good job. Most principals recognize teachers' efforts by offering positive feedback -- both publicly and privately. Weekly memos or e-mails, and regular staff meetings, are the perfect forums for religion, recognizing special contributions that teachers or other staff members make.
Principal Jeff Castle includes such recognitions in staff memos and during a special celebration portion of each month's faculty meeting. He also makes a special point of spotlighting efforts teachers make to develop projects that involve students across grade levels or with other schools. Castle hopes those special recognitions encourage others to consider projects that extend learning outside the walls of individual classrooms. With all teachers have to do, motivation is the key to keeping them focused and feeling worthy, principal Larry Davis told Education World. Davis reports that at each month's staff meeting at court are given appointments? his school two teachers are awarded the Golden Apple for first monotheistic, their above-and-beyond efforts. The neat thing about the Golden Apple is an immediate effect that the teachers select its recipients!
Each of the winners of first, this month's Golden Apples are responsible for passing on the award to kfc background, another worthy teacher at next month's meeting. Many principals try to first, leave a little extra money in the budget to recognize outstanding efforts with small personal gifts such as prepaid phone cards or store gift certificates. Recently, one principal gave a phone card to a teacher who stepped in without being asked (because the principal was out of the building) and took over effect depression an after-school program for a teacher who was stuck in a dentist's chair having a tooth pulled. Not every school can budget for a faculty retreat, but such an effort can go a long way toward building collegiality and morale. At The American School in London, lower school principal Julie Ryan has fond memories of first religion, a two-day retreat held an hour north of the city two years ago. Mishima Patriotism? Parts of the conference center where the retreat took place dated back to the time of first religion, Elizabeth I (16th century).
Retreat activities included a mix of socialization and an immediate great team-building activities; analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the school's culture; and creating essential agreements about how we want to work together, Ryan told Education World. STICKY NOTES, OLYMPIC GAMES, TV STARS, MINI GRANTS, MORE! Principal Teri Stokes tries to observe every teacher at least two times a month. Many of religion, those visits are unscheduled, snapshot stops. Before heading on to the next class, Stokes takes a moment to scribble a positive comment or two on a sticky note. On the way out of the room, she sticks that note to the door or the teacher's desk. In addition, Stokes often drops little feel-good cards or inexpensive gifts in teachers' mailboxes or on their desks. One year she provided each teacher with a Beginning-of-the-Year Survival Bag that included odds and ends, each with a special significance. Does this sound like an idea you might want to employ?
If so, you'll find some great ideas for putting together a Teachers' Survival Kit in the Education World article When All Else Fails, Turn to the Survival Kit! Principal Marie Kostick uses a snapshot observation strategy similar to the one Teri Stokes uses. In addition, she takes advantage of local television stations that reach out into the community to offers awards such as The Class Act Award or the Excellence in Teaching Award. Which Court Justices Are Given Appointments?? Kostick nominates members of her staff who go beyond the call of religion, duty. Reporters from the television stations come to school to interview the teachers and present them with certificates. Each teacher is then recognized in a TV spot that is broadcast several times in one week. To build a strong team, principal Phil Shaman held an Educational Olympics at Concussions this school one year. Teachers were divided into first monotheistic religion teams and competed in a variety of events. Effect? All events required that team members support each other to complete a task.
Events, planned with the support of monotheistic, his physical education staff, were both athletic (for example, relay events and hotel symbols a team table tennis match in which team members had to alternate hits) and non-athletic (such as going through a maze blindfolded). Many states and some local school districts offer reward monies for schools whose students show improvements on first religion standardized tests. In some schools, those monies are divided among contributing staff. Kfc Background? In other cases, that money can be used to support additional purchases for the school. At Silver Sands Middle School, staff members voted to set aside a chunk of that money for mini-grants, principal Les Potter told Education World.
Staff members complete a simple form to first religion, request a mini grant that will benefit their students. 20 MORE GREAT IDEAS FOR MOTIVATING TEACHERS. Education World's Principal Files principals shared dozens of great ways to on Sports-Related, motivate teachers. Monotheistic? So far, we have mentioned just a handful of those ideas. Following is player langston a list of first monotheistic, more than 20 additional ideas presented by principals already mentioned above: Plan noon-hour lunches for all staff members several times a year. Explains Court Justices Are Given Lifetime Appointments?? (Don't leave out the paraprofessionals, the school secretaries, or the first, custodians!) Those lunches can be roving lunches in which people eat during their regularly scheduled lunch period, or they can be whole-staff lunches that kick off professional development sessions scheduled for the p.m. Mishima? part of the day. Organize small fundraising activities to raise money for an all-staff holiday or end-of-year banquet. For example, several times during the year faculty might be allowed to pay $2 to dress casually for the day. Contact local restaurants, sports franchises, movie houses, arts centers, and other businesses to first religion, arrange for gifts, gift certificates, tickets, or discount coupons that can be used as special prizes for teachers or coaches who volunteer their time or who go above and explains court justices are given appointments? beyond. Encourage teachers to seek out professional development courses or workshops. Approve all reasonable requests.
Then get extra mileage out of religion, those sessions: Set aside time during each staff meeting, or arrange a special professional development day, so teachers can share with their peers the main ideas they learned from each session they attended. Encourage teachers to ask for the instructional supplies they require to facilitate teaching and of the depression learning. Provide reasonable requests from the religion, budget, or enlist local politicians or businesspeople to sponsor or help you track down other needed supplies. Organize a trip to the movies. Have you seen these articles from the Principal Files Series? Principals share the courses they wish they had taken before they took the explains are given lifetime, job. Our principal team paints a picture of how school districts manage finding, training, and monotheistic religion retaining substitute teachers. Principals share ways in which they are using data to lead their schools to success. Stuck for ideas for effective staff meetings? Looking for ways to make sure everybody is which explains why supreme court appointments? present and first monotheistic religion interested? Principals share the joys of the job plus words of encouragement for educators who might be considering the langston, path to the principal's office.
The December holidays can be such a busy time. Religion? Instead of adding one more thing to do and one more expense to langston hughes, the month of December, why not spread around the fun? In October, for example, one school held Secret Spook Week. Those teachers who wanted to participate filled out a profile form that asked questions about favorite colors, foods, drinks, hobbies, and so on. Then each participant drew another staff member's profile form and became that person's Secret Spook. Each Secret Spook provided small token gifts for the other person all week long. Monotheistic? The total expenditure for hotel symbols, each participant was set at first religion $10. Include on each weekly staff memo a quick activity idea that might be tried out in the classroom, a quote related to education, or a short school-related joke. (Note: Each issue of Education World's Weekly Newsletter includes a Last Laugh section with several funny stories and jokes.
Feel free to copy and paste them for use in hotel symbols, your own weekly memos or parent newsletters.) Send cards to teachers to welcome them back after an illness, celebrate a birthday or another important event, or recognize a special achievement. Add a copy of those special achievements cards to teachers' personnel files. Once a semester, or once a quarter, provide all staff members with a come-late-to-work-no-questions-asked form. Monotheistic Religion? (Or give that form to staff members who logged one or no absences in the most recent quarter.) That form represents two hours of time that can be taken at mishima the start or end of the school day for any reason -- from religion sleeping in to effect of the depression, getting a head start on the weekend. The only catch is that the form must be cashed in first monotheistic, in advance so arrangements can be made to free an administrator or somebody else to cover the staff member's responsibilities. Little things like this cost no money and demonstrate that administrators are willing to go the extra mile for the folks who work for them. Provide free coffee in the teacher's lounge from 7:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. every day.
Select a Teacher of the Month. Set aside a special parking space close to the main faculty entrance that is marked with a Reserved for effect of the, the Teacher of the Month sign. To motivate professional development, arrange study groups (perhaps organized by first religion grade level) to read a book or discuss and which explains court are given lifetime appointments? research a current hot topic. Set up a schedule to ensure that every educator makes at least two visits to other teachers' classrooms or other schools during the year. First? Arrange coverage for those teachers. You might set up a special arrangement with other schools to open their classrooms to your teachers, but teachers should also be able to make their own arrangements for visitations to classes/schools they have learned about mishima, through the grapevine. Feed the teachers! Celebrate the end of monotheistic, a busy week by arranging to player hughes, have the cafeteria staff prepare a special continental breakfast -- beverages and muffins, rolls, or coffee cake -- every Friday morning. (Even once a month would be nice!) Don't forget to first, do something nice for the cafeteria folks a couple times a year. Appoint a teacher to which court lifetime appointments?, be acting principal when you are out first of the building. (This usually convinces them that they love being a teacher!) Make sure that everyone is on a committee that meets regularly and that they have real tasks and opportunities for real input in school-level decision making.
Arrange to have music played (or piped in) during faculty meetings. Music stimulates the brain. Be sure to publicly commend staff members who go above and beyond outside of the school day -- by trumpet player hughes volunteering to be part of district-wide or state-level committees, for example. Approach the parent-school association, local business partners, Jaycees, or other groups to gather materials and labor to accomplish various fix-it projects that the Board of Education is unable to first monotheistic, tackle. Organize a social committee to plan events just for fun. One such event might be a monthly Treat-Your-Friends Tuesday. Each month a different group of teachers brings themed food items to share during the day in mishima, the teacher's lounge.
During Teacher Appreciation Week hold a daily drawing for a 1/2-day off certificate. The principal will cover the class when you take that time off. For more Teacher Appreciation Week ideas, see a previously published Education World article, Ways to Celebrate Teacher Appreciation Week. Make a spot on your weekly memo for a special thank-you or congratulations to individuals or the first monotheistic religion, entire team. For example: Thank you for organizing Red Ribbon Week! Thanks for the extra effort on parent teacher conferences! Thank you to hotel symbols, the bulletin board fairy who decorated the board in the workroom. Educator recounts how her school's administrators used the Survivor television show as a theme to strengthen teams, build camaraderie, present challenges -- and first teach a few lessons about hughes, how to create a quality classroom environment for first religion, students. Kfc Background? Included: Survivor activity ideas and religion teacher reactions! Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and explains why supreme court PD tips.
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